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研究生:閆佑禎
研究生(外文):YEN, YOU-ZHEN
論文名稱:朗讀文本對成人發聲基頻及音強範圍的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Reading Passages on Fundamental Frequency and Vocal Intensity Range in Adult Subjects with Normal Voice
指導教授:陳維佳
指導教授(外文):CHAN, WAI KAI ROGER
口試委員:蕭自佑劉介宇
口試委員(外文):HSIAO, TZU-YULIU, CHIEH-YU
口試日期:2020-06-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北護理健康大學
系所名稱:語言治療與聽力研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:言語音域圖發聲音域圖基頻範圍音強範圍朗讀文本
外文關鍵詞:speech range profilevoice range profilefundamental frequency (F0) rangeintensity rangereading passage
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目前在台灣缺乏臨床上專門測量發聲範圍的顯著變化的朗讀文本嗓音評估材料。本研究目的為編制一篇可以誘發較大幅度的基頻範圍和音強範圍變化,並涵蓋所有華語語音及聲調的標準朗讀文本(「三隻熊」短文),其結果將與朗讀目前臨床上最常用的標準朗讀短文,盛華老師的「國語短文」和發持續性母音產生的音域圖 (voice range profile, VRP) 做比較。120名無嗓音病史及專業嗓音訓練之受試者(60男60女,年齡平均25.22±標準差3.74)參與本研究。發聲範圍表現以聲學分析軟體Praat取得,包括發持續性母音和朗讀兩篇短文之最高基頻、最低基頻、平均基頻、基頻範圍、最高音強、最低音強、平均音強、音強範圍、發聲重心 (center of gravity, 即基頻中位數和音強中位數之音域圖座標),以及在「三隻熊」短文中的關鍵字「飯」之母音的第一及第二共振峰頻率。結果發現,由於朗讀「三隻熊」短文包括了模仿不同年齡和性別之角色的嗓音特徵,測得之基頻和音強範圍皆顯著比朗讀「國語短文」為大,其中男性受試者朗讀「三隻熊」短文測得之基頻範圍接近傳統音域圖(VRP)之基頻範圍。本研究結果顯示「三隻熊」朗讀短文可能可以激發正常嗓音之受試者在比較省時且相對接近日常對話的情況下更顯著地變化發聲基頻和音強範圍。建議未來的研究方向包括以「三隻熊」短文探討嗓音異常者的嗓音功能與潛能。
Currently, there is a lack of standardized reading text material that could elicit significant variations in fundamental frequency (F0) and vocal intensity during clinical voice evaluation in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to quantify the vocal range (F0 range and intensity range) in vocally untrained healthy adults as obtained by reading aloud a phonetically balanced reading passage (“Three Bears Passage”) adapted for eliciting vocal range variations, in comparison to reading aloud a standard Mandarin passage and voice range profile (VRP) as obtained from sustained vowel production. 120 adult subjects (60 men and 60 women, mean age = 25.22±3.74 ) with no history of voice disorders and no vocal training participated in the study. Vocal range data, including maximum F0, minimum F0, mean F0, F0 range, maximum intensity, minimum intensity, mean intensity, and intensity range, and center of gravity (CoG, defined as the coordinates in the VRP for median F0 and median intensity), were obtained by the acoustic analysis software Praat during VRP production (of the sustained vowel /a/) and during reading of the two passages. First and second formant frequencies (F1, F2) of the vowel /a/ in the syllable /fan/ (a keyword) produced in the dramatic sentence while mimicking the voices of the three bear characters in the “Three Bears Passage” were also measured. Results showed that in both male and female subjects, the F0 range and intensity range for the “Three Bears Passage” were significantly larger than those for the “Standard Mandarin Passage”. In particular, the F0 range for the “Three Bears Passage” was similar to that of the VRP in male subjects. These findings suggested that the “Three Bears Passage” could allow subjects with normal voice to demonstrate a larger vocal range in terms of vocal intensity and F0, in a passage reading setting relatively similar to conversational speech in a shorter time. It is recommended that the “Three Bears Passage” could be used to investigate the vocal function and vocal potential of subjects with voice disorders.
Table of Contents
Abstract (in Chinese) IV
Abstract (in English) V
Table of Contents VI
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables IX
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
Chapter 2: Literature Review 4
2.1 Importance of Vocal Intensity and Fundamental Frequency 4
2.2 Methods for the Measurement of Vocal Intensity and Fundamental Frequency 7
2.2.1 Voice Range Profile (VRP) 7
2.2.2 Speech Range Profile (SRP) 11
2.2.3 Similarities and differences between the VRP and the SRP 11
2.3 Speech Sample Materials 13
2.4 Principles for the Composition of Reading Text Materials 14
CHAPTER 3: Method 27
3.1 Subjects 27
3.2 Audio Recording 27
3.3 Speech Sample Materials 28
3.3.1 Sustained Vowel 28
3.3.2 Reading Text Materials 29
3.4 Experimental Procedure 29
3.5 Data Analysis 34
Chapter 4: Results 37
4.1 Effect of order of audio recording 37
4.2 Voice range profiles (VRPs) based on the sustained vowel /a/ 37
4.3 Speech range profiles (SRPs) based on reading of the standard passages 42
4.4 Center of Gravity (CoG) 49
4.5 Changes in mean F0, F0 range, formant frequencies (F1 and F2), and formant
spacing (△F) while mimicking the voices of the three bear characters 54
4.6 Effect of gender on SRP-related acoustic measurements 57
Chapter 5: Discussion 60
Chapter 6: Conclusion 68
References 69
Appendices
Appendix 1: The “Three Bears Passage”82
Appendix 2: The “Standard Mandarin Passage” (or “Passage in Mandarin”) (Chen, 2007) 84
Appendix 3: Short questionnaire for the screening of potential subjects 86
Appendix 4: Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval certificate 88
Appendix 5: Post hoc multiple pairwise comparisons with Tukey tests on the effect
of order of audio recording (six different orders for Groups I to VI) on maximum F0 of the “Standard Mandarin Passage” in 60 female subjects 89

List of Figures
Figure 1: Readability of the “Three Bears Passage” based on the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE) (screenshots of the output of CRIE analysis) 24
Figure 2: Illustration of the Experimental Procedure 31
Figure 3: Voice range profiles (VRPs) (a) for 60 female subjects and (b) for 60 male subjects, with data points obtained at the assigned pitches (C2, E2, G2, …, A6) (mean intensity ± standard deviations) 40
Figure 4: Speech range profiles (SRPs) for 60 female subjects, with each data point showing the coordinates of F0 and intensity for each subject: (a) “Three Bears Passage”, and (b) “Standard Mandarin Passage”47
Figure 5: Speech range profiles (SRPs) for 60 male subjects, with each data point
showing the coordinates of F0 and intensity for each subject: (a) “Three Bears
Passage”, and (b) “Standard Mandarin Passage”48
Figure 6: CoG for the VRP and the SRPs for 60 female and 60 male subjects (means ± standard deviations) 51
Figure 7: Comparisons of (1) maximum F0 and maximum intensity; (2) minimum F0
and minimum intensity; and (3) CoG for the VRP and the SRPs for the two standard passages (a) for 60 female subjects and (b) for 60 male subjects (means ± standard deviations) 53

List of Tables
Table 1: Distributions (frequencies of occurrence) of Mandarin phonemes (consonants and vowels) and lexical tones in the “Three Bears Passage” as spoken in Taiwan 21
Table 2: Specific vocabulary terms used in the “Three Bears Passage” and their word frequencies in the Sinica Corpus database (more frequent words with a higher
numerical value in word frequency) (Huang & Chen, 1998) 22
Table 3: Subject characteristics (distributions of age and gender) 30
Table 4: Variations in intensity range (IRange) with pitch (musical notes) and
fundamental frequency, corresponding to the voice range profiles in Figure 3 for 60 female and 60 male subjects (in dBSPL) 41
Table 5: VRP-related acoustic measurements (means ± standard deviations) and results of independent samples t tests on gender-related differences 41
Table 6: Results of repeated measures ANOVA on differences in VRP-related and SRP-related acoustic measurements (a) for female subjects and (b) for male subjects (means ± standard deviations) 44
Table 7: Results of repeated measures ANOVA on differences in center of gravity (CoG, median F0 and median intensity) for the VRP and the SRPs (a) for female subjects and (b) for male subjects (means ± standard deviations) 50
Table 8: Results of repeated measures ANOVA on differences in mean F0, F0 Range,
F1, F2, and △F for the narrator voice and mimicked voices of the three bear characters during reading of the “Three Bears Passage” (a) for female subjects and (b) for male subjects (means ± standard deviations) 56
Table 9: CoG (median F0 and median intensity) from the VRP and the SRPs (means ±
standard deviations) and results of independent samples t tests on gender-related differences 57
Table 10: Mean F0, F0 Range, F1, F2, and △F while mimicking the voices of the three bear characters in the “Three Bears Passage” (means ± standard deviations) and results of independent samples t tests on gender-related differences 59


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