跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.201.99.222) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/12/04 00:54
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:張凱傑
研究生(外文):Chang, Kai-Chieh
論文名稱:利用強制通風及灑水系統對熱緊迫乳羊之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of forced ventilation and sprinkler system in heat-stressed dairy goats
指導教授:吳建平吳建平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu, Chean-Ping
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:動物科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:熱緊迫乳羊灑水泌乳性能
外文關鍵詞:heat stressdairy goatwateringlactation performance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:131
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:27
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
熱緊迫會導致動物乾物質採食量與能量利用下降,進而降低產乳量及乳品質。台灣夏季炎熱,加上半開放式飼養對溫度掌控不易,因此本試驗評估強制通風以及灑水對減緩泌乳羊之熱緊迫效益。試驗一使用42隻雜交山羊(Saanen × Alpine),將其分為兩群,於THI平均超過78以上,分為無強制通風組及強制通風組,強制通風組場域之平均風速大於3 m/s。結果顯示,強制通風組雖對產乳量無顯著提升,但可增加乾物質採食量。試驗二使用10隻泌乳前期及中期之雜交山羊(Saanen × Alpine),分為無強制灑水組及強制灑水組,灑水量為5.5 L/min,灑水頻率為噴灑5分鐘關閉25分鐘,兩組皆有強制通風(大於2 m/s)並飼養於單獨欄位中。結果顯示,直腸溫度於處理組間無顯著差異(39.1 vs. 39.0℃),強制灑水組顯著降低乾物質採食量(1.84 vs. 1.22 kg/day)、飲水量(7.96 vs. 5.51 L/day)及產乳量(2.38 vs. 1.29 kg/day)。綜上所述,強制通風有助於減緩熱緊迫,但強制灑水對飼養於單獨欄舍之乳羊則會增加乳羊緊迫,進而使乾物質採食量及產乳量下降。
Heat stress (HS) cause DMI and energy use decrease. Thereby, reducing milk yield and milk quality. The summer is hot in Taiwan. The semi-open barn isn’t easy to control temperature. Therefore, this study evaluates the benefit of forced ventilation and sprinkle water in HS on dairy goats. Experiment one used 42 cross-breed (Saanen × Alpine) and were kept in two barns. The THI over 78. Experiment was divided into control group and forced ventilation group. The airflow rate over 3 m/s. The results showed that forced ventilation didn’t increase milk yield, but increase DMI. Experiment two used 10 early and mid-lactation cross-breed (Saanen × Alpine). Experiment was divided into no forced sprinkler group and forced sprinkler group. Both groups have forced ventilation (over 2 m/s) in independent barns. The sprinklers had a delivery rate of 5.5 L/min. Watering frequency is five minutes for spraying and 25 minutes off. The results showed that the rectal temperature isn’t different (39.1 vs. 39.0℃). Forced watering decreased DMI (1.84 vs. 1.22 kg/day), water intake (7.96 vs. 5.51 L/day) and milk yield (2.38 vs. 1.29 kg/day) significantly. In summary, forced ventilation reduced HS. However, force watering will increase the stress of dairy goats in independent barns, which will reduce the dry matter intake and milk production.
圖次 VI
表次 VIII
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻探討 3
一、台灣羊乳產業現況 3
二、乳用山羊品種 4
(一)撒能(Saanen) 4
(二)阿爾拜因(Alpine) 4
(三)吐根堡(Toggenburg) 5
(四)奴比亞(Nubian) 6
三、台灣氣候 6
(一)氣溫 6
(二)雨量 6
四、乳羊飼養管理 12
(一)山羊特性 12
(二)飼養管理 14
五、熱緊迫 23
(一)生理反應 24
(二)改善方法 34
參、材料與方法 44
試驗一 強制通風對於熱緊迫乳羊的效益 44
一、動物飼養與管理 44
二、試驗設計與日糧配方 45
三、樣品收集 45
四、飼料分析 46
(一)水分(moisture) 46
(二)粗蛋白質(crude protein, CP) 46
(三)粗脂肪(ether extract, EE) 48
(四)中洗纖維(neutral detergent fiber, NDF) 48
(五)酸洗纖維(acid detergent fiber, ADF) 49
(六)灰分(ash) 50
六、統計分析 50
試驗二 強制通風與強制通風灑水對於熱緊迫乳羊的效益 53
一、動物飼養管理 53
二、試驗設計與日糧配方 53
三、樣品收集 54
四、飼料及乳品樣本分析 54
五、統計分析 54
肆、結果與討論 55
試驗一 強制通風對於熱緊迫乳羊的效益 55
一、環境溫溼度及THI 55
二、性能表現 57
(一)DMI及體重 57
(二)泌乳性能 61
試驗二 強制通風與強制通風灑水對於熱緊迫乳羊的效益 66
一、環境溫溼度及THI 66
二、性能表現 68
(一)DMI、體重、飲水量及直腸溫度 68
(二)血液性狀 73
(三)泌乳性能 76
伍、結論 79
陸、參考文獻 80
王得吉、李平南、李宗育、陳冠安、吳兩新、邱智賢、楊深玄、黃政齊。2013。模擬山羊求偶情境對誘發季節性乏情母羊發情之影響。畜產研究46:201-208。
白火城、吳兩新、林仁壽。2003。家畜內分泌學。藝軒圖書出版社。台北市。
白火城。2007。羊學。宏大出版社。台南市。
行政院農業委員會。2018。農業統計年報(106 年)。行政院農業委員會。台北市。
交通部中央氣象局。2018。台灣氣候。交通部中央氣象局。台北市。
徐濟泰。2016。調整羊乳非乳脂固形物的方法。羊協一家親第71期。中華民國養羊協會。嘉義市。
徐濟泰。2018。DHI測乳分析與營養調整策略。羊協一家親第76期。中華民國養羊協會。嘉義市。
陳盈豪。2001。山羊與綿羊之區別。羊協一家親第20期。中華民國養羊協會。嘉義市。
陳水財。2004。台灣山羊耳刻剪法手冊簡介。羊協一家親第33期。中華民國養羊協會。嘉義市。
黃政齊、謝瑞春、張宏仁、蘇安國、溫上湘。1993。努比亞與本地山羊生產性能之研究。畜產研究 26:175-187。
黃政齊。2005。山羊生殖技術之研發。羊協一家親第37期。中華民國養羊協會。嘉義市。
黃政齊、蘇安國、楊深玄、陳嘉昇、吳錦賢、謝瑞春、吳紓愍。2008。山羊飼養與管理-農民手冊。行政院農業委員會畜產試驗所。台南市。
賴京佑。2019。甜菜渣及黃豆殼部分取代精料對乳用山羊產乳性能、瘤胃性狀及營養消化之影響。碩士論文。國立嘉義大學。嘉義市。
Achmadi, J., T. Yanagisawa, H. Sano, and Y. Terashima. 1993. Pancreatic insulin secretory response and insulin action in heat-exposed sheep given a concentrate or roughage diet. Domest. Anim. Endicrinol. 10:279-287.
Alam, M. M., M. A. Hashem, M. M. Rahman, M. M. Hossain, M. R. Haque, Z. Sobhan, and M. S. Islam. 2011. Effect od heat stress on behavior, physiological and blood parameters of goat. Progress Agric. 22:37-45.
AOAC. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem. Washington, DC.
Appleman, R. D., and J. C. Delouche. 1958. Behavioral, physiological and biochemical responses of goats to temperature 0 to 40℃. J. Anim. Sci. 17:326-335.
Avendaño-Reyes, L., F. D. Álvarez-Valenzuela, A. Correa-Calderón, A. Algándar-Sandoval, E. Rodríguez-González, R. Pérez-Velázquez, U. Macías-Cruz, R. Díaz-Molina, P. H. Robinson, and J. G. Fadel. 2010. Comparison of three cooling management systems to reduce heat stress in lactating Holstein cows during hot and dry ambient conditions. Livest. Sci. 132:48-52.
Baumgard, L. H., and R. P. Rhoads. 2013. Effects of heat stress on postabsorptive metabolism and energetics. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 1:311-337.
Bauman, D. E., and W. B. Currie. 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1514-1529.
Beede, D. K., and R. J. Collier. 1986. Potential nutritional strategies for intensively managed cattle during thermal stress. J. Anim. Sci. 62:543-554.
Berman, A. 2003. Effects of body surface area estimates in predicted energy requirements and heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 86:3605-3610.
Bernabucci, U., N. Lacetera, B. Ronchi, and A. Nardone. 2002 Markers of oxidative status in plasma and erythrocytes of transition dairy cows during hot season J. Dairy Sci. 85:2173-2179.
Bernabucci, U.,N. Lacetera, L. H. Baumgard, and R. P. Rhoads. 2010. Metabolic and hormonal acclimation to heat stress in domesticated ruminants. Anim. 4:1167-1183.
Boisclair, Y. R., S. R. Wesolowski, J. W. Kim, and R. A. Ehrhardt. 2006. Roles of growth hormone and leptin in the periparturient dairy cow. Cornell University. NY.
Bouraoui, R., M. Lahmar, A. Majdoub, M. Djemali, and R. Belyez. 2002. The relationship of temperature-humidity index with milk production of dairy cows in a Mediterranean climate. Anim. Rse. 51:479-491.
Calamari, L., F. Petrera, F. Abeni, and G. Bertin. 2011. Metabolic and hematological profiles in heat stressed lactating dairy cows fed diets supplemented with different selenium sources and does. Livest. Sci. 142:128-137.
Cheng, J. B., D. P. Bu, J. Q. Wang, X. Z. Sun, L. Pan, L. Y. Zhou, and W. Liu. 2014. Effects of rumen protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:5599-5607.
Cheng, J., N. Zheng, X. Z. Sun, S. L. Li, J. Q. Wang, and Y. D. Zhang. 2016. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows. J. Therm. Biol. 60:103-108.
Collier, R. J., D. K. Beede, W. W. Thatcher, L. A. Israel, and C. J. Wilcox. 1982. Influences of environment andits modification on dairy animal health and production. J. Dairy Sci. 65:2213-2227.
Collier, R. J., L. H. Baumgard, A. L. Lock, and D. E. Bauman. 2005. Physiological limitations, nutrient partitioning. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
Cook, N. B., T. B. Bennett, K. M. Emery, and K. V. Nordlund. 2002. Monitoring nonlactating cow intramammary infection dynamics using DHI somatic cell count data. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1119-1126.
Cook, N. B., and K. V. Nordlund. 2004. Behavioral needs of the transition cow and considerations for special needs facility design. Food Anim. 20:495-520.
Cook, N. B., R. L. Mentink, T. B. Bennett, and K. Burgi. 2007. The effect of heat stress and lameness on time budgets of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:1674-1682.
Correa-Calderon, A., D. Armstrong, D. Ray, S. DeNise, M. Enns, and C. Howison. 2004. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss heat-stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems. Int. J. Biol. 48:142-148.
Dai, S. F., F. Gao, W. H. Zhang, S. X. Song, X. L. Xu, and G. H. Zhou. 2011. Effects of dietary glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on performance, carcass characteristics and serum parameters in broilers under circular heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 168:51-60.
Dalvi, A., and R. J. Rodgers. 2001. Anxiolytic effects of valproate and diazepam in mice are differentially sensitive to picrotoxin antagonism. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 68:23-32.
Darcan, N., F. Cedden, and S. Cankaya. 2008a. Spraying effects on some physiological and behavioural traits of goats in a subtropical climate. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 7:77-85.
Darcan, N., O. Güney. 2008b. Alleviation of climatic stress of dairy goats in Mediterranean climate. Small Ruminant Res.74:212-215.
Delgadillo, J. A., H. Gelez, R. Ungerfeld, P. A. R. Hawken, and G. B. Martin. 2009. The ‘male effect’ in sheep and goats-revisiting the dogmas. Behav. Brain Res. 200: 304-314.
Di Costanzo, A., J. N. Spain, and D. E. Spiers. 1997. Supplementation of nicotinic acid for lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1200-1206.
El-Tarabany, M. S., A. A. El-Tarabany, and M. A. Atta. 2017. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions. Int. J. Biometeorol. 61:61-68.
Flores, J. A., F. G. Véliz, J. A. Pérez-Villanueva, G. Martínez De La Escalera, P. Chemineau, P. Poindron, B. Malpaux, and J. A. Delgadillo. 2000. Male reproductive condition is the limiting factor of efficiency in the male effect during seasonal anoestrus in female goats. Biol. Reprod. 62:1409-1414.
Gaughan, J., N. Lacetera, S. E. Valtorta, H. H. Khalifa, L. Hahn, and T. Mader. 2009. Response of domestic animals to climate challenges. Response of Domestic Animals to Climate Challenges. Springer. Dordrecht.
Gebremedhin, K. G., and B. Wu. 2001. A model of evaporative cooling of wet skin surface and fur layer. J. Therm. Biol. 26:537-545.
Gehrig, S. M., C. van der Poel, T. A. Sayer, J. D. Schertaer, D. C. Henstridge, J. E. Church, S. Lamon, A. P. Russell, K. E. Davies, M. A. Febbraio, and G. S. Lynch. 2012. Hsp72 preserves muscle function and slows progression of severe muscular dystrophy. Nat. 484:394-398.
Guo, K., H. B. Cao, Y. J. Zhu, T. C. Wang, G. L. Hu, B. L. Kornmatitsuk, and J. R. Luo. 2018. Improving effects of dietary rumen protected γ‐ aminobutyric acid additive on apparent nutrient digestibility, growth performance and health status in heat‐stressed beef. J. Dairy Sci. 89:1280-1286.
Hamzaoui, S., A. A. K. Salama, G. Caja, E. Albanell, C. Flores, and X. Such. 2012. Milk production losses in early lactating dairy goats under heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 95:672-673.
Hamzaoui, S., A. A. K. Salama, E. Albanell, X. Such, and G. Caja. 2013. Physiological responses and lactational performances of late-lactation dairy goats under heat stress conditions. J. Dairy Sci. 96:6355-6365.
Hopper, J. W., K. H. Karlsgodt, C. M. Adler, E. A. Macklin, S. E. Lukas, and I. Elman. 2004. Effect of acute cortisol and cocaine administration on attention, recall and recognition task performance in individuals with cocaine dependence. Hum. Psychopharm. Clin. 19:511-516.
Itoh, F., Y. Obara, M. T. Rose, and H. Fuse. 1998. Heat influences on plasma insulin and glucagon in response to secretogogues in non-lactating dairy cows. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol. 15:499-510.
Joshi, B. C., R. E. McDowell, and D. P. Sadhu. 1968. Effect of drugs on sweating rates in Hariana cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 51:905-909.
Kadzere, C. T., M. R. Murphy, N. Silanikove, and E. Maltz. 2002. Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: a review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 77: 59-91.Khor, B., A. Gardet, and J. R. Xavier. 2011. Genetics and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nat. 474:307-317.
Kim, H. R., J. Y. Jung, I. Y. Cho, D. H. Yu, S. S. Shin, C. H. Son, K. S. Ok, T. Y. Hur, Y. H. Jung, C. Y. Choi, and G. H. Suh. 2013. Seasonal variation of goat milk composition and somatic cell count in Jeonnam province. Korean J Vet Serv. 36:263-272.
Lacetera, N., U. Bernabucci, B. Ronchi, and A. Nardone. 1996. Body condition score, metabolic status and milk production of early lactating dairy cows exposed to warm environment. Riv. Agr. Subtrop. Trop. 90:43-55.
Lu, C. D., and M. J. Potchoiba. 1988. Milk feeding and weaning of goat kids-a review. Small Ruminant Res. 1:105-112.
Massimini, G., D. Britti, A. Peli, and S. Cinotti. 2006. Effect of passive transfer status on preweaning growth performance in dairy lambs. JAVMA. 299:111-115.
Mabjeesh, S. J., C. Sabastin, O. Gal-Garber, and A. Shamary. 2013. Effect of photoperiod and heat stress in the third trimester of gestation on milk production and circulating hormones in dairy goats. J. Dairy Sci. 96:189-197.
Markiewicz-Kęszycka, M., G. Czyżak-Runowska, P. Lipińska, and J. Wójtowski. 2013. Fatty acid profile of milk-a review. Bull Vet. Inst. Pulawy. 57:135-139.
Nardone, A., B. Ronchi, N. Lacetera, M. S. Ranieri, and U. Bernabucci. 2010. Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livest. Sci. 130: 57-69.
National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Nutrient requirement of dairy cattle. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
National Research Council (NRC). 2007. Nutrient requirement of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Neave, F. K., F. H. Dodd, R. G. Kingwill, and D. R. Westgarth. 1969. Control of mastitis in the dairy herd by hygiene and management. J. Dairy Sci. 52:696-707.
Nesamvuni, E., R. Lekalakala, D. Norris, and J. W. Ngambi. 2012. Effects of climate change on dairy cattle, South Africa. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 7: 3867-3872.
Oltramari, C. E., M. G. Pinheiro, M. S. Miranda, J. R. P. Arcaro, L. Castelani, and L. M. Toledo. 2014. Selenium sources in the diet of dairy cows and their effects on milk production and quality, on udder health and on physiological indicators of heat stress. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 13:48-52.
Parry, M. L., O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson. 2007. Climate Chang 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom.
Rapetti, L., S. Colombini, G. Galassi, G. M. Crovetto, and L. Malagutti. 2014. Relationship between milk urea level, protein feeding and urinary nitrogen excretion in high producing dairy goats. Small Ruminant Res. 121:96-100.
Rhoads, R. P., M. D. Obrien, K. Greer, L. Cole, S. Sanders, J. B. Wheelock, and L. H. Baumgard. 2008. Consequences of heat stress on the profile of skeletal muscle gene expression in beef cattle. FASEB. J. 22.
Rhoads, M. L., R. P. Rhoads, M. J. VanBaale, R. J. Collier, S. R. Sanders, W. J. Weber, B. A. Crooker, and L. H. Baumgard. 2009. Effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on lactating Holstein cows: I. production, metabolism, and aspects of circulating somatotropin. J. Dairy Sci. 92:1986-1997.
Ribeiro, N. L., R.G. Costa, E. C. Pimenta Filho, M. N. Ribeiro, A. Crovetti, E. P. Saraiva, and R. Bozzi. 2016. Adaptive profile of Garfagnina goat breed assessed through physiological, hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters. Small Ruminant. Res. 144: 236-241.
Riedel, W., H. Layka, and G. Neeck. 1998. Secretory pattern of GH, TSH, thyroid hormones, ACTH, cortisol, FSH, and LH in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome following systemic injection of the relevant hypothalamic-releasing hormones. Zeitschrift Fur Rheumatologie. 57:81-87.
Roca, J., E. Martinez, J. M. Vazquez, and P. Coy. 1992. Characteristics and seasonal variations in the semen of Murciano-Granadina goats in the Mediterranean area. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 29:255-262.
Ronchi, B., G. Stradaioli, A. V. Supplizi, U. Berabucci, N. Lacetera, P. A. Accorsi, A. Nardone, and E. Seren. 2001. Influence of heat stress and feed restriction on plasma progesterone, estradiol-17b, LH, FSH, prolactin and cortisol in Holstein heifers. Livest. Prod. Sci. 68:231-241.
Roy, K. S., and B. S. Prakash. 2007. Seasonal variation and circadian rhythmicity of the prolactin profile during the summer months in repeat-breeding Murrah buffalo heifers. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 19:569-575.
Salama, A. A. K., G. Caja, S. Hamzaoui, A. Castro-Costa, D. A. E. Facanha, M. M. Guilherminio, and R. Bozzi. 2014. Different levels of response to heat stress in dairy goats. Small Ruminant. Res. 121:73-79.
Sanchez-Alavez, M., I. V. Tabarean, O. Osborn, K. Mitsukawa, J. Schaefer, J. Dubins, K. H. Holmberg, I. Klein, J. Klaus, L. F. Gomez, H. Kolb, J. Secrest, J. Jochems, K. Myashiro, P. Buckley, J. R. Hadcock, J. Eberwine, B. Conti, and T. Bartfai. 2010. Insulin causes hyperthermia by direct inhibition of warm-sensitive neurons. Am. Diabetes Assoc. 59:43-50.
Schirmann, K., N. Chapinal, D. M. Weary, W. Heuwieser, and M. A. G. von Keyserlingk. 2012. Rumination and its relationship to feeding and lying behavior in Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 95:3212-3217.
Shekhar, A., P. L. Johnson, T. J. Sajdyk, S. D. Fitz, S. R. Keim, P. E. Kelley, D. R. Gehlert, and J. A. DiMicco. 2006. Angiotensin-II is a putative neurotransmitter in lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with disruption of GABAergic inhibition in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. J. Neurosci. 26:9205-9219.
Sherif, F., and L. Oreland. 1995. Effect of the GABA-transaminase inhibitor vigabatrin on exploratory behavior in socially isolated rats. Behav. Brain Res. 72:135-140.
Silanikove, N. 1994. The struggle to maintain hydration and osmoregulation in animals experiencing severe dehydration and rapid rehydration: the story of ruminants. Exp. Physiol. 79:281-300.
Silanikove, N. 2000a. The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments. Small Ruminant Res. 35:181-193.
Silanikove, N. 2000b. Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livest. Prod. Sci. 67:1-18.
Smith, K. L., M. R. Waldron, J. K. Drackley, M. T. Socha, and T. R. Overton. 2005 Performance of dairy cows as affected by prepartum dietary carbohydrate source and supplementation with chromium throughout the transition period. J. Diary Sci. 88:255-263.
Soltan, M. A. 2010. Effect of dietary chromium supplementation on productive and reproductive performance of early lactating dairy cows under heat stress. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 94:264-272
Sunagawa, K., I. Nagamine, Y. Kamata, N. Niino, Y. Taniyama, K. Kinjo, and A. Matayoshi. 2015. Nighttime cooling is an effective method for improving milk production in lactating goats exposed to hot and humid environment. Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 28:966-975.
Tahmasbi, A. M., M. Kazemi, M. M. Moheghi, J. Bayat, and A. M. Shahri. 2012. Effects of selenium and vitamin E and night or day feeding on performance of Holstein dairy cows during hot weather. J. Cell Anim. Biol. 6:33-40.
Watanabe, M., K. Maemura, K. Kanbara, T. Tamayama, and H. Hayasaki. 2002. GABA and GABA receptors in the central nervous system and other organs. Osaka Medical College. Takatsuki.
Weisnann, D., K. Hartvigsen, N. Lauer, L. K. Bennett, N. P. H. Scholl, P. I. Charbel, M. Cano, H. Brandstatter, S. Tsimikas, C. Skerka, G. Superti-Furga, J. T. Handa, P. F. Zipfel, J. L. Witztum, and C. J. Binder. 2011. Complement factor H binds malondialdehyde epitopes and protects from oxidative stress. Nat. 478:76-81.
Wendling, U., L. Paul, R. van der Zee, B. Prakken, M. Singh, and W. van Eden. 2000. 2000. A conserved mycobacterial heat shock protein (hsp) 70 sequence prevents adjuvant arthritis upon nasal administration and induces IL-10-producing T cells that cross-react with the mammalian self-hsp70 homologue. J. Immunol. 164:2711-2717.
Yeruham, I., D. Elad, S. Friedman, and S. Perl. 2003. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in Israeli dairy cattle. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:947-955.
Yvon, M., D. Levieux, M. C. Valluy, J. P. Pélissier, and P. P. Mirand. 1993. Colostrum Protein Digestion in Newborn Lambs. J. Nutr. 123:586-596.
Zhang, F. J., X. G. Weng, J. F. Wang, D. Zhou, W. Zhang, C. C. Zhai, Y. X. Hou, and Y. H. Zhu. 2014. Effects of temperature- humidity index and chromium supplementation on antioxidant capacity, heat shock protein 72, and cytokine responses of lactating cows. J. Anim. Sci. 92:3026-3034.
Zimbelman, R. B., L. H. Baumgard, and R. J. Collier. 2010. Effects of encapsulated niacin on evaporative heat loss and body temperature in moderately heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:2387-2394.
Zimbelman, R. B., R. J. Collier, and T. R. Bilby. 2013. Effects of utilizing rumen protected niacin on core body temperature as well as milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows during heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 180:26-33.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top