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研究生:洪杏慈
研究生(外文):HONG, HSING-TZU
論文名稱:消逝的學習機會:六年級學生於英語課室被誤解之求助行為探究
論文名稱(外文):Learning Chances Slip Away: An Insight of Miscued Help-Seeking Behaviors in Six-Grade EFL Class
指導教授:范莎惠范莎惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):FAN, SA-HUI
口試委員:施以明王雅茵
口試委員(外文):SHIH, I-MINGWANG, AMBER YAYIN
口試日期:2020-07-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺中教育大學
系所名稱:英語學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:求助行為非適應性求助行為誤解雙峰化現象學習扶助
外文關鍵詞:help-seeking behaviorsnon-adaptive help-seeking behaviorsmiscuebimodal distributionremedial teaching
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英語能力雙峰化現象在臺灣日漸加劇,如何幫助需接受學習扶助之學生跟上學習腳步,已成為急需解決的問題。被視為學習策略的學生學業求助行為,則為研究探討的重要面向之一。然而,相關研究常透過量表與問卷方式,著眼於蒐集分析學生求助行為及其相關因素,以達到預測學生求助行為與其成因。英語課室中發生之學生求助行為,於實務上被教師理解或誤解,則尚未做深入的探討。
本研究透過微觀的課室人種誌,於臺灣中部一所郊區公立小學,對一位英語教師與六年級其中一班之 10 位,在課室中頻繁使用非適應性求助行為之學生,進行為期四個月,共計 30 堂之英語課室觀察,探究教學現場師生互動,用以了解學生求助行為被誤解之成因,期望作為日後教師實務上理解與判斷學生求助行為之建議。透由課室觀察、訪談及相關文件蒐集之資料,以質性分析軟體 MAXQDA進行分析。
主要研究發現,課室中誤解之產生,源於學生參與教學活動之心態與教師設計活動之目的相異,進而衍伸出非適應性求助行為被理解、評量為不佳的學習表現,且師生皆未發現彼此間之認知落差。本研究亦根據研究結果,為未來教師實務教學及相關研究方向提供建議。
The bimodal distribution of student English achievement is reported to be accelerating in Taiwan. Helping underperformers to catch up to the learning pace in class in order to slow down the bimodal distribution has become an issue requiring an urgent solution. Help-seeking, a self-regulation strategy in the classroom, is an important research topic that has been studied for decades. Researchers and educators investigate help-seeking via student motivations, goal orientations and related factors through questionnaires and surveys. However, whether help-seeking in class is cued or miscued by teachers has not yet been sufficiently explored.
This study aims to supply teachers with insights into miscued help-seeking behaviors in order to shorten the perception gap between teachers and students in the classroom. A total of 30 classroom observations were conducted from the research mode of micro ethnography for four months in a public elementary school in a suburban area in Central Taiwan. Participants are an English teacher and 10 sixth graders who used a high frequency of non-adaptive help-seeking behaviors in an English classroom. Data sources,including classroom observations, semi-structured interviews, informal talks and documents, were analyzed by using the software MAXQDA.
The major findings indicate that the occurrence of miscues in the classroom was driven by the mindset differences between the teacher and students. Thus, non-adaptive help-seeking behaviors were perceived as poor performance by the teacher. In addition, neither parties noticed the perception difference. Based on the findings, suggestions for future practice and for future research are offered.
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................... i
Chinese Abstract.............................................................................................................. iii
Abstract............................................................................................................................. v
Table of Contents............................................................................................................ vii
List of Tables ................................................................................................................... xi
List of Figures................................................................................................................. xii
Chapter 1 Introduction...................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background of the Study .................................................................................... 2
1.2 Statement of the Problem ................................................................................... 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................... 5
1.4 Research Questions ............................................................................................ 5
1.5 Significance of the Study.................................................................................... 6
1.6 Definitions of Key Terms................................................................................... 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review............................................................................................. 9
2.1 Theoretical Framework..................................................................................... 10
2.2 Help-Seeking Behaviors (HSB).........................................................................11
2.3 Teacher Feedback ............................................................................................. 16
2.4 Perception Gap between Teachers and Students .............................................. 21
2.5 Signals and Miscues ......................................................................................... 23
2.5.1 Signals in Message Exchange................................................................ 24
2.5.2 Miscues on Cues.................................................................................... 25
2.6 Where the Current Study Stands ...................................................................... 27
Chapter 3 Methodology.................................................................................................. 31
3.1 Pilot Study ........................................................................................................ 31
3.2 Setting............................................................................................................... 32
3.3 Participants ....................................................................................................... 33
3.3.1 Teacher Participant ................................................................................ 34
3.3.2 Student Participants............................................................................... 34
3.4 Research Mode ................................................................................................. 35
3.5 Role of the Researcher...................................................................................... 36
3.6 Time of the Study ............................................................................................. 37
3.7 Data Source ...................................................................................................... 38
3.8 Language .......................................................................................................... 39
3.9 Procedure .......................................................................................................... 40
3.10 Data Analysis.................................................................................................. 41
Chapter 4 Findings ......................................................................................................... 45
4.1 Using Multiple Means to Survive Activities .................................................... 47
4.1.1 Concealing Incomprehension ................................................................ 47
4.1.2 A Mirror to Language Proficiency Level............................................... 51
4.2 Teacher’s Internal Criteria Restricted the Identification of Underperformers and Help Provision........ 54
4.2.1 Teacher Expectations Inconsistent with Student Help-Seeking Behaviors
........................................................................................................................ 55
4.2.2 Professional Knowledge Restricted Teachers to Equalize Help Provision
........................................................................................................................ 58
4.2.3 Following the Pace of Majority Prevented Task Completion................ 62
4.3 The Mindset Differences in Perceiving Activity Goals.................................... 64
4.3.1 Mistake-Making Was an Outcome of Long-term Accumulation .......... 65
4.3.2. Ongoing Modification on Activity Designs Based on Observed Performance........... 69
Chapter 5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................... 75
5.1 Discussion of the Findings ............................................................................... 75
5.1.1. Interpretation on Means Adoption........................................................ 76
5.1.2 Internal Criteria of Teacher Diagnosis................................................... 76
5.1.3 Manifestation of Mindset Differences................................................... 78
5.2 Answering the Research Questions .................................................................. 79
5.3 Limitations of the Study ................................................................................... 81
5.4 Suggestions for Future Practice........................................................................ 81
5.5 Suggestions for Future Research ...................................................................... 85
References ...................................................................................................................... 87
Appendices ..................................................................................................................... 97
Appendix A Semi-Structured Interview Questions with Students.......................... 97
Appendix B Semi-Structured Interview Questions with the Teacher..................... 98
Appendix C Student Research Consent Form........................................................ 99
Appendix D Teacher Research Consent Form...................................................... 103
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