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研究生:李書丞
研究生(外文):LI,SHU-CHENG
論文名稱:樹木於強風豪雨中抗傾倒能力之評估
論文名稱(外文):Investigation on the maximum turning resistance of trees subjected to typhoons
指導教授:范嘉程范嘉程引用關係
指導教授(外文):FAN,CHIA-CHENG
口試委員:林德貴蕭達鴻古志生范嘉程
口試日期:2020/07/28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄科技大學
系所名稱:營建工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:植物根系力學樹木抗傾倒能力蒲福風級極端氣候傾倒試驗
外文關鍵詞:Plant roots mechanicalPlant resisting dump abilityBeaufort scaleExtreme weatherWinching test
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近年來環境意識高漲,生態工法之重要性也隨之源起,而植物根系力學在生態工法中扮演著相當重要之角色。台灣位處熱帶與亞熱帶之間,故有相當高的機率成為颱風必經之路徑,極端氣候所帶來的損傷不可言喻,颱風過境後,路樹經過強風與豪雨之摧殘,隨處可見路樹傾倒的狀況。因此,本論文研究將進行極端氣候下植物抗傾倒能力之現地試驗,將常見之路樹品種設定為本試驗之樣本樹,包含樟樹、雨豆樹與印度紫檀,利用鋼索拉力機進行樹木側向拉力試驗(Winching tests),模擬強風來襲時樹木受力而傾倒之狀況,並於試驗施作前對樣本樹方圓1.5公尺處之土壤施加大量水分,模擬強降雨之狀況,探討影響植物抗傾倒能力之關鍵條件。主要研究項目為(1)樹木抗傾倒基本行為在不同樹種、土壤體積含水量條件下之探討。(2)樹木抗傾倒能力在不同幾何條件下影響之關鍵因素。(3)依據栽植時間不同、是否架設斜撐保護探討樹木抗傾倒能力之差異。(4)利用樹木基本條件配合蒲福風級對樹木抗傾倒能力之評估。
實驗結果所獲得之資訊如下:(1)當樹木發展出抵抗傾倒能力時,其抵抗能力會持續上升,直至發揮至極限抗傾倒能力後而逐漸下降,在力與位移圖中會形成一峰值(Peak)。(2)植物之胸高直徑 (Diameter at breast height)為影響植物抗傾倒能力之關鍵條件,植物根系發展與胸高直徑成正比關係,根系發展蓬勃則抵抗傾倒能力亦會隨之提升。(3)栽植時間對於樹木抗傾倒能力具有相當程度之影響,而有架設斜撐保護之樹木能獲得較高之抗傾倒能力。(4)蒲福風級各級之風速及風壓皆不盡相同,依照台灣中央氣象局現行的蒲福風級標準,將各級之風壓帶入試驗樹種之樹高與樹冠面積後,即可估算出該樹種面對強風豪雨時所能抵抗之蒲福風級級數。

With the rise of environmental protection awareness, more and more people pay attention to ecological engineering methods and plant roots mechanical plays an important role in ecological engineering methods. Taiwan is located between tropical and subtropical area so Taiwan is very frequently hit by typhoons. The damages which extreme climate brings are very unpredictable. After hit by typhoons people will find hundreds of fallen trees, hence this thesis will conduct plant resisting ability test during extreme climate. The damages which extreme climate brings are very unpredictable. We compare Camphor tree, Raintree and Rose Wood and do winching test by winching. To intimate heavy rain circumstances we put lots of water in the ground within 1.5 meter radius around tested tree to find out the key factors on plant resisting ability. Main study projects are the following: (1)Plant resisting ability depends on different plant categories and volumetric water content on plants.
(2) Effect on plant resisting ability under different tree geometry. (3)The differences on plant resisting ability between different plant raising time and set up brace protection. (4) Plant resisting ability assessment on tree geometry with Beaufort scale.
Here below are test results: (1) When plants start to exert resisting ability, its resisting ability will increase to extreme then start to fall down after reaching to maximum, it will find a peak during the force vs displacement figure. (2) Dimeter at breast height is the main factor to effect plant resisting ability, Plant roots growth is proportional to the diameter at breast height. The better development on plant root the better resisting ability. (3) The plant raising time will considerable affect resisting ability. The plant with brace protection will have better resisting ability. (4) Different Beaufort scale with different wind speed and wind pressure, according to Beaufort standard issued by Taiwan central weather bureau, we can apply different wind pressure with different tree height and area of crown to conclude which wind rate can be resistant.

目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 IV
目錄 IV
圖目錄 XXI
表目錄 XXIV
符號說明 I
一、緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的 5
1.3 研究方法及內容 5
二、文獻回顧 7
2.1 前言 7
2.2 樹木側向抗傾倒能力參考文獻 7
三、研究方法 12
3.1 前言 12
3.2 現地試驗場地與試驗樹種介紹 12
3.3現地試驗之傾倒試驗儀器介紹 14
3.4現地試驗操作流程 19
3.5 樹木於常時狀態所能抵抗彎矩強度之推估方式 24
3.6 現地土壤物性試驗 25
四、研究成果 31
4.1 樹木抗傾倒基本行為及樹木基本幾何條件之研究結果 31
4.1.1 樹物抗傾倒基本行為 31
4.1.2 土壤體積含水量對於植物抗傾倒強度之影響 35
4.1.3 土壤體積含水量對於植物抗傾倒強度所對應角度之影響 37
4.1.4樹木胸高直徑對於抵抗彎矩能力之影響 40
4.1.5 樹木生長高度對於抵抗彎矩能力之影響 42
4.1.6 樹木胸高直徑2 × 樹木生長高度對於抵抗彎矩能力之影響 48
4.2 樹木生長條件對於抗傾倒能力之研究成果 50
4.2.1 樹木生長時間對於抗彎矩能力之影響 50
4.2.2 樹木斜撐對於抗傾倒能力之影響 53
4.2.3 不同樹種抵抗彎矩能力之差異 55
4.2.4 樹木根盤半徑對於抗傾倒能力之影響 57
4.3 樹木抗傾倒能力與蒲福風級之關係 60
4.3.1 建立蒲福風級與樹木作用力矩指標之關係 60
4.3.2蒲福風級與樹木抗傾倒能力指標之應用 66
五、結論與建議 71
5.1結論 71
5.2建議 73
參考文獻 74
圖附錄 76
表附錄 81
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