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研究生:陳筱楚
論文名稱:西北太平洋海域丫髻鮫之死亡率估計 與族群統計學分析
論文名稱(外文):Mortality estimates and demographic analysis for the smooth hammerhead shark(Sphyrna zygaena)in the Northwest Pacific Ocean
指導教授:蔡文沛
指導教授(外文):TSAI WEN-PEI
口試委員:翁進興劉商隱蔡文沛鄭有容
口試委員(外文):WENG, JINN-SHINGLIU, SHANG-YIN VANSONTSAI WEN-PEICHENG, YU-RONG
口試日期:2020-06-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄科技大學
系所名稱:漁業生產與管理系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:雙性別矩陣模式西北太平洋海域ㄚ髻鮫
外文關鍵詞:Two-sex matrix modelnorthwest Pacific Oceansmooth hammerhead shark
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ㄚ髻鮫(smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena)為臺灣沿近海延繩釣漁業中最常見的物種之一。根據過去研究對其族群參數及資源狀況的了解仍十分有限,難以採取適當的管理措施。本研究建構雙性別階段矩陣模式來評估丫髻鮫的族群統計及動態。其中利用年齡結構漁獲曲線法估計全死亡係數(Z)(雄魚=0.419 yr-1,雌魚=0.311 yr-1)並使用四個經驗式估計自然死亡係數(M),來推估漁獲死亡係數(F)(雄魚=0.192 yr-1,雌魚=0.135 yr-1)。雙性別族群統計學分析之結果顯示,在現今漁獲壓力下西北太平洋丫髻鮫族群數量正在減少(族群成長率估計為0.923 yr-1),若能實施保護未成熟鯊魚之管理措施,將體長限制在全長雄魚171cm,雌魚196cm,則可能可以維持穩定。本研究在彈性分析發現雄魚對族群成長率較雌魚來得敏感,建議對丫髻鮫進行資源評估時須使用雙性別模式。在本研究中未考量到一些不確定性例如洄游模式、系群及密度相依的補償機制的影響。未來研究可著重在西北太平洋丫髻鮫之資源量、洄游路徑、交配機制,並了解本種之產卵場及飼育場,以促進對西北太平洋丫髻鮫族群動態之瞭解。
Smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena, is one of the most commonly species caught in the Taiwanese commercial offshore longline fishery. According to previous studies, management measures are difficult to undertake because the population parameters and stock status are still poorly understood. In this study, a two-sex stage-structured models were therefore constructed to examine the demography and population dynamics of the smooth hammerhead. Using the estimates of total mortality (Z = 0.419 yr-1 for male and 0.311 yr-1 for female) from the catch curve analysis and the estimates of natural mortality (M) obtained using the four empirical models, the estimates of fishing mortality (F) were obtained (0.192 yr-1 for male and 0.135 yr-1 for female). The two-sex model assessments indicate that the stock status of smooth hammerhead population in the Northwest Pacific is shrinking (population increase rate was estimated as 0.923 yr-1) but might stabilize if management measures to protect immature sharks are implemented. The size-limit at total length of 171 cm for male and 196 cm for female. In this study, the elasticity analysis showed that males are more sensitive to the growth rate of ethnic groups than females. It is recommended to use a two-sex model when evaluating the resource of this species. There are still some uncertainties which may not have been considered in this study such as migration patterns, population structure, and density-dependent compensation mechanisms. for smooth hammerhead. Additional research focused on estimates of abundance, movement routes, mating mechanism, and direct measurements of natural mortality would advance and understand the spawning and breeding grounds of this species, to refine the understanding of population dynamics of smooth hammerhead in the Northwest Pacific.
目錄
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
謝辭 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
壹、前言 1
一、研究背景 1
二、研究動機 2
三、文獻回顧 4
四、研究目的 6
貳、材料與方法 8
一、資料來源 8
二、資料之處理 8
(一)體重與性別之關係 8
(二)體重與尾叉長之關係 8
(三)尾叉長與全長之關係 9
(四)成長方程式 9
三、死亡係數之估計 9
四、雙性別階段結構矩陣族群模式 10
(一)西北太平洋海域丫髻鮫之生活史階段劃分 10
(二)基本模式發展 11
五、族群統計模式的不確定性 16
六、族群動態預測 17
(一)模擬不同漁獲壓力條件下之族群動態 17
(二)模擬不同管理策略之族群動態 18
七、彈性分析(Elasticity analysis) 19
參、結果 20
一、雌雄年齡別漁獲尾數資料 20
二、死亡係數之估計 20
(一)全死亡係數(Total mortality,Z) 20
(二)自然死亡係數(Natural mortality,M) 20
(三)漁獲死亡係數(Fishing mortality,F) 21
三、族群動態預測 21
(一)模擬不同漁獲壓力條件下之族群動態 21
(二)模擬不同管理策略之族群動態 22
四、彈性分析 23
肆、討論 24
一、資料轉換 24
二、死亡係數之估計 24
三、族群統計學模式 25
四、隨機模式之模擬 26
五、族群成長率之比較 27
六、資源管理之建議 28
參考文獻 31
中文文獻 31
外文文獻 33
網路文獻 37


表目錄
表 1西北太平洋丫髻鮫之生活史階段別 38
表2本研究隨機模擬中所使用生物學參數之不確定性 39
表3利用四種經驗式估計西北太平洋海域丫髻鮫之自然死亡係數 40
表4比較西北太平洋不同研究之丫髻鮫族群成長率(無漁獲壓力) 41


圖目錄
圖 1基於2年生殖週期之丫髻鮫階段別矩陣模式 42
圖 2估計2015年至2016年丫髻鮫之全死亡係數 43
圖 3不同漁獲壓力假設下之族群成長率 44
圖 4現今漁獲壓力下實施體長限制之族群成長率 45
圖 5沒有漁獲壓力下雄雌魚之彈性分析 46
圖 6沒有漁獲壓力下未熟鯊魚與成熟鯊魚之彈性分析 47


參考文獻
中文文獻
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周郁菁(2004)。臺灣東北海域丫髻鮫之年齡與成長。國立臺灣海洋大學漁業科學研究所碩士學位論文。
張瑞涵(2006)。西北太平洋海域灰鯖鮫之資源評估。國立臺灣海洋大學漁業科學研究所碩士學位論文。
黃隆鑫(2013)。以整合性生態風險評估探討臺灣近海延繩釣漁業對西北太平洋大型表層魚類之影響。國立臺灣海洋大學漁業科學研究所碩士學位論文。
詹欣蓉(2011)。以整合性生態風險評估探討台灣延繩釣漁業對西北太平洋表層魚類之影響。國立臺灣海洋大學漁業科學研究所碩士學位論文。
葉書妤(2017)。臺灣東北部海域兩種ㄚ髻鮫攝食生態之研究。國立臺灣海洋大學漁業科學研究所碩士學位論文。
劉秀珠(2002)。臺灣東北海域丫髻鮫之生殖研究。國立臺灣海洋大學漁業科學研究所碩士學位論文。
顏銘志(2018)。利用生物參考點建構西北太平洋海域丫髻鮫之漁業管理。國立高雄科技大學漁業生產與管理學系碩士學位論文。


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網路文獻
漁業署(2018)。民國107年(2018)漁業統計年報。檢視日期:2020/3/2,https://www.fa.gov.tw/cht/PublicationsFishYear/content.aspx?id=33&chk=6aa2c133-d15a-4a21-87b5-810a91929b84。
Rigby, C.L., Barreto, R., Carlson, J., Fernando, D., Fordham, S., Herman, K., Jabado, R.W., Liu, K.M., Marshall, A., Pacoureau, N., Romanov, E., Sherley, R.B. & Winker, H. (2019).Sphyrna zygaena. [Internet] IUCN red list of threatened species. [cited 2020 Feb 26].
https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/39388/2921825。


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