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研究生:陳奕健
研究生(外文):Chen, Yi-Chien
論文名稱:山胡椒與山肉桂子消費者品評描述語之建立
論文名稱(外文):Development of consumer-related sensory lexicon for the seed of Litsea cubeba and Cinnamomum insulari-montanum Hayata
指導教授:李柏宏李柏宏引用關係劉伯康劉伯康引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee, Bor-HonLiou, Bo-Kang
口試委員:掌慶琳郭炯村
口試委員(外文):Chang, JanetKuo, Chiung-Tsun
口試日期:2020-06-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄餐旅大學
系所名稱:飲食文化暨餐飲創新研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:餐旅服務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:選擇適合項目法感官品評原生植物山胡椒山肉桂子
外文關鍵詞:Check-all-that-apply methodSensory evaluationNative plantLitsea cubebaCinnamomum insulari-montanum Hayata
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自古以來臺灣原生植物中的香草植物被原住民廣泛使用,其中兩種原生香料山胡椒(馬告)Litsea cubeba以及山肉桂子(改慕)Cinnamomum insulari-montanum Hayata,兩者皆為樟科植物且風味相似,傳統以透過品嚐果實的香氣及風味作為採收的判斷方法及標準,並無一套科學性的辨別品質標準之依據,因此本研究希望透過建立兩種香料的描述性品評描述語,便於推廣應用並逐步建立臺灣原生香料品質控管的標準。
  本研究以山胡椒與山肉桂子兩種香料為原料,依處理方式分為新鮮與乾燥共4種樣品,使用122位消費者型的品評員及選擇適合項目法(Check-All-That-Apply, CATA)針對基本味道與口感、風味特徵等感官特性,及消費者食用後的認知與情緒特性的產品概念特性進行評估,
研究結果顯示山胡椒與山肉桂子擁有之感官特性大致相似,主要的變化在於基本味道與口感之感官特性的感受而兩者風味感官特性,皆以花香味、草本味及香料味為主;此外,乾燥對於山胡椒感官特徵變化影響很大而對於山肉桂子的變化特徵很小。新鮮山胡椒經過乾燥後其感官特性從明顯的澀(餘)感、麻(餘)感、辣(餘)感、清涼(餘)感、嗆辣(餘)感、嗆鼻(餘)感等刺激性特徵大幅降低而讓消費者在乾燥山胡椒的感官特性上產生溫和感之感受。新鮮山胡椒食用完後柑橘餘味明顯,而乾燥山胡椒之花香味較新鮮山胡椒容易感受。新鮮與乾燥山肉桂子消費者主要感受到的感官特徵有苦味、澀(餘)感、清涼(餘)感及刺激(餘)感。乾燥山肉桂子之麻感、清涼餘感及刺激餘感等特性感受較新鮮山肉桂子明顯且在咀嚼吞嚥後有熱感之特性。消費者食用乾燥山肉桂子後在花香味、鮮果香味(柑橘)、柑橘餘味及中藥味等特性上較新鮮山肉桂子明顯。認知及情緒感受上,山胡椒經乾燥過後會由風味純正、天然風味、轉變為風味單調、風味平淡、本地風味的、溫暖的、感覺放鬆的、愉快的、美好的、有益的、純粹的及冷靜的等感受而山肉桂子經過乾燥程序之後,消費者也給予正面的認知評價,使得消費者感受到鎮定安神、風味濃郁、清新的及驚險刺激等感受。這些描述語詞彙對香料產業的風味行銷與原生香料在廚藝的應用提供了有價值的資訊。進一步也可作為臺灣原生香料標準化採收品質優劣區別之控管,以及標準化乾燥方法或乾燥對原生香料成分變化影響之參考依據,而產品概念的認知特性與情緒特性,可用於商業上的運用或研究,作為產品特色、產品效果之參考依據。
The aboriginals have been used in herbal plants of original Taiwanese indigenous plants since the ancient time. Among them, two native spices, Litsea cubeba (mountain litsea) and Cinnamomum insulari-montanum Hayata (odourbark cinnamomum) are Lauraceae and similar characteristics in flavor properties. Traditionally, people taste the flavor to be used as the judgment method and standard for harvesting which is no scientific basis for distinguishing quality standards. Based on the reason, this study was to establish the sensory description by the systematic sensory evaluation in order to facilitate the promotion and application and gradually establish the quality control standards of Taiwan's indigenous spices.
This study, four spices of mountain litsea and odourbark cinnamomum, including fresh and dried samples, were used as raw materials and a total of 122 students were recruited and asked to evaluate the sensory, association and postprandial perception using check-all-that apply method.
The results indicated the sensory characteristics of two spices are similar, the primary differences in sensory characteristics between the two spices are the basic taste and mouthfeel perception and the retronasal olfaction perception are floral flavor, spice flavor and herbal flavor. In addition, the drying processing has a great influence on the sensory characteristics of Mountain litsea but not for odourbark cinnamomum. Compared with fresh Mountain litsea, consumers have a lower perception in astringency, numbness, spicy, refreshing, pungent, choking on the nose and irritating characteristics for the dried Mountain litsea but a significant perception in blandness. Consumers primarily feel fresh and dried odourbark cinnamomum had a significant characteristic in bitterness, astringency, refreshing and irritating sensation. Dried odourbark cinnamomumhad a stronger perception in numbness, refreshing and irritating sensation than fresh sample. In addition, consumer feels hotness after swallowing the dried sample. Consumers perceived a significant organoleptic characteristic in floral flavor, fruit flavor, citrus fruit aftertaste and Chinese herbal flavor for the dried cinnamomum than the fresh product. In association and postprandial perception, after drying processing, the consumer’s perception of mountain litsea would be changed from original flavor and natural flavor to flat flavor, blandness, local flavor, relaxing, pleasant and beneficial etc. consumers also had a positive response which makes consumers feel calm the nerves, full flavor, fresh and thrilling sensation for cinnamomum after drying.
These descriptive words provide valuable information about the flavor marketing of the spice industry and the application of original spices in the cooking art. Furthermore, it can also be used as a reference for the control of the difference between the quality of the standardized harvest of original Taiwanese indigenous spices, and the reference basis for standardized drying methods or the influence of drying on the changes in the ingredients of the original spices. The association and postprandial characteristics of the product concept can be utilized in commercial applications as a reference basis for product characteristics and product effects.
論文口試委員會審定書 i
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iv
誌謝 vi
目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 x
第壹章 前言 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第貳章 文獻探討 4
第一節 臺灣原生香料植物 4
壹、 原生植物的定義 4
貳、 臺灣原生香料介紹 5
第二節 感官品評 7
壹、 感官品評概論 7
貳、 選擇適合項目法(Check-All-That-Apply, CATA) 9
參、 感官風味輪(Flavor Wheel of Sensory Characteristics) 13
肆、 多變量分析 17
第参章 材料與方法 18
第一節 研究架構 18
第二節 實驗材料與設備 19
壹、 實驗樣品 19
貳、 實驗設備 19
第三節 實驗樣品製備 20
壹、 樣品前製備 20
第四節 品評測試與統計分析 22
壹、 品評測試之香料樣品製備方法 22
貳、 品評描述語之制定 22
參、 正式品評試驗實施 23
肆、 統計分析 27
第肆章 結果與討論 29
第一節 山胡椒之感官特性評估 29
壹、 基本味道與口感之評估 29
貳、 參照型描述語之評估 34
參、 消費者品嚐後之產品概念特性 37
肆、 新鮮與乾燥山胡椒之感官特性強度雷達圖 43
第二節 山肉桂子之感官特性評估 45
壹、 基本味道與口感之評估 45
貳、 參照型描述語之評估 50
參、 消費者品嚐後之產品概念特性 52
肆、 新鮮與乾燥山肉桂子之感官特性雷達圖 56
第三節 山胡椒與山肉桂子之比較 59
壹、 感官特性之比較 59
貳、 消費者品嚐後之產品概念特性 64
第伍章 結論 73
參考文獻 83
附件一 訪談逐字稿 89
附件二 描述語相關之文獻彙整 98
附件三 樣品計劃書 101
附件四 品評問卷 103
附件五 次要描述語 110

表目錄
表1 近年選擇適合項目法(Check-All-That-Apply, CATA)之相關文獻 12
表2 本研究感官品評所使用之描述語 24
表3 山胡椒基本味道與口感消費者勾選次數之結果 31
表4 消費者剛剛好法評估山胡椒感官特性之平均值 33
表5 山胡椒主要描述語消費者勾選次數之結果 36
表6 山胡椒認知特性消費者勾選次數之結果 39
表7 山胡椒情緒特性消費者勾選次數之結果 42
表8 山肉桂子基本味道與口感消費者勾選次數之結果 47
表9 消費者剛剛好法評估山肉桂子感官特性之平均值 49
表10 山肉桂子主要風味特性消費者勾選次數之結果 51
表11 山肉桂子認知特性消費者勾選次數之結果 53
表12 山肉桂子情緒特性消費者勾選次數之結果 55
表13 山胡椒及山肉桂子描述語消費者勾選次數之結果 61
表14 山胡椒及山肉桂子認知特性消費者勾選次數之結果 65
表15 山胡椒及山肉桂子情緒特性消費者勾選次數之結果 70
表16 山胡椒、山肉桂子感官特性之描述語彙整 76
表17 山胡椒、山肉桂子認知特性之描述語彙整 77
表18 山胡椒、山肉桂子情緒特性之描述語彙整 78

圖目錄
圖1 咖啡感官風味輪(Spencer et al., 2016) 15
圖2 巧克力感官風味輪(De Pelsmaeker et al., 2018) 15
圖3 非洲蜜樹茶感官風味輪(Theron et al., 2014) 16
圖4 香料感官風味輪(Lawless et al., 2012) 16
圖5 研究架構圖 18
圖6 樣品前製備圖 21
圖7 山胡椒之基本味道與口感(a)、主要描述語(b)消費者勾選次數雷達圖 44
圖8 山肉桂子之基本味道與口感(a)、主要描述語(b)消費者勾選次數雷達圖 58
圖9 消費者利用選擇適合項目法評估山胡椒與山肉桂子感官特性之對 63
圖10 選擇適合項目法消費者評估山胡椒與山肉桂子認知特性之對應分析圖 67
圖 11 選擇適合項目法消費者評估山胡椒與山肉桂子情緒特性之對應分析圖 72
圖12 新鮮山胡椒之感官特性放射環狀圖 79
圖13 乾燥山胡椒之感官特性放射環狀圖 80
圖14 新鮮山肉桂子之感官特性放射環狀圖 81
圖15 乾燥山肉桂子之感官特性放射環狀圖 82
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