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研究生:Susi Andriani Simanjuntak
研究生(外文):Susi Andriani Simanjuntak
論文名稱:Toward an Understanding of Plurality: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning English as an International Language (EIL) Approach in an Indonesia Senior High School
論文名稱(外文):Toward an Understanding of Plurality: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning English as an International Language (EIL) Approach in an Indonesia Senior High School
指導教授(外文):Hsi-Nancy Lien
口試委員(外文):Huei-Hsuan LinYu-Chien Kung
外文關鍵詞:English as an International Language (EIL)Case StudyPluralismMulticulturalCritical Pedagogy
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This study aims to observe the teaching and learning, to investigate the experience, the potentials and obstacles and to engage the English teachers and the students’ identity toward teaching and learning English as an international language (EIL) in one of senior high schools, in Tebing Tinggi. Indonesia. EIL is embracing the language variations among nations included native and nonnative English language. In our increasingly diverse communities, this approach is a talkback to the monolingual focus in ELT pedagogy and pay much attention to multilingual in the local and global communities and also situated English language education in global/local multilingualism. In this research study, there were 6 English teachers and two classes (Grade 1 and Grade 2, approximately with 60 students) were interviewed designed to gain an understanding of both English teachers and students’ perspectives on English as international language (EIL) to get deep information about their experiences, tensions, conflicts, struggle, and challenges of EIL teachers and students that they might experience before and after teaching and learning of EIL approach in five meetings and also we could see their identity growth from their sharing.
The results and discussion were made in three parts: actual teaching of EIL approach, controversies and possibilities, and EFL teachers and students’ identity growths. First from the teaching and learning, it gets the reflections (learned, unlearned, and relearned) and the validation of Indonesia English varieties as legitimate, comprehensible, and intelligible. There are some obstacles and potentials that we get from implementing and acknowledging this approach. The fertilities that cultivated are the students learned these topics as knowledge, embracing bright future of learning English, getting to know foreigners and countries, good experience with international friends, learn about their own country (transforming, reflecting themselves as Indonesia, proud to be Indonesia), well understanding the function of English, and fulfil the students’ needs. The other side, the infertilities of implementing EIL approach are they have deficit perspective toward themselves; they did not know about Englishes since it was never taught by their teachers, bad environment from their community, their preferences and saw Englishes as an error and wrong perception about Englishes, and facilitation and resources.
From the teachers’ perspective, there were also controversial and possibilities of teaching EIL in this school. They welcomed to the nature of English and getting to know EIL approach, well understanding of English as a tool for students’ future, and willing to pursue English teaching effectively. But, they concerned to the students’ problems, teaching beliefs, preferences, lack of understanding of English variation diversity, curriculum and textbooks. Those problems make them afraid to make any risk, little faith to apply EIL, and created two different worlds of English standard and nonstandard English. Based on the results, EFLs identity are growing in some orientations. They have an understanding of the reality of English variations nowadays, and many of them maintaining their views on nonstandard English as imperfect, needed to be improved to close to Standard English. Moreover, the results interestingly showed that they were tightly engaging themselves with the actualization in global issue, nations, and cultures that highly reflects nation English or English variations. As shown in this study, it bears fruitful pedagogical implications for teaching English. This research suggests that to be effective as EFL teachers, they need to have meta-awareness; broaden exposure of English learning and teaching, and open pedagogy, Moreover, it is calling for EFL students and teachers’ identity to be more critically reflected a transformative mode of teaching and learning English as an international language help us to culture embedded in educational parties.

1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Purpose of Study 6
1.3 Question of Research 6
1.4 Significance of Study 6
1.5 Definition of Key Term 7
2.1 The Language Function and the ‘Identity-Communication Continuum’ 10
2.2 An Intend to De-Centralized World English 11
2.3 Critical Pedagogy of EIL 13
2.4 The Methodology of Teaching EIL 16
2.4.1 Meta-Awareness 16
2.4.2 Border-Crossing Communication 18
2.4.3 Communicative Language Teaching 19
2.4.4 Cultural Teaching 19
2.5 EFL Identity Orientation 22
2.6 EIL Growth Out of EFL Identity Orientation 23
2.6.1 Fundamentalist EFL Identity 28
2.6.2 Integrationist EFL Identity 29
2.6.3 Transformationist EFL Identity 29
2.7 The Critisims of EIL 30
2.7.1 Missunderstanding of EIL and the Teaching 30
2.7.2 Problematizing of EIL and the Teaching in EFL context (Indonesia) 32
2.8 Previous Research 34
3.1 Method of Study 37
3.2 Site 38
3.2.1 The Life in a Senior High School, Tebing Tinggi 40
3.2.2 The Regulations 41
3.3 Participants 42
3.3.1 English Teachers in a Senior High School, Tebing Tinggi 42
3.3.2 Two Classes 47
3.4 Data Collections 50
3.4.1 Interview 50
3.4.2 Classroom Observation Field 52
3.4.3 Focus Group 52
3.4.4 Teaching EIL Approach in Grade 1 and Grade 2 53
3.5 Data Analysis 54
3.6 Research Procedure 55
4.1 Grade 1: Compliment and Congratulation 59
4.2 Grade 1: Introduction and What are You Going to Do Today? 67
4.3 Grade 2: Party 73
4.4 Grade 2: Offering & Suggestions and Opinion & Thought 83
4.5 EIL approach Curriculum in Retrospection 87
5.1 A Functional Notion on English Learning 91
5.2 English Variation Perspectives 93
5.3 Contextualizing: Learning EIL for Students 96
5.3.1 Contextualizing Learning EIL in Grade 1 96
5.3.2 Contextualizing learning EIL in Grade 2 100
5.4 Contextualizing: Teaching EIL for English Teachers 105
5.4.1 My English Teaching Partner 105
5.4.2 Variety of perspective of EIL Teaching with other English teachers 109
5.5 Identity EFL teachers and students’ Growth out of EIL 112
5.5.1 Students’ Growth before Teaching EIL Approach 112
5.5.2 EFL Grade 1 & Grade 2’s Identity toward EIL Growth after Teaching 116
5.5.3 EFL English Teachers’ Identity Orientation toward EIL Growth 124
5.6 Learning and Teaching EIL Controversies and Possibilities 129
6.1 My Technical Teaching Reflections 135
6.2 Limitation of Study 137
6.3 EIL Teaching Approach Contribution in Indonesia 139
6.4 Implication of Study 144
6.4.1 Broaden English learning and Teaching Exposure 144
6.4.2 Open English Pedagogy 146
6.4.3 English Language Teaching Curriculum 149
6.4.4 EIL Growth Out of EFL Identity in Indonesia 150
6.5 Conclusion 153
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