跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.44.30) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/25 08:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:鄭萬霖
研究生(外文):Chen, Wan-Lin
論文名稱:動畫中年長者之形象描繪與分析
論文名稱(外文):The Portrayals of Older Characters in Animated Films
指導教授:陳錦慧陳錦慧引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chin-Hui
口試委員:鍾儀芳潘怡靜
口試委員(外文):Chung, I-FangPan, Yi-Ching
口試日期:2020-01-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:年齡歧視的刻板印象老人角色迪士尼與夢工廠動畫電影內容分析法
外文關鍵詞:Ageist stereotypesOlder charactersDisney & Dreamworks animated filmsContent Analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:87
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘要
學號:M10660002

論文名稱:動畫中年長者之形象描繪與分析

總頁數:125

學校名稱:國立屏東科技大學 系(所)別:應用外語學系

畢業時間及論文別:一百零八學年度第一學期碩士學位論文摘要

研究生:鄭萬霖 指導教授:陳錦慧博士

論文摘要:
全球人口逐漸老化,年長者形象,尤其在媒體的形象,決定我們是否處於一個友善且沒有年齡歧視的社會。當然,因為年齡歧視,媒體有可能根據刻板印象來塑造年長者。本研究使用內容分析法,剖析五部迪士尼與三十六部夢工廠動畫。其研究面向包含:角色年齡、年長者性別、年長者戲份、年長者身體特徵、對年長者的刻版印象。根據研究結果,年長者戲份比起年輕人少,老婦人的戲份尤其最少。雖有戲份,年長者大多飾演配角而非主角。此外, 動畫電影明顯偏愛年輕人而非老人。雖然針對年長者的刻板印象大都算正面,但形象過於正面,不見得是好事,反倒使觀眾對老化及年長者產生不切實際的空想。

關鍵詞:年齡歧視的刻板印象、老人角色、迪士尼與夢工廠動畫電影、內容分析法
ABSTRACT
Student ID: M10660002
Title of Thesis: The Portrayals of Older Characters in Animated Films
Total Pages:125
National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Department/Graduate Institute: Department of Modern Languages
Date of Graduation: January, 2020 Degree Conferred: Master
Name of Student: Wan-Lin Zheng Advisor: Dr. Chin-Hui Chen
Abstract:
Since the global population is aging, it is essential to delve into the portrayals of older people to realize whether the environment, such as media, is suitable for anyone regardless of age. Once people are cultivated with ageism against older people and aging, it is possible that media might portray older people stereotypically. Therefore, in this thesis, content analysis is used as a research method to analyze the general portrayals of older characters in 5 Disney and 36 Dreamworks animated films, and the examined dimensions include: the age level of older characters, the gender of older characters, the role prominence of older characters, the depicted physical qualities of older characters, and the stereotypes of older characters. According to the research result, older characters are more underrepresented in contrast to younger ones, older women in particular. In addition, older characters are more likely to play minor roles and less likely to play major roles. Furthermore, the idealization of eternal youth is discovered in the films. Although the stereotypes of older characters are positive, the extreme positivity of older characters is not necessarily beneficial to the audiences because viewers might possess unrealistic fantasies about older people owing to the positive stereotypes of older characters.
Keywords: Ageist stereotypes, Older characters, Disney & Dreamworks animated films, Content Analysis
TABLE OF CONTENTS
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Global Population and Aging 1
1.2 Research Motivation 1
1.3 Ageism 2
1.3.1 Ageism: Definition 2
1.3.2 New Ageism 3
1.3.3 Positive and Negative Ageism 3
1.4 Cultivation Theory 4
1.5 Research Purpose and the Dimensions of the Thesis 5
Chapter 2: Literature Review 6
2.1 Underrepresentation of Older People in Media 6
2.2 The Underrepresentation of Older Women 8
2.3 The Marginalization and Role Prominence of Older Characters 10
2.4 Physical Depictions of Older Characters 11
2.5 The Villainization and Personalities of Older Characters 16
2.6 Stereotypes of Older People in Media Representations 18
2.7 An Overview of Literature Review 20
2.8 Research Gap 21
2.9 Research Questions 21
Chapter 3: Methodology 24
3.1 The Use of Content Analysis 24
3.2 Content Analysis as a Research Tool 24
3.3 Justification of the Use of Content Analysis 25
3.4 Operational Procedures 26
3.5 Coding Protocols and the Examined Dimensions 30
3.6 Developing Coding Manuals: for each animated film 33
3.6.1 Variable 1: the age level of characters: 34
3.6.2 Variable 2: the gender of older characters 35
3.6.3 Variable 3: the role prominence of older characters 36
3.6.4 Variable 4: the depicted physical qualities 38
3.6.5 Variable 5: the stereotypes of older characters 41
Negative stereotypes: 43
Positive stereotypes: 48
3.7 Coder Training 54
3.8 Reliability Tests 55
Chapter 4 Research Results 56
RQ1: The proportion of older characters in animated films 56
RQ2: The proportion of older characters based by gender in animated films 58
RQ3: The proportion of older characters by role prominence 59
RQ4: The physical depictions of older characters 60
The hair type and color of older characters 61
The presence of wrinkles in older characters 62
The teeth condition of older characters 63
The appearance of baldness 64
The eyesight of older characters 65
RQ5: The stereotypical portrayals of older characters 66
Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusion 72
5.1 Conclusions and discussions 72
5.2 Implication and contributions 74
5.3 Research limitations and Suggestions 75
References 79
Appendix A list of movie samples 88
5 Disney animated films 88
36 DreamWorks animated films 89
Appendix B (Variable 1 to variable 3) 95
Coding Manual One 95
編碼表一 95
Appendix C (Variable 4) 105
Coding Manual Two 105
編碼表二 105
Appendix D (Variable 5) 111
Coding Manual Three 111
編碼表三 111
Negative stereotypes(對老人負面的刻版印象): 111
Positive stereotypes (對老人正面的刻版印象): 116
Introduction of the author 125


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. The procedure of content analysis in this thesis 29
Figure 2. The Proportion of Older Characters 56
Figure 3. The Ratio of Older Characters Based On Gender 58
Figure 4. The Ratio of Older Characters Based On Role Prominence 59
Figure 5. The General Health Status/Activity Level of Older Characters 60
Figure 6. The Hair Type and Color of Older Characters 61
Figure 7. Presence of Wrinkles 62
Figure 8. The Teeth Condition of Older Characters 63
Figure 9. The Appearance Of Baldness 64
Figure 10. The Eyesight of Older Characters 65
Figure 11. The Stereotypes of Older Characters 66


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:The General Coding Scheme of Content Analysis for RQ1 to RQ3 32
Table 2:The General Coding Scheme of Content Analysis for RQ4 to RQ5 33
Table 3:The operational definition of Shrew/Curmudgeon 43
Table 4: The operational definition of Mentally impaired older characters 45
Table 5: The operational definition of Perfect grandparent 49
Table 6: The operational definition of Sage 50
Table 7: The operational definition of Older Characters' Negative Stereotypes 52
Table 8: The operational definition of Older Characters' Positive Stereotypes 53
Table 9: Older characters in animated films 57
Table 10: The Comparison with Previous Research 67
Table 11: The Positive Stereotypes of Older Characters 68
Table 12: The Negative Stereotypes of Older Characters 69
Table 13:The General Results of Older Characters 70
Table 14: The Physical Conditions and Stereotypes of Older Characters 71
Table 15: Five Disney animated films 88
Table 16: 36 DreamWorks animated films 89
Table 17: The operational definition of Shrew/Curmudgeon in Chinese and English 112
Table 18: The operational definition of Mentally impaired in Chinese and English 114
Table 19: The operational definition of Perfect grandparent in Chinese and English 120
Table 20: The operational definition of Sage in Chinese and English 123
References
Aday, R. H., Aday, K. L., Arnold, J. L., & Bendix, S. L. (1996). Changing children's perceptions of the elderly: The effects of intergenerational contact. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 16(3), 37-51.

Ansello, E. F. (1977). Age and ageism in children's first literature. Educational Gerontology: An International Quarterly, 2(3), 255-274.

Aronoff, C. (1974). Old age in prime time. Journal of communication, 24(4), 86-87.

Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In Media effects (pp. 110-140). Routledge.

Bazzini, D. G., McIntosh, W. D., Smith, S. M., Cook, S., & Harris, C. (1997). The aging woman in popular film: Underrepresented, unattractive, unfriendly, and unintelligent. Sex roles, 36(7-8), 531-543.

Blunk, E. M., & Williams, S. W. (1997). The effects of curriculum on preschool children's perceptions of the elderly. Educational Gerontology, 23(3), 233−241.

Bramlett-Solomon, S., & Wilson, V. (1989). Images of the elderly in Life and Ebony, 1978–1987. Journalism Quarterly, 66(1), 185−188.

Bramlett-Solomon, S., & Subramanian, G. (1999). Nowhere near picture perfect: Images of the elderly in Life and Ebony magazine ads, 1990–1997. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(3), 565-572.

Butler, R. N. (1963). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. Psychiatry, 26(1), 65-76.

Butler, R. N. (1969). Age-ism: Another form of bigotry. The gerontologist, 9(4), 243-246.

Butler, R. N. (1980). Ageism: A forward. Journal of Social Issues, 36, 8–11.

Butler, R. N. (1990). A disease called ageism. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38(2), 178-180.

Bytheway, B. (2000). Youthfulness and agelessness: a comment. Ageing & Society, 20(6), 781-789.

Carrigan, M., & Szmigin, I. (1999). The portrayal of older characters in magazine advertising. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 5(6/7/8), 248-261.

Cassata, M., & Irwin, B. J. (1997). Young by day: The older person on daytime serial drama. Cross-cultural communication and aging in the United States. Routledge.

Chonody, J. M. (2016). Positive and negative ageism: The role of benevolent and hostile sexism. Affilia, 31(2), 207-218.
Chen, C. H. (2011). Portraying older age in television advertisements: a comparative study between the UK and Taiwan (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University).Retrieved from http://orca.cf.ac.uk/55481/1/U517039.pdf

Danowski, J., & Robinson, T. (2012). The portrayal of older characters in popular children's picture books in the US: A content analysis from 2000 to 2010. Journal of Children and Media, 6(3), 333-350.

Duduciuc, A. (2017). Age-friendly Advertising: A Qualitative Research on the Romanian Silver Consumers. Revista Română de Comunicare şi Relaţii Publice, 19(2), 29-40.

Downe‐Wamboldt, B. (1992). Content analysis: method, applications, and issues. Health care for women international, 13(3), 313-321.

Elnahla, N. R. (2015). Aging with Disney and the gendering of evil. Journal of Literature and Art Studies, 5(2), 114-127.

Falchikov, N. (1990). Youthful ideas about old age: An analysis of children's drawings. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 31(2), 79-99.

Fillmer, H. T. (1984). Children's descriptions of and attitudes toward the elderly. Educational Gerontology, 10(2), 99-107.

Fouts, G., Callan, M., Piasentin, K., & Lawson, A. (2006). Demonizing in children’s television cartoons and Disney animated films. Child psychiatry and human development, 37(1), 15-23.

Gantz, W. (1980). Approaching invisibility: The portrayal of the elderly in magazine advertisements. Journal of Communication, 30(1), 56-60.

Gerbner, G. (1980). Aging with television: Images on television drama and conceptions of social reality. Journal of communication, 30(1), 37-47.

Gilbert, C. N., & Ricketts, K. G. (2008). Children’s attitudes toward older adults and aging: A synthesis of research. Educational Gerontology, 34(7), 570–586.

Harwood, J., & Giles, H. (1992). Don't make me laugh': Age representations in a humorous context. Discourse & Society, 3(4), 403-436.

Hollis-Sawyer, L., & Cuevas, L. (2013). Mirror, mirror on the wall: Ageist and sexist double jeopardy portrayals in children's picture books. Educational Gerontology, 39(12), 902-914.

Isaacs, L. W., & Bearison, D. J. (1986). The development of children's prejudice against the aged. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 23(3), 175-194.

Ísleifsdóttir, Í. A. (2013) From Snow White to Tangled: Gender and Genre Fiction in Disney's" Princess" Animations (Doctoral dissertation University of Iceland). Retrieved from https://skemman.is/bitstream/1946/15024/1/%C3%8Dris%20Alda%20%C3%8Dsleifsd%C3%B3ttir.pdf
Kvasnicka, B., Beymer, B., & Perloff, R. M. (1982). Portrayals of the elderly in magazine advertisements. Journalism Quarterly,4(59),656-658.

Krippendorff, K. (2018). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage publications, 1(1), 403-407.

Lacroix, C. (2004). Images of animated others: The orientalization of Disney's cartoon heroines from The Little Mermaid to The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Popular Communication, 2(4), 213-229.

Langmeyer, L. (1984). Senior citizens and television advertisements: A research note. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 7(1), 167-178.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2005). Recognition and respect revisited: Portrayals of age and gender in prime-time television. Mass Communication & Society, 8(3), 241-256.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2005). Maintaining the double standard: Portrayals of age and gender in popular films. Sex roles, 52(7-8), 437-446.

Lee, B., Kim, B. C., & Han, S. (2006). The portrayal of older people in television advertisements: A cross-cultural content analysis of the United States and South Korea. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 63(4), 279-297.

Linville, P. W. (1982). The complexity–extremity effect and age-based stereotyping. Journal of personality and social psychology, 42(2), 193-211.

Lugo-Lugo, C. R., & Bloodsworth-Lugo, M. K. (2009). “Look out new world, here we come”? Race, racialization, and sexuality in four children's animated films by Disney, Pixar, and DreamWorks. Cultural Studies? Critical Methodologies, 9(2), 166-178.

Lutz, W., Sanderson, W., & Scherbov, S. (2008). The coming acceleration of global population ageing. Nature, 451(7179), 716-719.

Miller, P. N., Miller, D. W., McKibbin, E. M., & Pettys, G. L. (1999). Stereotypes of the elderly in magazine advertisements 1956–1996. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 49(4), 319-337.

Miller, D. W., Leyell, T. S., & Mazachek, J. (2004). Stereotypes of the elderly in US television commercials from the 1950s to the 1990s. The international journal of aging and human development, 58(4), 315-340.

Miller, S. M., Blalock, J., & Ginsburg, H. J. (1984). Children and the aged: Attitudes, contact, and discriminative ability. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 19(1), 47-53.

McConatha, J. T., Schnell, F., & McKenna, A. (1999). Description of older adults as depicted in magazine advertisements. Psychological Reports, 85(3), 1051-1056.

Nakayama, T. K., & Krizek, R. L. (1995). Whiteness: A strategic rhetoric. Quarterly journal of Speech, 81(3), 291-309.

Palmore, E. (1999). Ageism: Negative and positive, New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Petersen, M. (1973). The visibility and image of old people on television. Journalism Quarterly, 50(3), 569-573.

Peterson, R. T. (1992). The depiction of senior citizens in magazine advertisements: A content analysis. Journal of business ethics, 11(9), 701-706.

Robinson, T., & Anderson, C. (2006). Older characters in children's animated television programs: A content analysis of their portrayal. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(2), 287-304.

Robinson, T., Callister, M., Magoffin, D., & Moore, J. (2007). The portrayal of older characters in Disney animated films. Journal of aging studies, 21(3), 203-213.

Roy, A., & Harwood, J. (1997). Underrepresented, positively portrayed: Older adults in television commercials. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25(1), 39-56.

Schmidt, D. F., & Boland, S. M. (1986). Structure of perceptions of older adults: Evidence for multiple stereotypes. Psychology and aging, 1(3), 255-260.

Seefeldt, C. (1984). Children's attitudes toward the elderly: A cross-cultural comparison. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 19(4), 319-328.

Swayne, L. E., & Greco, A. J. (1987). The portrayal of older Americans in television commercials. Journal of Advertising, 16(1), 47-54.

Towbin, M. A., Haddock, S. A., Zimmerman, T. S., Lund, L. K., & Tanner, L. R. (2004). Images of gender, race, age, and sexual orientation in disney feature-length animated films. Journal of feminist family therapy, 15(4), 19-44.

United Nations (2015). World Population Ageing 2015. New York: United Nations.

Ursic, A. C., Ursic, M. L., & Ursic, V. L. (1986). A longitudinal study of the use of the elderly in magazine advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(1), 131-133.

Weber, R. P. (1990). Basic content analysis (No. 49), CA: Sage.

White, M. D., & Marsh, E. E. (2006). Content analysis: A flexible methodology. Library trends, 55(1), 22-45.

Woodward, K. M. (1991). Aging and its discontents: Freud and other fictions (Vol. 13). Indiana University Press. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Vasil, L., & Wass, H. (1993). Portrayal of the elderly in the media: A literature review and implications for educational gerontologists. Educational Gerontology: An International Quarterly, 19(1), 71-85.

Ylanne, V. (2015). Representations of ageing in the media. In J. Twigg, & W. Martin (Eds.), Routledge handbook of cultural gerontology (pp. 369–375). London: Routledge.

Zurcher, J. D., & Robinson, T. (2018). From “Bibbid-Bobbidi-Boo” to Scrooge: An update and comparative analysis of the portrayal of older characters in recent Disney animated films. Journal of Children and Media, 12(1), 1-15.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top