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研究生:劉玹君
研究生(外文):Liu, Xuan-Jun
論文名稱:農地上石化違章工廠之汙染與疾病相關研究
論文名稱(外文):Illegal Petrochemical Factories on Farmland:Investigation the Issue of Pollution and Disease
指導教授:鍾秋悅鍾秋悅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yessica C. Y. Chung
口試委員:周百隆黃文琪
口試委員(外文):Chou, Pai-LungWen-Chi Huang
口試日期:2020-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:農企業管理系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業經濟及推廣學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:46
中文關鍵詞:農地石化產業違章工廠汙染與疾病
外文關鍵詞:Farmlandpetrochemical industryillegal factoriespollution and disease
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近年農地轉用的問題嚴重,農委會於2017年盤點農地上的違章工廠,竟高達13萬家,其中不乏高污染之石化產業。石化為我國重要產業,GDP貢獻達一成,但其衍生環境污染也引發關注。違章石化工廠建築在農地上,將對周遭的環境因子如土壤、水源及空氣造成複合性的影響。然而,過去文獻卻未探討農地上違章石化工廠與居民健康之間的關聯性。因此,本研究使用2017年農委會農地盤點資料、衛福部疾病資料及農田水利會灌溉水源據點資料等多個資料庫,探討農地上違章石化工廠所造成的汙染對台灣民眾健康之影響。本文採用全台313個鄉鎮上之12家石化中游工廠及763家石化下游工廠,共計849家農地上的違章石化工廠家數為觀察對象,並使用兩階段最小平方法 (Two-Stage Least Squares, 2SLS) 進行實證分析。結果顯示農地上違章石化工廠顯著增加環境污染舉報案件,特別是當存在橡膠製品、塑膠製品製造業等下游工廠時,鄉鎮上每增加一家下游石化違章工廠將增加0.77件空汙案件及29樁的火災事件。農地違章石化工廠增加每公斤土壤中銅金屬汙染含量逹6g,鋅含量4g,其他重金屬如砷、鎘、鉻、鉛、汞、鎳的總含量增加11 g。但是,農地上存在石油及煤製品製造業等中游的違章石化工廠時,對環境污染無顯著影響。而且,這些複合性污染無法證明直接和當地居民的重大疾病有關。相對的,影響鄉鎮居民之白血病、呼吸道疾病及肺癌、肝癌等疾病原因為吸菸率。
Contemporary, the issue of farmland conversion has become far-reaching in Taiwan. According to the Council of Agriculture, there were 130,000 illegal plants built-up on farmland in 2017. Meanwhile, the petrochemical industry in Taiwan is prominent, contributing 10% to the nation’s GDP. However, the environmental impact of the industry has attracted considerable attention. Primarily, the nature of the activities from the petrochemical industry produce pollutants that passes through the soil and water, resulting into environmental pollution complexities in neighboring communities. Nonetheless, previous studies evaluating pollution of factories on farmland and residents health, examined these topics separately. Besides, the relationship between illegal factories and residents’ health remain unexplored. Consequently, this study utilized 2017 disease dataset from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, as well as 2017 irrigation water source dataset from Farm Irrigation Association, to assess the impact of illegal petrochemical factories pollution on the health of Taiwanese residents. Using as sample of 849 petrochemical companies built-up on farmland in 313 township in Taiwan, the study applied two-stage least squares method (2SLS) to explore the impact of illegal petrochemical factories pollution on residents’ health. Results show that illegal petrochemical plants on agricultural land significantly increase environmental pollution reporting cases, particularly, the presence of downstream factories (e.g. manufacturing of rubber products and plastic products). Precisely, the addition of one illegal petrochemical factory from downstream in a township, will increase air pollution cases by 0.77 and fire incidents by 29. Furthermore, the study revealed that petrochemical plants on farmland increases the content of heavy metal, that is, copper and zinc by 6g/kg and 4g/kg, respectively. The content of other heavy metals such as, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Ni will increase by 11 g/Kg. Conversely, empirical results revealed that the presence of midstream factories (such as the manufacturing of petroleum and coal products) has a null effect on environmental pollution. Moreover, analysis from the study suggest that the intricacies of these pollution are not directly linked to major diseases in communities close to petrochemical complexes. Yet, smoking rate and the type of sewage treatment equipment was identified as the cause of leukemia, respiratory diseases, lung cancer, liver cancer and other diseases in the township.
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第貳章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 農地轉用 4
第二節 石化產業 6
第三節 石化產業鄰近地區與疾病 10
第參章 研究方法 13
第一節 資料來源與變數說明 13
第二節 研究方法 16
第三節 敘述統計 18
第肆章 實證分析 22
第一節 2SLS分析–白血病 22
第二節 2SLS分析–氣管、支氣管和肺癌 25
第三節 2SLS分析–腦癌 28
第四節 2SLS分析–肝和肝內膽管癌 31
第伍章 結論與建議 35
第一節 結論 35
第二節 研究限制與建議 36
附件一 44
作者簡介 46
參考文獻
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三、 網路
經濟部,2019,臨時工廠名錄,2019年3月15日,取自https://data.gov.tw/dataset/45429
農委會,2019,土地耕地面積,2019年 3月27日,取自
http://agrstat.coa.gov.tw/sdweb/public/inquiry/InquireAdvance.aspx?field_group_id=1
工研院,2019,石化產業產值, 2019年 3月15日,取自
https://www.itri.org.tw/
環保署,2019,公害糾紛處理資訊系統, 2019年4月21,取自
https://sedr.epa.gov.tw/zh-tw/publicpage/Pub_case1.aspx
全國法規資料庫,2020,農業發展條例, 2020年5月21日,取自
https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=M0020001
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