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研究生:陳誼芳
研究生(外文):Yi-Fang Chen
論文名稱:重複閱讀教學對七年級學生口語流暢度及閱讀動機影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Repeated Reading on Seventh Graders\' Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Motivation
指導教授:施雅純施雅純引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ya-Chun Shih
口試委員:林清達曾月紅
口試委員(外文):Ching-Dar LinYueh-Hung Tseng
口試日期:2020-06-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:英美語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:重複閱讀口語流暢度每分鐘正確朗讀字數多維流暢度分級表閱讀動機
外文關鍵詞:repeated readingoral reading fluencyWords Correct per Minute (WCPM)Multidimensional Fluency Scale (MFS)reading motivation
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本研究旨在探討於早自習晨讀時段實施重複閱讀教學對於一所位於台灣宜蘭市的國中之七年級學生的英語口語流暢度以及閱讀動機之成效。來自同年級兩個班、共44名學生分別以實驗組及對照組之身分參與此為期十二周之研究。實驗組學生接受重複閱讀教學,而對照組則不接受任何除原先英文正課以外的任何教學。在不相等前後測控制組設計下,研究者藉由錄音的方式蒐集學生的口語閱讀音檔以利對代表平均口語速率的每分鐘正確朗讀字數(Words Correct per Minute, WCPM)和測量口語流暢度的多維流暢度分級表(Multidimensional Fluency Scale, MFS)分數進行後續分析及追蹤。共變數分析(ANCOVA)用於檢驗實驗組和對照組學生之每分鐘平均正確讀出單字量(WCPM)和MFS平均分數,其量化資料之測驗結果相較於對照組是否有顯著差異。此外,研究者以自編問題對六名實驗組受試者進行開放式的教學後個別訪談。個別訪談和課室觀察得來之結果用以進行質性資料分析。根據研究結果顯示,實驗組受試者之平均每分鐘正確讀出單字量(WCPM)及平均多維流暢度分級表(MFS)分數與對照組並無顯著差別。然而,實驗組的後測平均閱讀準確度、每分鐘正確讀出單字量(WCPM)和多維流暢度分級表(MFS)分數相較於其前測結果是有所提升的。本研究探討之閱讀動機可分為閱讀效能、閱讀好奇心、閱讀的外部動機以及閱讀的社交因素四個面向。雖然訪談對象對於閱讀動機之回答整體而言是正面的,高、中成就者當中符合有平均程度以上之口語流暢度和正向學習態度兩條件,除閱讀的社交因素面向外之閱讀動機有最大程度的提升。此研究之意涵與對未來相關研究之執行和建議將於文中進一步探討。
This study investigated the effects of implementing repeated reading on oral reading fluency and reading motivation of 7th-graders in a junior high school in Yilan City, Taiwan. 44 seventh graders from two classes participated in this 12-week study. Students in the experimental group received repeated reading instruction, while the control group received none. Under a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design, oral readings were recorded and evaluated to track and analyze Words Correct per Minute (WCPM) and Multidimensional Fluency Scale (MFS) scores measuring mean reading rate and oral reading fluency respectively. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), quantitative data of WCPM and MFS scores were conducted to determine statistical significance between treatment and control groups. Furthermore, individual interviews were conducted on six participants selected from the treatment group post-experimentation, consisting of open-ended questions. Qualitative data analysis was conducted based on results of individual interviews and classroom observations. This study found that there were no significant differences in mean WCPM and MFS scores between treatment group and control group. Nevertheless, individual scores within the treatment group demonstrated an increase in mean percent accuracy, WCPM and MFS scores. Reading motivation was categorized into aspects of reading efficacy, reading curiosity, extrinsic motivation for reading and social reasons for reading in this study. While responses of interview subjects from the treatment group were generally positive in regards to reading motivation, high and middle achievers that scored above the median level of oral reading fluency and had positive learning attitude showed the greatest increase in reading motivation in all areas except social reasons for reading. Implications and suggestions for practice and future research have been discussed.
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 2
1.3 Research Questions 2
1.4 Significance of the Study 3
1.5 Definition of Terms 3
Chapter Two: Literature Review 5
2.1 Repeated Reading 5
2.1.1 Audio-Assisted Reading 5
2.1.2 Phrase-Cued Reading 6
2.1.3 Echo Reading 7
2.1.4 Partner Reading 7
2.2 Reading Fluency 7
2.3 Empirical Studies of Oral Reading Fluency and Repeated Reading 8 Chapter Three: Methodology 11
3.1 Research Design 11
3.2 Context and Participants 11
3.3 Data Collection and Instrumentation 14
3.3.1 Words Correct per Minute (WCPM) 14
3.3.2 Multidimensional Fluency Scale (MFS) 15
3.3.3 Individual Interviews and Classroom Observation 16
3.3.4 Basic information Questionnaire 17
3.3.5 Fry Graph Readability Formula 17
3.3.6 Implementation Process 20
3.4 Data Analysis 24
3.5 Research Ethics 27
Chapter Four: Results 29
4.1 Quantitative Data Analysis 29
4.1.1 Analysis of WCPM Scores 29
Percent Accuracy 29
WCPM Scores 31
4.1.2 Analysis of MFS Scores 33
4.1.3 Conclusion to Quantitative Data Analysis 35
4.2 Qualitative Data Analysis 36
4.3 Summary of Results 44
Chapter Five: Discussion, Conclusions and Limitations 47
5.1 Discussion 47
5.1.1 Research Question One 47
5.1.2 Research Question Two 48
5.1.3 Research Question Three 49
5.2 Implications of the Study 50
5.3 Limitations of the Study 50
5.4 Suggestions 51
5.5 Conclusion 52
References 55
Appendix A Form of Basic Information—English version 59
Appendix B 基本資料調查問卷—中文版 60
Appendix C Multidimensional Fluency Scale 61
Appendix D Interview Questions 62
Appendix E Pretest Reading Material 63
Appendix F Regrouping Reading Material 64
Appendix G Posttest Reading Material 65
Appendix H Pretest Scores of Treatment Group 66
Appendix I Posttest Scores of Treatment Group 67
Appendix J Pretest Scores of Control Group 68
Appendix K Posttest Scores of Control Group 69
Appendix L Timeline of the 30-Session Study 70
Appendix M Sample lesson plan [Lesson 1] 72
Appendix N Informed Consent Form—English Version 74
Appendix O 論文實驗同意書—中文版 76

List of Tables
Table 1 Gender Distribution of Two Classes 12
Table 2 Gender Distribution of Intervention Subjects 12
Table 3 Group*Cram School Crosstabulation 13
Table 4 Group*Extra Reading Crosstabulation 13
Table 5 Sample of WCPM Calculation 15
Table 6 Comparison of Posttest Scores of Interview Subjects 16
Table 7 Pretest Result of Treatment Group Subjects 21
Table 8 Ideal Student pairs for Session 1 of the Treatment 21
Table 9 Adjusted pairs for Session 1 of the Treatment 21
Table 10 Regrouping Test Results of Treatment Group Subjects 22
Table 11 Group Setting for Second Half intervention 22
Table 12 Corresponding Data Collection and Data Analysis Methods for Respective Research Questions 25
Table 13 Homogeneity of Regression Dependent Variable Accuracy 28
Table 14 Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable Accuracy 28
Table 15 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable Accuracy 29
Table 16 Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable Accuracy 29
Table 17 Estimated Marginal Means Dependent Variable Accuracy 29
Table 18 Homogeneity of Regression Dependent Variable WCPM 30
Table 19 Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable WCPM 30
Table 20 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable WCPM 31
Table 21 Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable WCPM 31
Table 22 Estimated Marginal Means Dependent Variable WCPM 31
Table 23 Homogeneity of Regression Dependent Variable MFS 32
Table 24 Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable MFS 32
Table 25 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable MFS 33
Table 26 Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable MFS 33
Table 27 Estimated Marginal Means Dependent Variable MFS 33
Table 28 Pretest and Post Mean Scores of Treatment group 34
Table 29 Comparison between Pretest and Posttest Scores of Interview Subjects 35
Table 30 Thematic Framework of Interview Results 40

List of Figures
Figure 1 Estimated Grade Level of Pretest Reading Material 18
Figure 2 Estimated Grade Level of Regrouping Reading Material 19
Figure 3 Estimated Grade Level of Posttest Reading Material 19
Figure 4 One-Week Procedure of Two Lessons (2 morning-self-study periods) 23
Calculating Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM) Fluency Rate. (n.d.). STUDYLIB. Chang, A., & Millett, S. (2015). Improving reading rates and comprehension through audio-assisted extensive reading for beginner learners. System, 52, 91–102. Cohen, J. (2011). Building fluency through the repeated reading method. English Teaching Forum, v49, n3 p20–27. Cox, J. (2019, October 17). Develop fluency and comprehension with repeated reading. ThoughtCo. Dahl, P. (1974). An experimental program for teaching high speed word recognition and comprehension skills. Final report (ED099812). ERIC. Dixon-Krauss, L. (1995). Partner reading and writing: Peer social dialogue and the zone of proximal development. Journal of Reading Behavior, 27(1), 45–63. Enyew, C., Yigzaw, A. & Muche, M. (2015). Effects of teacher scaffolding on students’ oral reading fluency. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 4(4). Esteves, K., Audio-assisted reading with digital audiobooks for upper elementary students with reading disabilities. (2007). Scholarship and Professional Work – Education. 78.
Free readability tests using the Fry Graph and Raygor Estimate Graph. (n.d.). Readability formulas.
Fry readability formula. (2018, February 02). In Wikipedia. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. S. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific studies of reading, 5(3), 239–256. Glavach, M. (2011). The brain, prosody, and reading fluency. National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET). The Practical Teacher. Han, Z. & Chen, C. (2010). Repeated-reading-based instructional strategy and vocabulary acquisition: A case study of a heritage speaker of Chinese. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(2), 242–262. Hudson, R., Lane, H., & Pullen, P. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? International reading association, 702–714.
Ministry of Education. (2015). 國民中學課文本位英語朗讀流暢度指標. K-12 Education Administration, Ministry of Education.
Kozulin. A., Ageyev, V. S., Gindis, B., & Miller, S. M. (Eds.). (2003). Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context. Cambridge University Press.
Kim, Y. (2015). Developmental, component-based model of reading fluency: An investigation of predictors of word- reading fluency, text-reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 50(4). Knoll, E. (2015). Using echo reading and tracking simultaneously during small group read alouds with preschool children. Theses and Dissertations. 287. Rasinski, T. (2004). Assessing reading fluency (ED483166). ERIC. Schwanenflugel, P., & Ruston, H. (2008). Becoming a fluent reader: From theory to practice. In M. R. Kuhn & P. J. Schwanenflugel (Eds.), Solving problems in the teaching of literacy. Fluency in the classroom (p. 1–16). Guilford Press. Shiel, G. & Murphy, R. (2000). Drumcondra English profiles: A framework for assessing oral language, reading, and writing in primary schools. Educational Research Centre, St Patrick's College.
Taguchi, E., Takayasu-Maass, M., & Gorsuch, G. (2004). Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development. Therrien, W. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 25(4), 252–261.
Therrien, W., & Kubina, R. (2006). Developing reading fluency with repeated reading. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(3), 156–160. Thoermer, A. & Williams, L. (2012). Using digital texts to promote fluent reading. The Reading Teacher. Tsai, Y. H. (2014). Peer-mediated repeated reading with EFL junior high school students’ oral reading fluency: A case study on affordance and challenges. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. National Chengchi University. Tsai, Y. J. (2010). A study of repeated reading in improving fifth graders’ reading fluency and comprehension in an EFL elementary school. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. National Chung Cheng University.
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