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研究生:Susi Andriani Simanjuntak
研究生(外文):Susi Andriani Simanjuntak
論文名稱:Toward an Understanding of Plurality: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning English as an International Language (EIL) Approach in an Indonesia Senior High School
論文名稱(外文):Toward an Understanding of Plurality: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning English as an International Language (EIL) Approach in an Indonesia Senior High School
指導教授:廉兮廉兮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsi-Nancy Lien
口試委員:林慧絢鞏尤倩
口試委員(外文):Huei-Hsuan LinYu-Chien Kung
口試日期:109-04-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:教育與潛能開發學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:223
中文關鍵詞:英文作為國際語言個案研究多元主義多元文化批判教育學
外文關鍵詞:English as an International Language (EIL)Case StudyPluralismMulticulturalCritical Pedagogy
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在世界各地日益多樣化的英語使用中,EIL接納母語和非母語英語的語言差異性,重視全球和本地社區中的多語種,並將英語教育置於全球/本地多語制中,挑戰ELT教學中的單語價值。本研究旨在探究一所印尼中學實施英語作為國際語言(EIL)的課程經驗,潛力和挑戰。在這項研究中,研究者邀請6名英語教師和2個班級(1年級和2年級,約60名學生)參與課程研究。目的是瞭解英語老師和學生對英語作為國際語言(EIL)的看法,從而獲得關於他們的經歷,緊張,衝突,鬥爭和挑戰的深入認識。
研究資料分析與結果分為三個部分:EIL方法的實際教學,爭議和可能性以及EFL師生的身份成長。首先,從教學和學習中,我們得到了反思(學習,未學習和重新學習)印尼英語教學的有效性與可理解性的確認。實施EIL課程有其潛力和限制。學生擁抱了學習英語的光明前景,與國際朋友有很好的文化交流經驗,瞭解了自己的國家,充分瞭解英語的社會與文化溝通功能,並滿足學習英文的需求。另一面,實施EIL方法的限制在於學生認為自己的英語不夠好,社區中的學習環境惡劣,對英語學習的錯誤認識。從教師的角度來看,教授EIL也存在爭議和可能性。他們歡迎英語,願意瞭解EIL的方法,相信英語有助學生未來的發展,並願意有效地進行英語教學。但是,他們擔心學生的學習問題,對英語變異多樣性,課程和教科書缺乏理解。這些問題使他們害怕冒任何風險,不敢採用EIL,並創造了英語標準英語和非標準英語兩個不同的世界。
本研究結果指出,儘管參與研究的師生已經瞭解了當今英語變化的現實,但他們中的許多人仍然認為非標準英語是不完善的,需要改進以接近標準英語,他們對EFL的認同也在增長。在EIL課程中,他們顯現參與全球、國家和文化問題的探討,反映國家英語的在地差異。本研究顯示,EIL方法對英語教學具有豐碩的教學意義。EFL教師更需要具有元意識,擴大英語學習與教學的視野,並開放教學法。最後,本研究呼籲EFL學生和教師更加批判地反映英語作為國際語言的教與學的轉變模式,幫助我們將文化嵌入教育團體。
This study aims to observe the teaching and learning, to investigate the experience, the potentials and obstacles and to engage the English teachers and the students’ identity toward teaching and learning English as an international language (EIL) in one of senior high schools, in Tebing Tinggi. Indonesia. EIL is embracing the language variations among nations included native and nonnative English language. In our increasingly diverse communities, this approach is a talkback to the monolingual focus in ELT pedagogy and pay much attention to multilingual in the local and global communities and also situated English language education in global/local multilingualism. In this research study, there were 6 English teachers and two classes (Grade 1 and Grade 2, approximately with 60 students) were interviewed designed to gain an understanding of both English teachers and students’ perspectives on English as international language (EIL) to get deep information about their experiences, tensions, conflicts, struggle, and challenges of EIL teachers and students that they might experience before and after teaching and learning of EIL approach in five meetings and also we could see their identity growth from their sharing.
The results and discussion were made in three parts: actual teaching of EIL approach, controversies and possibilities, and EFL teachers and students’ identity growths. First from the teaching and learning, it gets the reflections (learned, unlearned, and relearned) and the validation of Indonesia English varieties as legitimate, comprehensible, and intelligible. There are some obstacles and potentials that we get from implementing and acknowledging this approach. The fertilities that cultivated are the students learned these topics as knowledge, embracing bright future of learning English, getting to know foreigners and countries, good experience with international friends, learn about their own country (transforming, reflecting themselves as Indonesia, proud to be Indonesia), well understanding the function of English, and fulfil the students’ needs. The other side, the infertilities of implementing EIL approach are they have deficit perspective toward themselves; they did not know about Englishes since it was never taught by their teachers, bad environment from their community, their preferences and saw Englishes as an error and wrong perception about Englishes, and facilitation and resources.
From the teachers’ perspective, there were also controversial and possibilities of teaching EIL in this school. They welcomed to the nature of English and getting to know EIL approach, well understanding of English as a tool for students’ future, and willing to pursue English teaching effectively. But, they concerned to the students’ problems, teaching beliefs, preferences, lack of understanding of English variation diversity, curriculum and textbooks. Those problems make them afraid to make any risk, little faith to apply EIL, and created two different worlds of English standard and nonstandard English. Based on the results, EFLs identity are growing in some orientations. They have an understanding of the reality of English variations nowadays, and many of them maintaining their views on nonstandard English as imperfect, needed to be improved to close to Standard English. Moreover, the results interestingly showed that they were tightly engaging themselves with the actualization in global issue, nations, and cultures that highly reflects nation English or English variations. As shown in this study, it bears fruitful pedagogical implications for teaching English. This research suggests that to be effective as EFL teachers, they need to have meta-awareness; broaden exposure of English learning and teaching, and open pedagogy, Moreover, it is calling for EFL students and teachers’ identity to be more critically reflected a transformative mode of teaching and learning English as an international language help us to culture embedded in educational parties.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
ABSTRACT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xii
CHAPTER I 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Purpose of Study 6
1.3 Question of Research 6
1.4 Significance of Study 6
1.5 Definition of Key Term 7
CHAPTER II 9
REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9
2.1 The Language Function and the ‘Identity-Communication Continuum’ 10
2.2 An Intend to De-Centralized World English 11
2.3 Critical Pedagogy of EIL 13
2.4 The Methodology of Teaching EIL 16
2.4.1 Meta-Awareness 16
2.4.2 Border-Crossing Communication 18
2.4.3 Communicative Language Teaching 19
2.4.4 Cultural Teaching 19
2.5 EFL Identity Orientation 22
2.6 EIL Growth Out of EFL Identity Orientation 23
2.6.1 Fundamentalist EFL Identity 28
2.6.2 Integrationist EFL Identity 29
2.6.3 Transformationist EFL Identity 29
2.7 The Critisims of EIL 30
2.7.1 Missunderstanding of EIL and the Teaching 30
2.7.2 Problematizing of EIL and the Teaching in EFL context (Indonesia) 32
2.8 Previous Research 34
CHAPTER III 37
METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Method of Study 37
3.2 Site 38
3.2.1 The Life in a Senior High School, Tebing Tinggi 40
3.2.2 The Regulations 41
3.3 Participants 42
3.3.1 English Teachers in a Senior High School, Tebing Tinggi 42
3.3.2 Two Classes 47
3.4 Data Collections 50
3.4.1 Interview 50
3.4.2 Classroom Observation Field 52
3.4.3 Focus Group 52
3.4.4 Teaching EIL Approach in Grade 1 and Grade 2 53
3.5 Data Analysis 54
3.6 Research Procedure 55
CHAPTER IV 59
EIL CURRICULUM IN ACTION 59
4.1 Grade 1: Compliment and Congratulation 59
4.2 Grade 1: Introduction and What are You Going to Do Today? 67
4.3 Grade 2: Party 73
4.4 Grade 2: Offering & Suggestions and Opinion & Thought 83
4.5 EIL approach Curriculum in Retrospection 87
CHAPTER V 91
HEARING STUDENTS AND TEACHERS’ PERSPECTIVES 91
5.1 A Functional Notion on English Learning 91
5.2 English Variation Perspectives 93
5.3 Contextualizing: Learning EIL for Students 96
5.3.1 Contextualizing Learning EIL in Grade 1 96
5.3.2 Contextualizing learning EIL in Grade 2 100
5.4 Contextualizing: Teaching EIL for English Teachers 105
5.4.1 My English Teaching Partner 105
5.4.2 Variety of perspective of EIL Teaching with other English teachers 109
5.5 Identity EFL teachers and students’ Growth out of EIL 112
5.5.1 Students’ Growth before Teaching EIL Approach 112
5.5.2 EFL Grade 1 & Grade 2’s Identity toward EIL Growth after Teaching 116
5.5.3 EFL English Teachers’ Identity Orientation toward EIL Growth 124
5.6 Learning and Teaching EIL Controversies and Possibilities 129
CHAPTER VI 135
TOWARD A PLURALITY UNDERSTANDING OF EIL 135
6.1 My Technical Teaching Reflections 135
6.2 Limitation of Study 137
6.3 EIL Teaching Approach Contribution in Indonesia 139
6.4 Implication of Study 144
6.4.1 Broaden English learning and Teaching Exposure 144
6.4.2 Open English Pedagogy 146
6.4.3 English Language Teaching Curriculum 149
6.4.4 EIL Growth Out of EFL Identity in Indonesia 150
6.5 Conclusion 153
REFERENCES 157
APPENDIX 1 167
APPENDIX 2 169
APPENDIX 3 178
APPENDIX 4 181
APPENDIX 5 185
APPENDIX 6 191
APPENDIX 7 197
APPENDIX 8 199
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