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研究生:陳益昕
研究生(外文):Chen, Yi-Sin
論文名稱:探討冷凍與酵素水解對魚精中胺基酸含量之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of freezing and enzymatic hydrolysis on amino acid contents in fish essence
指導教授:余旭勝余旭勝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu, Hsu-Sheng
口試委員:余旭勝黃至君周清富
口試委員(外文):Yu, Hsu-ShengHuang, Chih-ChunJou, Ching-Fu
口試日期:2020-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:魚精支鏈胺基酸牛磺酸衍生化高效液相層析
外文關鍵詞:Fish essenceBranched-chain amino acidsTaurineDerivatizationHigh performance liquid chromatography
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魚精是一種含有豐富蛋白質、脂肪酸及各種胺基酸的營養補充品(如:白胺酸、異白胺酸、纈胺酸、牛磺酸等),而在20種胺基酸中,白胺酸、異白胺酸以及纈胺酸屬於支鏈胺基酸,可以抑制色胺酸進入腦部進而達到抗疲勞的效果,牛磺酸則具有抗氧化、免疫調節等功能。本研究旨在利用不同加工條件製備魚精並針對白胺酸、異白胺酸、纈胺酸以及牛磺酸進行後續分析,以探討製備魚精的最適加工條件。本研究將魚肉經過不同前處理後再製備成魚精,完成後測定支鏈胺基酸含量、牛磺酸含量、揮發性鹽基態氮、酸價以及總生菌數。實驗結果顯示,將魚肉經過冷凍後再製備之魚精與魚肉不經過冷凍之控制組相比,兩者支鏈胺基酸與牛磺酸的含量上並沒有明顯的差異,但是其重量較多,分別為73.7645 g 和59.4757 g。跟控制組相比,經過酵素水解過的魚肉再製備成魚精後有較多的支鏈胺基酸,但牛磺酸並沒有明顯的差異。不使用酵素水解之控制組其白胺酸、異白胺酸、纈胺酸以及牛磺酸的含量分別為49.42±1.33 mg/100g、24.25±1.05 mg/100g、38.56±2.21 mg/100g以及209.43±3.00 mg/100g;經鳳梨酵素水解魚肉後再進行製備的魚精其白胺酸、異白胺酸、纈胺酸以及牛磺酸的含量分別為68.61±1.82 mg/100g、42.08±0.97 mg/100g、42.5±1.33 mg/100g以及205.19±5.13 mg/100g;經木瓜酵素水解魚肉後再進行製備的魚精其白胺酸、異白胺酸、纈胺酸以及牛磺酸的含量分別為91.63±4.47 mg/100g、43.75±3.12 mg/100g、63.55±2.71 mg/100g以及206.23±2.87 mg/100g。本研究中不同加工條件所製備成的魚精其揮發性鹽基態氮含量皆在17至22 mg/100g之間,儲藏期間內皆符合衛生標準。實驗結果顯示使用酵素水解魚肉後再製備成魚精可以得到較多的支鏈胺基酸,而木瓜酵素水解魚肉的效果比鳳梨酵素更好。
Fish essence is a nutritional supplement riche in protein, fatty acids and various amino acids (e.g. leucine, isoleucine, valine and taurine). Among the 20 kinds of amino acids, valine, isoleucine, and leucine are branched-chain amino acids, which can prevent tryptophan from entering the brain to achieve anti-fatigue effect, and there are several function such as antioxidant, immune regulation and other functions in taurine. This study uses different pretreatment methods to prepare fish essence and conducts subsequent analysis on leucine isoleucine, valine, and taurine to explore the most suitable pretreatment method for preparing fish essence. After preparation, the contents of branched-chain amino acid, taurine, volatile basic nitrogen acid value and aerobic count plate were determined during four weeks. The results show that there is no obvious difference in the content of amino acids between the fish essence prepared from freezing fish and the control group, but the yield of fish essence prepared from freezing fish is greater, which are 73.7645g and 59.4757g, respectively. To compare the fish essence after hydrolyzed by enzyme with the control group, there were more branched chain amino acids but not taurine. The contents of leucine, isoleucine, valine and taurine in the fish essence without enzymatic hydrolysis are 49.42±1.33, 24.25±1.05, 38.56±2.21, and 209.43±3.00 mg/100g, respectively, while those leucine, isoleucine, valine and taurine contents in the fish essence prepared with bromelain hydrolysis are 68.61±1.82, 42.08±0.97, 42.5±1.33, and 205.19±5.13 mg/100g, respectively, and 91.63±4.47, 43.75±3.12, 63.55±2.71, and 206.23±2.87 mg/100g, respectively for that prepared with papain hydrolysis. The value of volatile basic nitrogen in fish essence prepared by different processing in this research was among 17 to 22 mg/100g, which complied with current regulations. In summary, there were more branched chain amino acids in fish essence prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis and the yield from papain hydrolysis is greater than bromelain hydrolysis.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
謝誌 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧 2
一、魚精 2
(一)魚精簡介 2
(二)魚精營養價值 2
(三)虱目魚介紹 3
(四)虱目魚營養價值 4
二、胺基酸 6
(一)胺基酸結構及分類 6
(二)胺基酸的功能 10
三、牛磺酸 12
(一)牛磺酸來源及結構 12
(二)牛磺酸的功能 12
四、高效液相層析簡介 13
(一)HPLC組成 14
(二)HPLC之分離模式 17
五、胺基酸與牛磺酸之檢驗方法 18
(一)高效液相層析 18
(二)氣相層析 21
(三)胺基酸分析儀 21
六、高效液相層析法之確效 22
(一)檢量線 22
(二)偵測極限、定量極限 22
(三)精密度 22
(四)準確度 23
七、魚肉樣品加工處理 25
(一)加熱處理 25
(二)冷凍處理 25
(三)酵素水解 27
八、魚精衛生指標 28
(一)揮發性鹽基態氮(Volatile basic nitrogen) 28
(二)脂質氧化產物(Products of lipid oxidation) 28
(三)總生菌數(Aerobic plate count) 29
參、材料與方法 30
一、實驗設計 30
二、實驗材料 32
(一)實驗設備 32
(二)實驗儀器 32
(三)實驗藥劑 33
(四)藥品配製 35
三、實驗樣品處理 38
(一)魚肉樣品的前處理 38
四、白胺酸、異白胺酸、纈胺酸、牛磺酸含量測定 40
(一)白胺酸、異白胺酸、纈胺酸、牛磺酸標準曲線繪製 40
(二)標準品衍生化 40
(三)檢液配製 40
(四)沖堤條件以及參數 41
(五)鑑別試驗及含量測定 41
五、HPLC法確效分析 42
(一)偵測極限、定量極限 42
(二)精密度 42
六、揮發性鹽基態氮值測定 43
(一)鹽酸標準溶液標定 43
(二)檢液配製 43
(三)揮發性鹽基態氮含量測定 43
七、酸價測定 45
(一)氫氧化鉀溶液標定 45
(二)樣品之酸價測定 45
八、總生菌數測定 46
肆、結果與討論 47
一、高效液相層析法之確效 47
二、比較蒸煮時間與滅菌之差異 54
三、比較不同前處理之差異 58
四、儲藏性測試 68
伍、結論 77
陸、參考文獻 78
柒、作者簡介 91
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