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研究生:林威辰
研究生(外文):Wei-Chen Lin
論文名稱:高侷限性三五族與絕緣層覆晶矽波導電致吸收調變器之製作
論文名稱(外文):Fabrication of High-confinement Hybrid III-V/SOI Optical Waveguide for Electroabsorption Modulator
指導教授:邱逸仁邱逸仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHIU,YI-JEN
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:光電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:消光比電致吸收調變器光侷限性矽光子晶圓貼合
外文關鍵詞:Extinction ratioElectroabsorption modulatorConfinementSilicon photonicsWafer bonding
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利用先進的設計概念來製作超小尺寸、高消光比之異質整合的電致吸收調變器。利用晶圓貼合的異質整合技術結合三五族與矽的材料優點,使用矽做成低損耗的被動波導,三五族做成主動元件之調變器,改善以往使用矽作為調變器材料之低調變頻寬及低消光比之缺點,將來還可整合於矽光子平台上。藉由選擇性濕蝕刻底切量子井,可將三五族波導與矽波導體積同時減小,因此其光模太大小尺寸也可以縮減,良好的水平與垂直光模侷限性也可達成提升主動元件特性。我們已經成功達成三五族材料與矽波導黏合技術並且用來製作主動元件。藉由蝕刻500nm厚覆蓋層與量子井底切蝕刻深度達8μm, N型與P型電極即可用來定義側向注入電流與偏壓方式,此法將有利於矽光子主動元件的積體化。50nm頻寬的電致光螢光頻譜,可由此側向注入PN異質接面,PN異質接面的逆向偏壓也使的量子井有很強的量子侷限史塔克效應。在長度180μm下的波導,消光比可達11dB/V。
Utilizing advanced concepts to create ultra-small, high extinction ratio heterogeneous integrated electro-absorption modulators. The wafer-bonding heterogeneous integration technology combines the advantages of IIIV semiconductor and the silicon to make a passive waveguide with low loss, and the IIIV material is used as a modulator for the active component to improve the drawbacks of silicon modulator such as low bandwidth and low extinction ratio. By selectively wet etching the undercut quantum well, the volume of the IIIV core waveguide and the silicon waveguide can be reduced at the same time, so that the
optical mode can be reduced, and the optical mode’s horizontal and vertical confinement can improve component characteristics. We have successfully achieved the bonding technology of the IIIV materials and the silicon waveguide, with that the active components were also demonstrated. Through etching a 500nm thick capping layer and performing the undercut etching of quantum well with 8μm etching depth, the n-type and p-type electrodes can thus realize the lateral structure of injection current and bias mode. This method will be quite beneficial to the integration of active region onto the silicon-photonic template. The electro-luminance (EL) spectrum of 50nm bandwidth was found by the lateral current injection of such p-n junction. By reversely biasing the diode, a strong quantum confined Stark effect was also obtained, showing larger than 11 dB/V of extinction ratio at an 180μm long waveguide.
論文審定書 i
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 v
圖次 viii
表次 xii
第一章 緒論 - 1 -
1-1前言 - 1 -
1-2 研究動機 - 2 -
1-3 異質整合之技術 - 3 -
1-3-1 晶圓貼合技術 - 4 -
1-3-2 三五族主動元件與矽被動波導整合 - 6 -
1-4 研究步驟 - 8 -
1-5論文架構 - 8 -
參考文獻 - 9 -
第二章 電致吸收調變器原理與高侷限性波導結構 - 11 -
2-1 高橫向侷限性波導 - 11 -
2-2 電致吸收調變器基本原理 - 13 -
2-2-1 法蘭茲可帝許效應(Franz–Keldysh Effect, FKE)[1] - 13 -
2-2-2量子侷限史塔克效應Quantum-Confined Stark Effect (QCSE)[1] - 14 -
2-3 調變器原理與簡介 - 15 -
2-3-1Mach-Zehnder interferometer type modulator - 16 -
2-3-2 Directional coupler modulator - 16 -
2-3-3 Total internal reflection type modulator - 17 -
2-3-4 Electro-Absorption Modulato - 17 -
參考文獻 - 18 -
第三章 三五族半導體與矽整合波導模擬分析 - 20 -
3-1 三五族材料折射率理論模型 - 20 -
3-2 三五族量子井波導與矽波導設計 - 23 -
參考文獻 - 25 -
第四章 元件製程 - 26 -
4-1 磊晶層結構 - 27 -
4-2 晶圓貼合技術 - 28 -
4-3元件製作 - 34 -
4-3-1 蒸鍍金屬對準記號 - 34 -
4-3-2 蝕刻P型梁脊 - 36 -
4-3-3 定義二氧化矽區域 - 38 -
4-3-4 多重量子井選擇性底切蝕刻 - 40 -
4-3-5 蝕刻非元件區域與製作矽波導 - 42 -
4-3-6 蝕刻N型接觸層與蒸鍍N型金屬 - 43 -
4-3-7 蒸鍍共平面電極(CPWL) - 47 -
參考文獻 - 50 -
第五章 元件量測結果與分析 - 51 -
5-1 I-V 電性量測與分析 - 51 -
5-2 光電流頻譜分析與偏壓相依穿透率 - 52 -
5-3 遠場光模態分析 - 56 -
第六章 結論與未來工作 - 60 -
第一章
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[2].http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20100727comp_sm.htm
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[4].A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[5].Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[6].J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[7].COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTOR, III-Vs Shine At IEDM 2011, 8th March 2012
[8].S. Keyvaninia,1,2,* M. Muneeb,1,2 S. Stanković,1,2 P. J. Van Veldhoven,3 D. Van Thourhout,1,2 and G. Roelkens1,2 “Ultra-thin DVS-BCB adhesive bonding of III-V wafers, dies and multiple dies to a patterned silicon-on-insulator substrate” 1 January 2013 / Vol. 3, No. 1 / OPTICAL MATERIALS EXPRESS 35
[9].Liu Liu, Günther Roelkens, Joris Van Campenhout, Joost Brouckaert, Dries Van Thourhout, and Roel Baets, "III–V/Silicon-on-Insulator Nanophotonic Cavities for Optical Network-on-Chip , "Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Vol. 10, 1461–1472, 2010
[10].50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator Yongbo Tang,1,2,3* Hui-Wen Chen,1 Siddharth Jain,1 Jonathan D. Peters, 1 Urban Westergren, 2,3 and John E. Bowers1
[11].Hybrid Silicon Photonic IntegratedCircuit Technology
[12].Martijn J. R. Heck, Member, IEEE, Jared F. Bauters, Student Member, IEEE, Michael L. Davenport, Student Member, IEEE, Jonathan K. Doylend, Siddharth Jain, Student Member, IEEE,G´eza Kurczveil, Sudharsanan Srinivasan, Student Member, IEEE, Yongbo Tang, and John E. Bowers, Fellow, IEEE
[13] Laser & Photon. Rev., 1–29 (2010) /DOI10.1002/lpor.200900033
第二章
[1].G. L. Li, P. K. L. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightwave. Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2204-2206, 2003.
[2].Very-Low-Driving-Voltage Electroabsorption Modulators Operating at 40 Gb/s Hideki Fukano, Takayuki Yamanaka, Munehisa Tamura, and Yasuhiro Kondo
[3].共平面結構之分佈反饋式雷射與電致吸收調變器積體化的元件與製程設計 林世昌
[4].Wide temperature range operation of micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulators
Sasikanth Manipatruni, Rajeev K. Dokania, Bradley Schmidt, Nicolás Sherwood-Droz, Carl B. Poitras, Alyssa B. Apsel, and Michal Lipson*
[5].LARGE ENHANCEMENT IN MODULATION BANDWIDTH OF LOW-VOLTAGE SLOW LIGHT BRAGG REFLECTOR WAVEGUIDE MODULATOR Xiaodong Gu1, Ayako Suzuki1, Hamed Dalir1, Akihiro Matsutani2 and Fumio Koyama1
[6].Tadashi Okumura,1,2* Munetaka Kurokawa,1,2 Mizuki Shirao, 1 Daisuke Kondo,1,2 Hitomi Ito, 1,2 Nobuhiko Nishiyama1, Takeo Maruyama,3 and Shigehisa Arai1,2 , “Lateral current injection GaInAsP/InP laser on semi-insulating substrate for membrane-based photonic circuits” , 20 July 2009 / Vol. 17, No. 15 / OPTICS EXPRESS 12564
[7].Takahiko Shindo,1,* Tadashi Okumura,1 Hitomi Ito,1Takayuki Koguchi,1 Daisuke Takahashi,1 Yuki Atsumi,1 Joonhyun Kang,1 Ryo Osabe,1 Tomohiro Amemiya,1,2 Nobuhiko Nishiyama,2 and Shigehisa Arai1,2, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating” 31 January 2011 / Vol. 19, No. 3 / OPTICS EXPRESS 1884
[8].50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator Yongbo Tang,1,2,3* Hui-Wen Chen,1 Siddharth Jain,1 Jonathan D. Peters, 1 Urban Westergren, 2,3 and John E. Bowers1
[9].Toshio Watanabe, Norio Sakaida, Hiroshi Yasaka, and Masa fumi, Koga, “Chirp Control of an Optical Signal Using Phasenmodulation in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier, ”IEEE Photon Technology Letters, vol.10, no.7, pp.1027-1029, 1998.
第三章
[1].M. Guden and J. Piprek, "Material parameters of quaternary III - V semiconductors for multilayer mirrors at 1.55um wavelength," Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng, vol. 4, pp. 349–364, Apr.1996
[2].D. W. Jenkins, "Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs alloys," Physical Rev. B, vol. 39, pp. 12345–12352, Dec.1988
第四章
[1].S. Keyvaninia, M. Muneeb, S. Stanković, P. J. Van Veldhoven, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, "Ultra-thin DVS-BCB adhesive bonding of III-V wafers, dies and multiple dies to a patterned silicon-on-insulator substrate," Optical Materials Express, vol. 3, pp. 35–46, Jan. 1, 2013.
[2].G¨unther Roelkens, Liu Liu, Di Liang, Richard Jones, Alexander Fang, Brian Koch, and John Bowers , "III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects," Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol. 4, p. 751–779, Nov. 2010.
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