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研究生:黃郁珊
研究生(外文):HUANG, YU-SHAN
論文名稱:應用英語系碩士論文文獻探討章節中 字串使用之語料庫分析
論文名稱(外文):A Corpus-based Study on Lexical Bundles from Literature Review Chapters in MA Theses by Taiwanese Graduate Students
指導教授:許正義許正義引用關係
指導教授(外文):HSU, JENG-YIH
口試委員:李美玲陳怡真許正義
口試委員(外文):LI, MEI-LINGCHEN, YI-ZHENHSU, JENG-YIH
口試日期:2020-07-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:語料庫分析臺灣碩士論文字串應用語言與英語教學所
外文關鍵詞:corpus-based approachTaiwanese MA theseslexical bundlesMA Applied Linguistics and TESOL
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研究顯示,適當的字串使用在英語寫作及口語表達上佔有相當重要的地位。而
且,英語字串使用也能顯示出學習者在專業對話裡語言知識共享的重要觀念。甚少
研究比較臺灣碩士生英語論文第二章(文獻探討)以及國外英語期刊文章中‟文獻探討‟
之間字串的使用情形。因此,本語料庫研究試圖了解臺灣的碩士研究生英語論文第
二章(文獻探討)與英語期刊文獻中‟文獻探討‟部分四字字串的使用差異及相同性,進
而分析其所代表的功能做分類。
本研究共蒐集 41 篇來自南臺灣某所公立科技大學應用語言與英語教學所的碩
士學位論文,並使用線上免費分析軟體 N-Gram Extractor,辨識出英語論文中所包
含的四字字串,最後字串功能分類法則被用來分析論文裡的四字字串的功能性。
本次研究用來探討臺灣的應用語言與英語教學所碩士研究生論文相關的三個研
究問題:
第一、分析應用語言學與英語教學所碩士論文第二章節中最常見的英語四字字串。
第二、比較應用語言學與英語教學所碩士論文第二章與英語期刊文獻探討之間英語
四字字串運用的相同性及差異性。
第三、辨別應用語言學與英語教學所碩士論文中英語四字字串的功能性。
研究結果顯示:
第一、應用語言學與英語教學所碩士論文第二章裡包含 41 個常見英語四字字串。
第二、應用語言學與英語教學所碩士論文第二章與英語期刊文獻探討中英語四字字
串使用相似,但是臺灣應用語言學與英語教學所碩士生使用的英語四字字串遠比國
外專業學者多。
第三、臺灣應用語言學與英語教學所碩士生在寫作上傾向於使用參照式之字串
(referential bundle)表達想法。最後本研究針對臺灣的應用語言與英語教學所碩士生
之英文寫作方面提供相關建議及字串在教育上的應用。

The use of proper lexical bundles-recurrent sequences of words-is vital for
coherent language production. Lexical bundles also reveal an essential aspect of the shared knowledge of a professional discourse community. Few studies have
compared the use of lexical bundles from the literature review chapters (Chapter II) in Taiwanese MA theses with published stand-alone literature reviews of journal articles. This corpus-based study examines the frequent use of four-word lexical bundles in MA theses written by Taiwanese graduate students, and the similarity to literature reviews in published journal articles. Also, it looks into the functional categories of the identified four-word bundles.
The corpus, termed Master Thesis Corpus (MTC), consisted of 41 theses
from an MA Applied Linguistics and TESOL program in a public university of
technology in southern Taiwan. N-Gram Extractor from the online website Lextutor was adopted to identify four-word lexical bundles. Biber‟s (2014) functional categories were used to analyze the function of 4-word lexical bundles.
The data were examined to answer three research questions: (1) to explore
the frequent 4-word lexical bundles from literature review chapters of Applied
Linguistics and TESOL MA theses produced by EFL Taiwanese students, (2) to compare the frequent 4-word lexical bundles from literature review chapters of
Applied Linguistics and TESOL MA theses with the ones from the stand-alone
literature reviews of published journal articles, and (3) to identify the functions of 4-word lexical bundles from literature review chapters of Applied Linguistics and TESOL MA theses.
The findings indicated that: (1) forty-one lexical bundles were observed in
Taiwanese Applied Linguistics and TESOL MA theses, (2) the use of lexical
bundles in Taiwanese Applied Linguistics and TESOL MA theses was similar to
that in the published literature reviews of journal articles, though graduate
students used far more bundles than professional authors, and (3) Taiwanese
graduate students of MA-Applied Linguistics and TESOL program preferred to use
referential bundles to express their ideas in writings. This study calls for the pedagogical implication to lexical bundles particularly in the writing of graduate students.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT(CHINESE)..........................................................i
ABSTRACT.................................................................iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENS............................................................v
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..........................................................................vi
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................viii
LIST OF FIGURES.................................................................viii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.............................................................. 1
1.1 Background of the Study ....................................................................... 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study............................................................................. 3
1.3 Working Definition of Terms................................................................... 4
1.4 Organization of the Study...................................................................... 6
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................. 8
2.1 Lexical Bundles ..................................................................................... 8
2.1.1 Definition and Characteristics...................................................... 8
2.1.2 Structural and Functional Patterns of Lexical Bundles .............. 10
2.2 Lexical Bundles in Writing ....................................................................11
2.2.1 Lexical Bundles in Advanced Academic Writings ...................... 12
2.2.2 Lexical Bundles in Published Journal Articles ........................... 13
2.3 Empirical Studies on Lexical Bundles of Native Speakers and
Non-native Speakers‟ Writings .................................................................. 16
2.4 Rationale of the Present Study............................................................ 19
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.................................................. 23
3.1 Research Design................................................................................. 23
3.2 Research Settings............................................................................... 24
3.3 Data Collection.................................................................................... 24
3.4 Instruments ......................................................................................... 25
3.5 Procedure............................................................................................ 26
3.6 Data Analysis ...................................................................................... 27
3.6.1 Exploring the Meaningful Four-word Lexical Bundles ............... 27
3.6.2 Exploring the Frequency and Occurrence of the Lexical Bundles
........................................................................................................... 27
3.6.3 Exploring the Functional Categories of the Lexical Bundles ..... 29
CHAPTER IV RESULTS & DISCUSSION........................................................ 30
4.1 Overview of the Four-word Lexical Bundles ........................................ 31
4.1.1 Exploring the Frequency and Occurrence of the Lexical Bundles
........................................................................................................... 31
4.1.2 Specifying the Four-word Lexical Bundles in MA Theses.......... 32
4.2 Discussion on the Difference between the Four-word Lexical Bundles in
Taiwanese MA Theses and the Ones in Literature Reviews of Journal
Articles ...................................................................................................... 35
4.3 The Function Features of Four-word Lexical Bundles in Taiwanese ... 38
4.3.1 Stance Expressions (Stance Bundles)...................................... 41
4.3.2 Discourse Organizers (Discourse Organizing Bundles) ............ 42
4.3.3 Referential Expressions (Referential Bundles).......................... 44
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION............................................................................ 47
5.1 The Summary of the Major Findings ................................................... 47
5.1.1 The High-frequency Lexical Bundles in Taiwanese MA Theses 47
5.1.2 The Difference of Lexical Bundles between Taiwanese MA
Theses and Literature Reviews of Journal Articles ............................ 48
5.1.3 The Distribution of Discourse Functions of Lexical Bundles in
Taiwanese MA Theses ....................................................................... 49
5.2 Pedagogical Implications..................................................................... 50
5.3 Limitations of the Study ....................................................................... 51
5.4 Recommendations for Future Research.............................................. 52
REFERENCES................................................................................................. 53
APPENDIX A.................................................................................................... 58

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 The Studies between Native and Non-native Speakers‟ Advanced
Writing Genres ............................................................................ 17
Table 2.2 The Differences and Similarities between Wei and Lei‟s Study (2011)
and the Current Study (2020)...................................................... 22
Table 3.1 MTC from Two Advisors ................................................................ 25
Table 3.2 The Frequency of the Present Study and the General Standard .. 28
Table 4.1 The Descriptive Statistics of 4-word Lexical Bundles.................... 34
Table 4.2 The 4-word Lexical Bundles of MTC ............................................. 37
Table 4.3 The Normed Frequency of Overlapping Bundles between MA
Theses and Literature Reviews of Journal Articles...................... 39
Table 4.4 The Bundles were not Observed in MA Theses ............................ 40
Table 4.5 The Normed Frequency of Additional Bundles in MA Theses ....... 41
Table 4.6 The Detailed Information of Each Bundle in Different Functional
Category...................................................................................... 43

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 N-Gram Extractor......................................................................... 29
Figure 4.1 Dispersion of bundles in three primary discourse categories....... 42
Figure 4.2 Distribution of the subcategories within stand expressions.......... 45
Figure 4.3 Distribution of the subcategories within discourse organizers...... 46
Figure 4.4 Distribution of the subcategories within referential expressions... 49
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