跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.204.180.223) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 22:39
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:許甯翔
研究生(外文):HSU, NING-HSIANG
論文名稱:台灣西南沿岸表層海水中微塑膠苯環類化合物之測定
論文名稱(外文):Determination of Aromatic compounds in the surface of microplastics collected from seawater in the coast of southwestern Taiwan
指導教授:陳秋妏陳秋妏引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHEN, CHIU-WEN
口試委員:董正釱陳秋妏朱韻如陳志峰章日行
口試委員(外文):DONG,CHENG-DICHEN, CHIU-WENJU, YUN-RUCHEN, CHIH-FONGCHANG, JIH-HSING
口試日期:2020-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄科技大學
系所名稱:海洋環境工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:232
中文關鍵詞:微塑膠多環芳香烴鄰苯二甲酸酯壬基酚辛基酚台灣西南沿海來源分析
外文關鍵詞:MicroplasticsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsNonyl phenolOctyl phenolSouthwestern coast of TaiwanSource analyzePhthalates
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:78
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
  本研究於2019年6月及8月以拖網方式採集台灣西南沿海36個測站表層海水之微塑膠(Microplastics, MPs)樣品。採集之表層海水樣品經篩選、浮選、消化及過濾後。以顯微鏡觀察及拍照濾膜上之MPs,並統計表層海水中MPs之豐度、大小、形狀及顏色等基本性質。另外使用傅立葉轉換紅外線儀(Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR)進一步鑑定材質。MPs上的多環芳香烴化合物(Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs)、鄰苯二甲酸酯類(Phthalates, PAEs)、壬基酚(Nonyl phenol, NP)及辛基苯酚(Octyl phenol, OP)是經有機溶劑萃取及濃縮後,以氣相層析/質譜儀(GC/MS)進行定性定量分析,來了解MPs樣品等化合物之濃度。研究目的為: (1)瞭解西南沿海表層海水中MPs的豐度、大小、形狀、顏色及種類的時空分佈;(2)評估MPs可能的主要來源;(3) MPs的PAHs、PAEs、NP、OP濃度、組成及可能來源。
  研究結果顯示,所有測站皆有發現MPs,僅有8月1個測站未發現MPs,顯示MPs普遍分佈於沿海區域,豐度介於0.06–1.47 item/m3,其中約30%的MPs來自於河口區,顯示MPs主要是由陸源輸入。8月MPs豐度(0.36±0.31 item/m3)較6月(0.24±0.16 item/m3)來得高,可能受降雨之影響。MPs大小最多介於1–2 mm之尺寸,約佔所有MPs的40%,0.33–1 mm (19.1%)為次之。歸類五種不同形狀的MPs,包括了柔珠(pellet)、薄膜(film)、發泡(foam)、線狀(line)、碎塊(fragment),碎塊為最常見的形狀,佔總MPs的82%。有色塑膠佔最高比例(58%),其次為白色(17%)及透明(28%)。MPs的材質,以聚乙烯(Polyethylene, PE) (67%)及聚丙烯(Polypropylene, PP) (27%)佔最多,而聚苯乙烯(Polystyrene, PS)及聚氯乙烯(Polyvinyl Chloride, PVC)比例皆小於4%。綜合形狀、顏色、材質結果,推測MPs主要來自大型塑膠分解的二次來源,而柔珠等一次來源僅佔一小部分。
  MPs上的總PAHs濃度範圍介於67–3595 μg/kg dw,MPs上吸附的PAHs以3環(56%)為主,且以化合物菲(Phenanthrene, PH)佔37%為最高。利用Anthracene/(Anthracene+PH)和Fluoranthene/(Fluoranthene+ Pyrene)特徵比值分析結果顯示,MPs吸附的PAHs來源為石油、燃燒及石油與燃燒的混合來源,MPs吸附的PAHs相當複雜,顯示MPs吸附的PAHs並不為單一來源。MPs測得的PAEs濃度範圍介於3.7–174 mg/kg dw,主要以高分子量的PAEs(94.3%)為主,且由鄰苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP) (59%)佔最多。OP的濃度範圍介於16–557 μg/kg dw,NP的濃度範圍介於54–2836 μg/kg dw,結果顯示,台灣西南沿海MPs中吸附多種內分泌干擾及持久性有機物質,增加被生物誤食的不利風險。

In this study, samples of microplastics (MPs) from the surface seawater of 36 stations on the southwest coast of Taiwan were collected by trawling in June and August 2019. The collected surface seawater samples are screened, floated, digested and filtered. Observe and photograph the MPs on the filter membrane with a microscope, and assess the basic properties such as the abundance, size, shape and color of MPs in the surface seawater. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to further identify the MPs type. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates (PAEs), 4-nonyl phenol (NP) and 4-tert-octyl phenol (OP) on MPs are using organic solvent extraction and concentration, qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to understand the concentration of compounds such as MPs samples. The research objectives are: (1) To understand the spatial and temporal distribution of MPs abundance, size, shape, color, and species in the surface seawater of the southwestern coastal waters; (2) To assess the possible main sources of MPs; (3)PAHs, PAEs, NP, OP concentrations, compositions in MPs and possible sources.
the results showed that MPs were found at all stations. Only one station in August did not find MPs, MPs abundance range from 0.06–1.47 item/m3 showing that MPs are generally distributed in coast area, about 30% abundance from river mouth, it was shown that MPs were mainly imported from land sources. The abundance of MPs in August (0.36±0.31 item/m3) is higher than that in June (0.24±0.16 item/m3), which may be affected by rainfall. The proportion of MPs between 1–2 mm is the highest with 40%, followed by 0.33–1 mm (19.1%). MPs are classified into five different shapes, including pellet, film, foam, line, and fragment. Fragment is the most common shape, accounting for the 82% of total MPs. Colored plastic accounted for the highest proportion (58%), white (17%) and transparent (28%) were the second highest. MPs most type is polyethylene (PE) (67%) and polypropylene (PP) (27%), while polystyrene (PS) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) the proportion is less than 4%. Based on the results of shape, color, and type, it is speculated that MPs mainly come from secondary sources of large-scale plastic decomposition, while primary sources such as soft beads only account for a small part.
The concentration of total PAHs on MPs range is 67–3595 μg/kg dw. The PAHs adsorbed on MPs were dominated by 3 rings (56%), with the compound Phenanthrene (PH) accounting for 37%. The analysis results of Anthracene/(Anthracene+PH) and Fluoranthene/(Fluoranthene+Pyrene) characteristic ratio show that the source of PAHs adsorbed by MPs is petroleum, combustion and mixed sources of oil and combustion. The PAHs adsorbed by MPs are complex, showing the PAHs adsorbed by MPs is not from a single source. The concentration of PAEs measured by MPs range is from 3.7–174 mg/kg dw, mainly composed of high molecular weight PAEs (94.3%), and consisted of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (59 %) accounted for the most. The concentration of OP range is 16–557 μg/kg dw, and the concentration of NP range is 54–2836 μg/kg dw. The results show that endocrine interference and persistent organic substances are adsorbed in MPs on the southwestern coast of Taiwan, it will increasing the biologcal ingestion hazard.

目錄
摘要 iii
Abstract v
目錄 vii
圖目錄 xi
表目錄 xiii
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1研究區域 3
2.2 微塑膠 4
2.2.1微塑膠特性 4
2.2.2微塑膠的生物危害 4
2.2.3微塑膠主要來源與現況 5
2.2.4微塑膠的化學吸附 7
2.3 多環芳香烴化合物 9
2.3.1 多環芳香烴物化特性 9
2.3.2 多環芳香烴來源 10
2.3.3多環芳香烴危害 11
2.3.4多環芳香烴來源評估 16
2.4 鄰苯二甲酸酯類 18
2.4.1 鄰苯二甲酸酯類來源 18
2.4.2鄰苯二甲酸酯的危害 19
2.5辛基酚及壬基酚 20
2.5.1壬基酚及辛基酚的來源 20
2.5.2壬基酚及辛基酚的危害 21
第三章 研究材料與方法 22
3.1 研究架構 22
3.2 採樣地點及採樣規劃 24
3.3 實驗藥品及試劑 28
3.4 微塑膠樣品鑑定 32
3.5 微塑膠尺寸測量 33
3.6 樣品分析 34
第四章 品保品管 36
4.1 GC/MS例行性校正 36
4.2 GC/MS分析苯環類化合物的設置條件 37
4.3 空白試驗 41
4.4 檢量線 42
4.5 偵測極限 45
第五章 結果與討論 47
5.1 微塑膠豐度及分佈 47
5.2 微塑膠粒徑、形狀、顏色 54
5.3 微塑膠種類 62
5.4 微塑膠吸附的多環芳香烴濃度、環數及化合物分布 67
5.5 微塑膠PAHs特徵比值分析 80
5.6 微塑膠上的鄰苯二甲酸酯、壬基酚、辛基苯酚 83
第六章 結論與未來工作 92
6.1 結論 92
6.2 建議 94
參考文獻 95
附錄一 124
附錄二 161
附錄三 207


參考文獻
Aaslyng, M. D., Duedahl-Olesen, L., Jensen, K., & Meinert, L., 2013. “Content of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pork, beef and chicken barbecued at home by Danish consumers”, Meat science, vol.93(1), pp.85-91.
Abdel-Shafy, H. I., & Mansour, M. S., 2016, “A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation”, Egyptian journal of petroleum, vol. 25(1), pp.107-123.
Abidli, S., Antunes, J. C., Ferreira, J. L., Lahbib, Y., Sobral, P., & El Menif, N. T., 2018, “Microplastics in sediments from the littoral zone of the north Tunisian coast (Mediterranean Sea)”, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol.205, pp.1-9.
Akdogan, Z., & Guven, B., 2019, “Microplastics in the environment: A critical review of current understanding and identification of future research needs”, Environmental Pollution, vol.254, 113011.
Aly, H. A., Domènech, Ò., & Banjar, Z. M., 2012, “Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes”, Toxicology and applied pharmacology, vol.261(2), pp.134-141.
Amélineau, F., Bonnet, D., Heitz, O., Mortreux, V., Harding, A. M., Karnovsky, N., ... & Gremillet, D., 2016, “Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds”, Environmental pollution, vol.219, pp.1131-1139.
Antunes, J. C., Frias, J. G. L., Micaelo, A. C., & Sobral, P., 2013, “Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants”, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vo.l130, pp.62-69.
Antunes, J. C., Frias, J. G. L., Micaelo, A. C., & Sobral, P., 2013, “Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants”, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol.130, pp.62-69.
Benjamin, S., Masai, E., Kamimura, N., Takahashi, K., Anderson, R. C., & Faisal, P. A., 2017, “Phthalates impact human health: epidemiological evidences and plausible mechanism of action”, Journal of hazardous materials, vol.340, pp.360-383.
Benjamin, S., Masai, E., Kamimura, N., Takahashi, K., Anderson, R. C., & Faisal, P. A., 2017, “Phthalates impact human health: epidemiological evidences and plausible mechanism of action”, Journal of hazardous materials, vol.340, pp.360-383.
Benner Jr, B. A., Bryner, N. P., Wise, S. A., Mulholland, G. W., Lao, R. C., & Fingas, M. F., 1990, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of crude oil on water”, Environmental science & technology, vol.24(9), pp.1418-1427.
Benson, N. U., & Fred-Ahmadu, O. H., 2020, “Occurrence and distribution of microplastics-sorbed phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in coastal psammitic sediments of tropical Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea”, Science of The Total Environment, vol.730, 139013.
Benson, N. U., & Fred-Ahmadu, O. H., 2020, “Occurrence and distribution of microplastics-sorbed phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in coastal psammitic sediments of tropical Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea”, Science of The Total Environment, vol.730, 139013.
Besseling, E., Foekema, E. M., Van Franeker, J. A., Leopold, M. F., Kühn, S., Rebolledo, E. B., ... & Koelmans, A. A., 2015, “Microplastic in a macro filter feeder: humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.95(1), pp.248-252.
Botterell, Z. L., Beaumont, N., Dorrington, T., Steinke, M., Thompson, R. C., & Lindeque, P. K., 2019, “Bioavailability and effects of microplastics on marine zooplankton: A review”, Environmental Pollution, vol.245, pp.98-110.
Bouhroum, R., Boulkamh, A., Asia, L., Lebarillier, S., Ter Halle, A., Syakti, A. D., Wong-Wah-Chung, P., 2019, “Concentrations and fingerprints of PAHs and PCBs adsorbed onto marine plastic debris from the Indonesian Cilacap coast and the North Atlantic gyre”, Regional Studies in Marine Science, vol.29, 100611.
Bouhroum, R., Boulkamh, A., Asia, L., Lebarillier, S., Ter Halle, A., Syakti, A. D., Wong-Wah-Chung, P., 2019, “Concentrations and fingerprints of PAHs and PCBs adsorbed onto marine plastic debris from the Indonesian Cilacap coast and the North Atlantic gyre”, Regional Studies in Marine Science, vol.29, 100611.
Browne, M. A., Crump, P., Niven, S. J., Teuten, E., Tonkin, A., Galloway, T., & Thompson, R., 2011, “Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: sources and sinks”, Environmental science & technology, vol.45(21), pp.9175-9179.
Browne, M. A., Dissanayake, A., Galloway, T. S., Lowe, D. M., & Thompson, R. C., 2008, “Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.)”, Environmental science & technology, vol.42(13), pp.5026-5031.
Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Pierard, C., & Garrigues, P. H., 1997, “Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary”, Marine chemistry, vol.58(1-2), pp.85-97.
Carr, S. A., Liu, J., & Tesoro, A. G., 2016, “Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants”, Water research, vol.91, pp.174-182.
Caruso, G., 2019, “Microplastics as vectors of contaminants”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.146, pp.921-924.
Cesa, F. S., Turra, A., & Baruque-Ramos, J., 2017, “Synthetic fibers as microplastics in the marine environment: a review from textile perspective with a focus on domestic washings”, Science of The Total Environment, vol.598, pp.1116-1129.
Chen, Q., Reisser, J., Cunsolo, S., Kwadijk, C., Kotterman, M., Proietti, M., ... & Yin, D., 2018, Pollutants in plastics within the north Pacific subtropical gyre”, Environmental science & technology,vol.52(2), pp.446-456.
Chen, Q., Reisser, J., Cunsolo, S., Kwadijk, C., Kotterman, M., Proietti, M., ... & Yin, D., 2018, Pollutants in plastics within the north Pacific subtropical gyre”, Environmental science & technology, vol.52(2), pp.446-456.
Cheng, Y., Shan, Z., Zhou, J., Bu, Y., Li, P., & Lu, S., 2017, “Effects of 4-nonylphenol in drinking water on the reproductive capacity of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)”, Chemosphere, vol.175, pp.219-227.
Cheng, Y., Shan, Z., Zhou, J., Bu, Y., Li, P., & Lu, S., 2017, “Effects of 4-nonylphenol in drinking water on the reproductive capacity of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)”, Chemosphere, vol.175, pp.219-227.
Cheung, P. K., & Fok, L., 2017, “Characterisation of plastic microbeads in facial scrubs and their estimated emissions in Mainland China”, Water research, vol.122, pp.53-61.
Chouchene, K., da Costa, J. P., Wali, A., Girão, A. V., Hentati, O., Duarte, A. C., ... & Ksibi, M., 2019, “Microplastic pollution in the sediments of Sidi Mansour Harbor in Southeast Tunisia”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.146, pp.92-99.
Cladière, M., Bonhomme, C., Vilmin, L., Gasperi, J., Flipo, N., Habets, F., & Tassin, B., 2014, “Modelling The fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine River—part 2: assessing the impact of global change on daily concentrations”, Science of the total environment, vol.468, pp.1059-1068.
Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Fileman, E., Halsband, C., & Galloway, T. S., 2015, “The impact of polystyrene microplastics on feeding, function and fecundity in the marine copepod Calanus helgolandicus”, Environmental science & technology, vol.49(2), pp.1130-1137.
Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Fileman, E., Halsband, C., Goodhead, R., Moger, J., & Galloway, T. S., 2013, “Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton”, Environmental science & technology, vol.47(12), pp.6646-6655.
Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Halsband, C., & Galloway, T. S., 2011, “Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.62(12), pp.2588-2597.
Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Halsband, C., & Galloway, T. S., 2011, “Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.62(12), pp.2588-2597.
Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Halsband, C., & Galloway, T. S., 2011, “Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.62(12), pp.2588-2597.
Dai, Z., Zhang, H., Zhou, Q., Tian, Y., Chen, T., Tu, C., ... & Luo, Y., 2018, “Occurrence of microplastics in the water column and sediment in an inland sea affected by intensive anthropogenic activities”, Environmental pollution, vol.242, pp.1557-1565.
Derraik, J. G., 2002, “The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.44(9), pp.842-852.
Desforges, J. P. W., Galbraith, M., & Ross, P. S., 2015, “Ingestion of microplastics by zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean”, Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol.69(3), pp.320-330.
Di, M., & Wang, J., 2018, “Microplastics in surface waters and sediments of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.616, pp.1620-1627.
Eriksen, M., Lebreton, L. C., Carson, H. S., Thiel, M., Moore, C. J., Borerro, J. C., ... & Reisser, J., 2014, “Plastic pollution in the world's oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea”, PloS one, vol.9(12), e111913.
Eriksen, M., Maximenko, N., Thiel, M., Cummins, A., Lattin, G., Wilson, S., ... & Rifman, S., 2013, “Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre” Marine pollution bulletin, vol.68(1-2), pp.71-76.
Ferrara, F., Ademollo, N., Orrù, M. A., Silvestroni, L., & Funari, E, 2011, “Alkylphenols in adipose tissues of Italian population”, Chemosphere, vol.82(7), pp.1044-1049.
Ferrara, F., Ademollo, N., Orrù, M. A., Silvestroni, L., & Funari, E, 2011, “Alkylphenols in adipose tissues of Italian population”, Chemosphere, vol.82(7), pp.1044-1049.
Filella, M., 2015, “Questions of size and numbers in environmental research on microplastics: methodological and conceptual aspects”, Environmental Chemistry, vol.12(5), pp.527-538.
Fisner, M., Taniguchi, S., Majer, A. P., Bícego, M. C., & Turra, A., 2013b, “Concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets: implications for small-scale diagnostic and environmental monitoring”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.76(1-2), pp.349-354.
Fisner, M., Taniguchi, S., Majer, A. P., Bícego, M. C., & Turra, A., 2013b, “Concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets: implications for small-scale diagnostic and environmental monitoring”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.76(1-2), pp.349-354.
Fisner, M., Taniguchi, S., Moreira, F., Bícego, M. C., & Turra, A., 2013, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets: Variability in the concentration and composition at different sediment depths in a sandy beach”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.70(1-2), pp.219-226.
Fisner, M., Taniguchi, S., Moreira, F., Bícego, M. C., & Turra, A., 2013, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets: Variability in the concentration and composition at different sediment depths in a sandy beach”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.70(1-2), pp.219-226.
Fisner, M., Taniguchi, S., Moreira, F., Bícego, M. C., & Turra, A., 2013, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in plastic pellets: Variability in the concentration and composition at different sediment depths in a sandy beach”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.70(1-2), pp.219-226.
Forte, M., Di Lorenzo, M., Carrizzo, A., Valiante, S., Vecchione, C., Laforgia, V., & De Falco, M, 2016, “Nonylphenol effects on human prostate non tumorigenic cells”, Toxicology, vol.357, pp.21-32.
Forte, M., Di Lorenzo, M., Carrizzo, A., Valiante, S., Vecchione, C., Laforgia, V., & De Falco, M, 2016, “Nonylphenol effects on human prostate non tumorigenic cells”, Toxicology, vol.357, pp.21-32.
Fossi, M. C., Panti, C., Guerranti, C., Coppola, D., Giannetti, M., Marsili, L., & Minutoli, R., 2012, “Are baleen whales exposed to the threat of microplastics? A case study of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.64(11), pp.2374-2379.
Gall, S. C., & Thompson, R. C., 2015, “The impact of debris on marine life”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.92(1-2), pp.170-179.
Galloway, T. S., & Lewis, C. N., 2016, “Marine microplastics spell big problems for future generations”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.113(9), pp.2331-2333.
Gauquie, J., Devriese, L., Robbens, J., & De Witte, B., 2015, “A qualitative screening and quantitative measurement of organic contaminants on different types of marine plastic debris” Chemosphere, 138, 348-356.
Gauquie, J., Devriese, L., Robbens, J., & De Witte, B., 2015, “A qualitative screening and quantitative measurement of organic contaminants on different types of marine plastic debris” Chemosphere, vol.138, pp.348-356.
Goyette, D., & Brooks, K. M., 1998, “Creosote Evaluation: Phase II Sooke Basin Study-Baseline to 535 Days Post Construction”
Graham, E. R., & Thompson, J. T., 2009, “Deposit-and suspension-feeding sea cucumbers (Echinodermata) ingest plastic fragments”, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol.368(1), pp.22-29.
Gray, A. D., Wertz, H., Leads, R. R., & Weinstein, J. E., 2018, “Microplastic in two South Carolina Estuaries: Occurrence, distribution, and composition”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.128, pp.223-233.
Green, D. S., Colgan, T. J., Thompson, R. C., & Carolan, J. C., 2019, “Exposure to microplastics reduces attachment strength and alters the haemolymph proteome of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)”, Environmental pollution, vol.246, pp.423-434.
Guo, X., & Wang, J., 2019, “The chemical behaviors of microplastics in marine environment: A review”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.142, pp.1-14.
Guo, Y., Zhang, Z., Liu, L., Li, Y., Ren, N., & Kannan, K., 2012, “Occurrence and profiles of phthalates in foodstuffs from China and their implications for human exposure”, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, vol.60(27), pp.6913-6919.
Guo, Y., Zhang, Z., Liu, L., Li, Y., Ren, N., & Kannan, K., 2012, “Occurrence and profiles of phthalates in foodstuffs from China and their implications for human exposure”, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, vol.60(27), pp.6913-6919.
Hall, N. M., Berry, K. L. E., Rintoul, L., & Hoogenboom, M. O., 2015, “Microplastic ingestion by scleractinian corals”, Marine Biology, vol.162(3), pp.725-732.
Han, M., Niu, X., Tang, M., Zhang, B. T., Wang, G., Yue, W., ... & Zhu, J., 2019, “Distribution of microplastics in surface water of the lower Yellow River near estuary”, Science of The Total Environment, vol.707, 135601.
Hidalgo-Ruz, V., Gutow, L., Thompson, R. C., & Thiel, M., 2012, “Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification”, Environmental science & technology, vol.46(6), pp.3060-3075.
Hidalgo-Ruz, V., Gutow, L., Thompson, R. C., & Thiel, M., 2012, “Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification”, Environmental science & technology, vol.46(6), pp.3060-3075.
Hirai, H., Takada, H., Ogata, Y., Yamashita, R., Mizukawa, K., Saha, M., ... & Zettler, E. R., 2011, “Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.62(8), pp.1683-1692.
Hirai, H., Takada, H., Ogata, Y., Yamashita, R., Mizukawa, K., Saha, M., ... & Zettler, E. R., 2011, “Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.62(8), pp.1683-1692.
Holahan, M. R., & Smith, C. A., 2015, “Phthalates and neurotoxic effects on hippocampal network plasticity”, Neurotoxicology, vol.48, pp.21-34.
Holahan, M. R., & Smith, C. A., 2015, “Phthalates and neurotoxic effects on hippocampal network plasticity”, Neurotoxicology, vol.48, pp.21-34.
Horton, A. A., Svendsen, C., Williams, R. J., Spurgeon, D. J., & Lahive, E., 2017, “Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK–Abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.114(1), pp.218-226.
Houlihan, D., Boujard, T., & Jobling, M. (Eds.), 2008, “Food intake in fish” John Wiley & Sons.
Houlihan, D., Boujard, T., & Jobling, M. (Eds.), 2008, “Food intake in fish” John Wiley & Sons.
Howsam, M., & Jones, K. C., 1998, “Sources of PAHs in the environment”, In PAHs and related compounds (pp. 137-174), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Ishizaki, A., Saito, K., Hanioka, N., Narimatsu, S., & Kataoka, H., 2010, “Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1217(35), pp.5555-5563.
Jabeen, K., Su, L., Li, J., Yang, D., Tong, C., Mu, J., & Shi, H., 2017, “Microplastics and mesoplastics in fish from coastal and fresh waters of China”, Environmental Pollution, vol.221, pp.141-149.
Jie, X., JianMei, L., Zheng, F., Lei, G., Biao, Z., & Jie, Y., 2013, “Neurotoxic effects of nonylphenol: a review”, Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol.125(3-4), pp.61-70.
Jin, Y., Chen, R., Liu, W., & Fu, Z., 2010, “Effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the transcription of genes related to the innate immune system in the early developmental stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio)”, Fish & Shellfish Immunology, vol.28(5-6), pp.854-861.
Karapanagioti, H. K., Ogata, Y., & Takada, H., 2010, “Eroded plastic pellets as monitoring tools for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): laboratory and field studies”, Global NEST Journal, vol.12(3), pp.327-334.
Katsikantami, I., Sifakis, S., Tzatzarakis, M. N., Vakonaki, E., Kalantzi, O. I., Tsatsakis, A. M., & Rizos, A. K., 2016, “A global assessment of phthalates burden and related links to health effects”, Environment international, vol.97, pp.212-236.
Katsikantami, I., Sifakis, S., Tzatzarakis, M. N., Vakonaki, E., Kalantzi, O. I., Tsatsakis, A. M., & Rizos, A. K., 2016, “A global assessment of phthalates burden and related links to health effects”, Environment international, vol.97, pp.212-236.
Koelmans, A. A., 2015, “Modeling the role of microplastics in bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms, A critical review”, In Marine anthropogenic litter (pp. 309-324), Springer, Cham.
Kooi, M., Nes, E. H. V., Scheffer, M., & Koelmans, A. A., 2017, “Ups and downs in the ocean: effects of biofouling on vertical transport of microplastics”, Environmental science & technology, vol.51(14), pp.7963-7971.
Kunz, A., Walther, B. A., Löwemark, L., & Lee, Y. C., 2016, “Distribution and quantity of microplastic on sandy beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.111(1-2), pp.126-135.
Law, K. L., Morét-Ferguson, S., Maximenko, N. A., Proskurowski, G., Peacock, E. E., Hafner, J., & Reddy, C. M., 2010, “Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre”, Science, vol.329(5996), pp.1185-1188.
Lee, K. W., Shim, W. J., Kwon, O. Y., & Kang, J. H., 2013, “Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicas”, Environmental science & technology, vol.47(19), pp.11278-11283.
Li, J., Zhang, K., & Zhang, H., 2018, “Adsorption of antibiotics on microplastics”, Environmental pollution, vol.237, pp.460-467.
Liu, X., Chen, Z., Xia, C., Wu, J., & Ding, Y., 2019, “Characteristics, distribution, source and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments along the Yangtze River Estuary Deepwater Channel”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.150, 110765.
Lo, H. K. A., & Chan, K. Y. K., 2018, “Negative effects of microplastic exposure on growth and development of Crepidula onyx”, Environmental Pollution, vol.233, pp.588-595.
Lo, H. S., Wong, C. Y., Tam, N. F. Y., & Cheung, S. G., 2019, “Spatial distribution and source identification of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on sedimentary microplastic in Hong Kong”, Chemosphere, vol.219, pp.418-426.
Lodovici, M., Dolara, P., Casalini, C., Ciappellano, S., & Testolin, G., 1995, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in the Italian diet”, Food Additives & Contaminants, vol.12(5), pp.703-713.
Lozoya, J. P., de Mello, F. T., Carrizo, D., Weinstein, F., Olivera, Y., Cedrés, F., ... & Fossati, M., 2016, “Plastics and microplastics on recreational beaches in Punta del Este (Uruguay): unseen critical residents?”, Environmental Pollution, vol.218, pp.931-941.
Lozoya, J. P., de Mello, F. T., Carrizo, D., Weinstein, F., Olivera, Y., Cedrés, F., ... & Fossati, M., 2016, “Plastics and microplastics on recreational beaches in Punta del Este (Uruguay): unseen critical residents?”, Environmental Pollution, vol.218, pp.931-941.
Lusher, A. L., Hernandez-Milian, G., O'Brien, J., Berrow, S., O'Connor, I., & Officer, R., 2015, “Microplastic and macroplastic ingestion by a deep diving, oceanic cetacean: the True's beaked whale Mesoplodon mirus”, Environmental Pollution, vol.199, pp.185-191.
Ma, J., Zhao, J., Zhu, Z., Li, L., & Yu, F., 2019, “Effect of microplastic size on the adsorption behavior and mechanism of triclosan on polyvinyl chloride”, Environmental Pollution, vol.254, pp.113104.
Mai, L., Bao, L. J., Shi, L., Liu, L. Y., & Zeng, E. Y., 2018, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affiliated with microplastics in surface waters of Bohai and Huanghai Seas, China”, Environmental pollution, vol.241, pp.834-840.
Mai, L., Bao, L. J., Shi, L., Liu, L. Y., & Zeng, E. Y., 2018, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affiliated with microplastics in surface waters of Bohai and Huanghai Seas, China”, Environmental Pollution, vol.241, pp.834-840.
Mai, L., Bao, L. J., Shi, L., Liu, L. Y., & Zeng, E. Y., 2018, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affiliated with microplastics in surface waters of Bohai and Huanghai Seas, China”, Environmental Pollution, vol.241, pp.834-840.
Mato, Y., Isobe, T., Takada, H., Kanehiro, H., Ohtake, C., & Kaminuma, T., 2001, “Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment”, Environmental science & technology, vol.35(2), pp.318-324.
McGrath, T. E., Wooten, J. B., Chan, W. G., & Hajaligol, M. R., 2007, “Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from tobacco: the link between low temperature residual solid (char) and PAH formation”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol.45(6), pp.1039-1050.
Mihankhah, T., Saeedi, M., & Karbassi, A., 2020, “Contamination and cancer risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban dust from different land-uses in the most populated city of Iran”, Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, vol.187, 109838.
Moon, H. B., Kim, H. S., Choi, M., & Choi, H. G., 2010, “Intake and potential health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with seafood consumption in Korea from 2005 to 2007”, Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol.58(1), pp.214-221.
Moore, C. J., 2008, “Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat”, Environmental research, vol.108(2), pp.131-139.
Moore, C. J., 2008, “Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat”, Environmental research, vol.108(2), pp.131-139.
Mueller, A., Ulrich, N., Hollmann, J., Sanchez, C. E. Z., Rolle-Kampczyk, U. E., & von Bergen, M., 2019, “Characterization of a multianalyte GC-MS/MS procedure for detecting and quantifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives from air particulate matter for an improved risk assessment”, Environmental Pollution, vol.255, 112967.
Murphy, F., Ewins, C., Carbonnier, F., & Quinn, B., 2016, “Wastewater treatment works (WwTW) as a source of microplastics in the aquatic environment”, Environmental science & technology, vol.50(11), pp.5800-5808.
Napper, I. E., Bakir, A., Rowland, S. J., & Thompson, R. C., 2015, “Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.99(1-2), pp.178-185.
Net, S., Sempéré, R., Delmont, A., Paluselli, A., & Ouddane, B., 2015, “Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices”, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.49(7), pp.4019-4035.
Net, S., Sempéré, R., Delmont, A., Paluselli, A., & Ouddane, B., 2015, “Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices”, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.49(7), pp.4019-4035.
Obbard, R. W., Sadri, S., Wong, Y. Q., Khitun, A. A., Baker, I., & Thompson, R. C., 2014, “Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice”, Earth's Future, vol02(6), pp.315-320.
Ory, N. C., Sobral, P., Ferreira, J. L., & Thiel, M., 2017, “Amberstripe scad Decapterus muroadsi (Carangidae) fish ingest blue microplastics resembling their copepod prey along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the South Pacific subtropical gyre”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.586, pp.430-437.
Ory, N. C., Sobral, P., Ferreira, J. L., & Thiel, M., 2017, “Amberstripe scad Decapterus muroadsi (Carangidae) fish ingest blue microplastics resembling their copepod prey along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the South Pacific subtropical gyre”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.586, pp.430-437.
Paluselli, A., Aminot, Y., Galgani, F., Net, S., & Sempere, R., 2018, “Occurrence of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and the Rhone River”, Progress in Oceanography, vol.163, pp.221-231.
Paluselli, A., Aminot, Y., Galgani, F., Net, S., & Sempere, R., 2018, “Occurrence of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and the Rhone River”, Progress in Oceanography, vol.163, pp.221-231.
Patisaul, H. B., & Jefferson, W, 2010, “The pros and cons of phytoestrogens. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology”, vol.31(4), pp.400-419.
Peng, G., Xu, P., Zhu, B., Bai, M., & Li, D., 2018, “Microplastics in freshwater river sediments in Shanghai, China: a case study of risk assessment in mega-cities”, Environmental pollution, vol.234, pp.448-456.
Peng, G., Zhu, B., Yang, D., Su, L., Shi, H., & Li, D., 2017, “Microplastics in sediments of the Changjiang Estuary, China”, Environmental Pollution, vol.225, pp.283-290.
Prata, J. C., da Costa, J. P., Lopes, I., Duarte, A. C., & Rocha-Santos, T., 2020, “Environmental exposure to microplastics: An overview on possible human health effects”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.702, 134455.
Prata, J. C., da Costa, J. P., Lopes, I., Duarte, A. C., & Rocha-Santos, T., 2020, “Environmental exposure to microplastics: An overview on possible human health effects”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.702, 134455.
Quiroga, J. M., Garrido, M. C., Romero, L. I., Márquez, D. S., & Perales, J. A., 2019, “Assessment of the Biodegradability and Ecotoxicty of a Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactant in Littoral Waters”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, vol.10(5), pp.130–136.
Quiroga, J. M., Garrido, M. C., Romero, L. I., Márquez, D. S., & Perales, J. A., 2019, “Assessment of the Biodegradability and Ecotoxicty of a Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactant in Littoral Waters”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, vol.10(5), pp130–136.
Retama, I., Jonathan, M. P., Shruti, V. C., Velumani, S., Sarkar, S. K., Roy, P. D., & Rodríguez-Espinosa, P. F., 2016, “Microplastics in tourist beaches of Huatulco Bay, Pacific coast of southern Mexico”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.113(1-2), pp.530-535.
Rezania, S., Park, J., Din, M. F. M., Taib, S. M., Talaiekhozani, A., Yadav, K. K., & Kamyab, H., 2018, “Microplastics pollution in different aquatic environments and biota: A review of recent studies”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.133, pp.191-208.
Rocha, B. A., Asimakopoulos, A. G., Barbosa Jr, F., & Kannan, K., 2017, “Urinary concentrations of 25 phthalate metabolites in Brazilian children and their association with oxidative DNA damage”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.586, pp.152-162.
Rocha, B. A., Asimakopoulos, A. G., Barbosa Jr, F., & Kannan, K., 2017, “Urinary concentrations of 25 phthalate metabolites in Brazilian children and their association with oxidative DNA damage”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.586, pp.152-162.
Rocha-Santos, T., & Duarte, A. C., 2015, “A critical overview of the analytical approaches to the occurrence, the fate and the behavior of microplastics in the environment”, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.65, pp.47-53.
Rocha-Santos, T., & Duarte, A. C., 2015, “A critical overview of the analytical approaches to the occurrence, the fate and the behavior of microplastics in the environment”, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.65, pp.47-53.
Rohr, A. C., 2010, “Comments on development of a relative potency factor (RPF) approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures, external review draft”, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Rudel, R. A., Gray, J. M., Engel, C. L., Rawsthorne, T. W., Dodson, R. E., Ackerman, J. M., Brody, J. G., 2011, “Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis (2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention”, Environmental health perspectives, vol.119(7), pp.914-920.
Rudel, R. A., Gray, J. M., Engel, C. L., Rawsthorne, T. W., Dodson, R. E., Ackerman, J. M., Brody, J. G., 2011, “Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis (2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention”, Environmental health perspectives, vol.119(7), pp.914-920.
Ryan, P. G., Connell, A. D., & Gardner, B. D., 1988, “Plastic ingestion and PCBs in seabirds: is there a relationship?”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.19(4), pp.174-176.
Saha, M., Togo, A., Mizukawa, K., Murakami, M., Takada, H., Zakaria, M. P., ... & Sarkar, S. K., 2009, “Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.58(2), pp.189-200.
Saha, M., Togo, A., Mizukawa, K., Murakami, M., Takada, H., Zakaria, M. P., ... & Sarkar, S. K., 2009, “Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.58(2), pp.189-200.
Schauer, J. J., Kleeman, M. J., Cass, G. R., & Simoneit, B. R., 1999, “Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 2. C1 through C30 organic compounds from medium duty diesel trucks”, Environmental science & technology, vol.33(10), pp.1578-1587.
Schwarz, A. E., Ligthart, T. N., Boukris, E., & Van Harmelen, T., 2019, “Sources, transport, and accumulation of different types of plastic litter in aquatic environments: a review study”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.143, pp.92-100.
Schwarz, A. E., Ligthart, T. N., Boukris, E., & Van Harmelen, T., 2019, “Sources, transport, and accumulation of different types of plastic litter in aquatic environments: a review study”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.143, pp.92-100.
Setälä, O., Fleming-Lehtinen, V., & Lehtiniemi, M., 2014, “Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web”, Environmental pollution, vol.185, pp.77-83.
Shirdel, I., & Kalbassi, M. R., 2016, “Effects of nonylphenol on key hormonal balances and histopathology of the endangered Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius)”, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, vol.183, pp.28-35.
Shirdel, I., & Kalbassi, M. R., 2016, “Effects of nonylphenol on key hormonal balances and histopathology of the endangered Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius)”, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, vol.183, pp.28-35.
SjÖgren, M., Li, H., Rannug, U., & Westerholm, R., 1995, “Multivariate analysis of exhaust emissions from heavy-duty diesel fuels”, Environmental science & technology, vol.30(1), pp.38-49.
Soclo, H. H., Garrigues, P. H., & Ewald, M., 2000, “Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal marine sediments: case studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) areas”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.40(5), pp.387-396.
Spence, R., & Smith, C., 2008, “Innate and learned colour preference in the zebrafish, Danio rerio” Ethology, vol.114(6), pp.582-588.
Spence, R., & Smith, C., 2008, “Innate and learned colour preference in the zebrafish, Danio rerio” Ethology, vol.114(6), pp.582-588.
Su, L., Xue, Y., Li, L., Yang, D., Kolandhasamy, P., Li, D., & Shi, H., 2016, “Microplastics in taihu lake, China”, Environmental pollution, vol.216, pp.711-719.
Sun, X., Li, Q., Zhu, M., Liang, J., Zheng, S., & Zhao, Y., 2017, “Ingestion of microplastics by natural zooplankton groups in the northern South China Sea”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.115(1-2), pp.217-224.
Sussarellu, R., Suquet, M., Thomas, Y., Lambert, C., Fabioux, C., Pernet, M. E. J., ... & Corporeau, C., 2016, “Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.113(9), pp.2430-2435.
Tan, X., Yu, X., Cai, L., Wang, J., & Peng, J., 2019, “Microplastics and associated PAHs in surface water from the Feilaixia Reservoir in the Beijiang River, China”, Chemosphere, vol.221, pp.834-840.
Tang, G., Liu, M., Zhou, Q., He, H., Chen, K., Zhang, H., ... & Chen, B., 2018, “Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xiamen coastal areas: Implications for anthropogenic impacts”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.634, pp.811-820.
Taniguchi, S., Colabuono, F. I., Dias, P. S., Oliveira, R., Fisner, M., Turra, A., & Yamashita, R., 2016, “Spatial variability in persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in beach-stranded pellets along the coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.106(1-2), pp.87-94.
Taniguchi, S., Colabuono, F. I., Dias, P. S., Oliveira, R., Fisner, M., Turra, A., & Yamashita, R., 2016, “Spatial variability in persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in beach-stranded pellets along the coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.106(1-2), pp.87-94.
Teuten, E. L., Rowland, S. J., Galloway, T. S., & Thompson, R. C., 2007, “Potential for plastics to transport hydrophobic contaminants”, Environmental science & technology, vol.41(22), pp.7759-7764.
Thompson, R. C., Moore, C. J., Vom Saal, F. S., & Swan, S. H., 2009, “Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.364(1526), pp.2153-2166.
Thompson, R. C., Olsen, Y., Mitchell, R. P., Davis, A., Rowland, S. J., John, A. W., ... & Russell, A. E., 2004, “Lost at sea: where is all the plastic?”, Science, vol.304(5672), pp.838-838.
Van, A., Rochman, C. M., Flores, E. M., Hill, K. L., Vargas, E., Vargas, S. A., & Hoh, E., 2012, “Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California”, Chemosphere, vol.86(3), pp.258-263.
Van, A., Rochman, C. M., Flores, E. M., Hill, K. L., Vargas, E., Vargas, S. A., & Hoh, E., 2012, “Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California”, Chemosphere, vol.86(3), pp.258-263.
Van, A., Rochman, C. M., Flores, E. M., Hill, K. L., Vargas, E., Vargas, S. A., & Hoh, E., 2012, “Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California”, Chemosphere, vol.86(3), pp.258-263.
Vazquez-Duhalt, R., Marquez-Rocha, F., Ponce, E., Licea, A. F., & Viana, M. T., 2005, “Nonylphenol, an integrated vision of a pollutant”, Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, vol.4(1), pp.1-25.
Vazquez-Duhalt, R., Marquez-Rocha, F., Ponce, E., Licea, A. F., & Viana, M. T., 2005, “Nonylphenol, an integrated vision of a pollutant”, Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, vol.4(1), pp.1-25.
Wang, J., Peng, J., Tan, Z., Gao, Y., Zhan, Z., Chen, Q., & Cai, L., 2017, “Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone: Composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals”, Chemosphere, vol.171, pp.248-258.
Wang, J., Tan, Z., Peng, J., Qiu, Q., & Li, M., 2016, “The behaviors of microplastics in the marine environment”, Marine Environmental Research, vol.113, pp7-17.
Wang, W., Ge, J., & Yu, X., 2019, “Bioavailability and toxicity of microplastics to fish species: A review”, Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, vol.189, 109913.
Wang, W., Ndungu, A. W., Li, Z., & Wang, J., 2017, “Microplastics pollution in inland freshwaters of China: a case study in urban surface waters of Wuhan, China”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.575, pp.1369-1374.
Wang, Z., Fingas, M., Shu, Y. Y., Sigouin, L., Landriault, M., Lambert, P., ... & Mullin, J., 1999, “Quantitative characterization of PAHs in burn residue and soot samples and differentiation of pyrogenic PAHs from petrogenic PAHs−The 1994 mobile burn study”, Environmental science & technology, vol.33(18), pp.3100-3109.
Wegrzyn, E., Grzeskiewicz, S., Poplawska, W., & Glod, B. K., 2006, “Modified analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using sec for sample preparation and RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection. Application to different food samples”, Acta Chromatographica, vol.17, pp.233.
White, R., Jobling, S., Hoare, S. A., Sumpter, J. P., & Parker, M. G., 1994, “Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic”, Endocrinology, vol.135(1), pp.175-182.
Windsor, F. M., Tilley, R. M., Tyler, C. R., & Ormerod, S. J., 2019, “Microplastic ingestion by riverine macroinvertebrates”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.646, pp.68-74.
Windsor, F. M., Tilley, R. M., Tyler, C. R., & Ormerod, S. J., 2019, “Microplastic ingestion by riverine macroinvertebrates”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.646, pp.68-74.
Wright, S. L., Thompson, R. C., & Galloway, T. S., 2013, “The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review”, Environmental pollution, vol.178, pp.483-492.
Wu, P., Cai, Z., Jin, H., & Tang, Y., 2019, “Adsorption mechanisms of five bisphenol analogues on PVC microplastics”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.650, pp.671-678.
Wu, P., Huang, J., Zheng, Y., Yang, Y., Zhang, Y., He, F., & Gao, B., 2019, “Environmental occurrences, fate, and impacts of microplastics”, Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, vol.184, 109612.
Wu, P., Huang, J., Zheng, Y., Yang, Y., Zhang, Y., He, F., & Gao, B., 2019, “Environmental occurrences, fate, and impacts of microplastics”, Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, vol.184, 109612.
Xiong, X., Tu, Y., Chen, X., Jiang, X., Shi, H., Wu, C., & Elser, J. J., 2019, “Ingestion and egestion of polyethylene microplastics by goldfish (Carassius auratus): influence of color and morphological features”, Heliyon, vol.5(12), e03063.
Xiong, X., Tu, Y., Chen, X., Jiang, X., Shi, H., Wu, C., & Elser, J. J., 2019, “Ingestion and egestion of polyethylene microplastics by goldfish (Carassius auratus): influence of color and morphological features”, Heliyon, vol.5(12), e03063.
Xiong, X., Zhang, K., Chen, X., Shi, H., Luo, Z., & Wu, C., 2018, “Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake–Qinghai Lake”, Environmental pollution, vol.235, pp.899-906.
Xu, S., Ma, J., Ji, R., Pan, K., & Miao, A. J., 2019, “Microplastics in aquatic environments: occurrence, accumulation, and biological effects”, Science of The Total Environment, vol.703, 134699.
Xu, Z., Xiong, X., Zhao, Y., Xiang, W., & Wu, C., 2020, “Pollutants delivered every day: Phthalates in plastic express packaging bags and their leaching potential”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.384, 121282.
Xu, Z., Xiong, X., Zhao, Y., Xiang, W., & Wu, C., 2020, “Pollutants delivered every day: Phthalates in plastic express packaging bags and their leaching potential”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.384, 121282.
Ying, G. G., Williams, B., & Kookana, R., 2002, “Environmental fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates—a review”, Environment international, vol.28(3), pp.215-226.
Yunker, M. B., & Macdonald, R. W., 1995, “Composition and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Mackenzie River and on the Beaufort Sea shelf”, Arctic, vol.48(2), pp.118-129.
Yunker, M. B., Macdonald, R. W., Vingarzan, R., Mitchell, R. H., Goyette, D., & Sylvestre, S., 2002, “PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition”, Organic geochemistry, vol.33(4), pp.489-515.
Zhang, H., 2017, “Transport of microplastics in coastal seas”, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol.199, pp.74-86.
Zhang, K., Shi, H., Peng, J., Wang, Y., Xiong, X., Wu, C., & Lam, P. K., 2018, “Microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems: A review of findings, methods, characteristics, effects, and management”, Science of the total environment, vol.630, pp.1641-1653.
Zhang, P., Huang, P., Sun, H., Ma, J., & Li, B., 2019, “The structure of agricultural microplastics (PT, PU and UF) and their sorption capacities for PAHs and PHE derivates under various salinity and oxidation treatments”, Environmental Pollution, vol.257, 113525.
Zhang, Q., Song, J., Li, X., Peng, Q., Yuan, H., Li, N., ... & Ma, J., 2019, “Concentrations and distribution of phthalate esters in the seamount area of the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.140, pp.107-115.
Zhang, Q., Song, J., Li, X., Peng, Q., Yuan, H., Li, N., ... & Ma, J., 2019, “Concentrations and distribution of phthalate esters in the seamount area of the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.140, pp.107-115.
Zhang, W., Ma, X., Zhang, Z., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Wang, J., & Ma, D., 2015, “Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.99(1-2), pp.28-34.
Zhang, W., Ma, X., Zhang, Z., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Wang, J., & Ma, D., 2015, “Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.99(1-2), pp.28-34.
Zhang, W., Ma, X., Zhang, Z., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Wang, J., & Ma, D., 2015, “Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.99(1-2), pp.28-34.
Zhao, S., Zhu, L., & Li, D., 2015, “Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China”, Environmental pollution, vol.206, pp.597-604.
Zhao, S., Zhu, L., & Li, D., 2016, “Microscopic anthropogenic litter in terrestrial birds from Shanghai, China: Not only plastics but also natural fibers”, Science of the Total Environment, vol.550, pp.1110-1115.

Zhao, S., Zhu, L., Wang, T., & Li, D., 2014, “Suspended microplastics in the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary System, China: first observations on occurrence, distribution”, Marine pollution bulletin, vol.86(1-2), pp.562-568.

電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20250826)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top