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研究生:石皓瑋
研究生(外文):Shih, Hao-Wei
論文名稱:Bi2Te3熱電元件的界面反應與相關材料系統相平衡
論文名稱(外文):Interfacial reactions and phase equilibria of related material systems in the Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules
指導教授:陳信文陳信文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Sinn-Wen
口試委員:衛子健陳志銘
口試委員(外文):Wei, Tzu-ChienChen, Chih-Ming
口試日期:2020-07-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:化學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:界面反應相圖銀-銅-銻熱電材料
外文關鍵詞:Interfacial reactionPhase diagramAg-Cu-SbThermoelectric material
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:1
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本研究同時針對個別接點,搜尋整理文獻中界面反應與相關材料的相平衡資料。針對個別接點相關資料蒐集整理了Cu/Sn-Cu、Cu/Ag-Sb , Sn-Cu/Ni、Ag-Sb/Ni 及Ni/Bi2Te3。由於針對Cu/Sn-Cu、Sn-Cu/Ni與Ag-Sb/Ni三個系統,文獻中已有許多關於界面反應與相平衡的資料,因此不多加深入探討。由於目前並未有對於Cu/Ag-Sb 相關系統之討論,因此本文將針對此系統之界面反應及相平衡進行研究。同時因Cu與Ni能生成連續固溶體(Isomorphous system),為提供完整的了解,本研究亦將探討Cu/Bi2Te3及Ni/Bi2Te3接點的界面反應速率的比較與相平衡。因此共將針對Cu/Ag-Sb 、Cu/Bi2Te3 Ni/Bi2Te3反應偶進行實驗探討,數據結果則搭配文獻或實驗相圖輔助分析。
研究結果發現用電鍍法Cu/Bi2Te3偶於280°C熱處理進行固相/固相反應,會形成一介穩態的過飽和相Cux(Bi2Te3),此相於200°C及350°C均有出現,然而並未在Cu-Bi-Te相圖中觀察到。隨著時間的拉長,Cu和Te原子相互擴散形成Cu2-xTe相,Bi則以液態的形式在界面析出,大幅增加界面反應速率。Bi與Cux(Bi2Te3)過飽和相間又會形成由Bi與Bi2Te3分子相互排列的連續相 (Bi2)m(Bi2Te3)n,擴散路徑為Cu/Cu2-xTe/Bi/Bi2Te/Cux(Bi2Te3)/Bi2Te3,此反應下Cu為主要的擴散元素,相關元素相平衡分析則由現有文獻輔助分析。Ni/Bi2Te3擴散偶由電鍍法製備於280°C熱處理,則會形成NiTe2-x相及(Bi)m(Bi2Te3)n相,擴散路徑為Ni/NiTe2-x/(Bi)m(Bi2Te3)n,此反應下Te為主要擴散元素,相關元素相平衡分析則由現有文獻輔助分析。Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb 共晶銲料由電鍍法製備反應偶於300°C、500°C溫度下反應。反應在300°C下會形成明顯的Cu2Sb反應層及疏Sb的Ag3Sb-Sb兩相區,擴散路徑為Cu/Cu2Sb/Ag3Sb-Sb;在500°C下則會形成不穩定的Cu3Sb相與其分解相,以及液態冷卻形成的Cu2Sb及Ag3Sb共晶結構,擴散路徑為Cu/Cu3Sb/Cu2Sb-Ag3Sb/Ag3Sb-Sb,Sb為主要擴散元素。Ag-Cu-Sb系統之等溫恆截面相圖於300°C及500°C,則由配置不同比例合金,待其回火7至30天後取出分析而得。在300°C下6個三相區中,確立了三個相區Cu-Ag-Cu78Sb20、Cu10Sb3-Cu2Sb-Ag、Ag3Sb-Cu2Sb-Sb,而Ag-Cu78Sb20-Cu10Sb3、Ag-Ag7Sb-Cu2Sb、Ag7Sb-Ag3Sb-Cu2Sb則由觀察到的兩相區建立。在500°C下6個三相區中,確立了Ag3Sb-Sb-Liquid、 Cu-Cu3Sb-Liquid、Ag-Cu-Liquid、Ag7Sb+Ag3Sb+Liquid、Ag+Ag7Sb+Liquid、Cu3Sb+Cu2Sb+Liquid共6個三相區的存在,同時藉由兩相區的組成比例,建立出500°C下的液態相區邊界。Ag-Cu-Sb系統之二元化合物均對第三元元素無明顯溶解度,其中二元化合物中Ag7Sb對Cu的最大溶解度為4.73 at.%。
This study intends to systematically explore the phase equilibrium of the joints in the Bi2Te3 thermoelectric elements and the phase balance of the related material systems to provide a complete basic knowledge of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric elements. This study aims at individual joints, searching for the phase equilibrium data of interface reactions and related materials in the literature. The joints included in this reference review are Cu/Sn-Cu, Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb , Sn-Cu/Ni, Ag-Sb/Ni and Ni/Bi2Te3. For the Cu/Sn-Cu, Sn-Cu/Ni and Ag-Sb/Ni systems. There are many data on the interface reactions and the phase equilibrium in the literature. Therefore, this study is focused on Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb interfacial reaction and phase equilibrium. In addition, because Cu is a common solder alloy composition and electrode material, and Cu and Ni can form a complete solid solution, in order to provide a complete understanding, this study will also compare the interfacial reaction between Cu/Bi2Te3 and Ni/Bi2Te3. In this study, three systems, Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb, Cu/Bi2Te3, Ni/Bi2Te3, were investigated.
It was found that Cu/Bi2Te3 prepared by electroplating method was heat-treated at 280 °C for solid/solid phase reaction, which formed an unknown phase and did not appear in the Cu-Bi-Te ternary phase diagram. The literature was reported at 200 ° C and at 350 °C, it is judged that the saturated phase of Cu dissolved in Bi2Te3 is named Cux(Bi2Te3). For longer reaction time, liquid bismuth is participated because of the formation of Cu2-xTe. This liquid layer boosts the reaction rate. Besides, Bi layer and Cux(Bi2Te3) react to each other and form (Bi)m(Bi2Te3)n series phase stacking by Bi and Bi2Te3 molecules. The diffusion path is Cu/Cu2-xTe/Bi/Bi2Te/Cux(Bi2Te3)/Bi2Te3. Cu is the main reaction in this reaction. The related phase equilibrium refers to the recent development. Ni/Bi2Te3 diffusion couple prepared by electroplating method was heat-treated at 280 °C for solid/solid phase reaction. It forms NiTe2-x phase and (Bi)m(Bi2Te3)n phase. The diffusion path is Ni/NiTe2-x/(Bi)m(Bi2Te3)n. Telluride is the domain element in the reaction. The related phase equilibrium refers to the recent development. Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb eutectic alloy prepared by electroplating method was heat-treated at 300°C and 500°C for solid/solid reaction. It was found that this system will form a flat Cu2Sb layer and the Ag3Sb-Sb binary area which Sb is depleted at 300°C. The diffusion path is Cu/Cu2Sb/Ag3Sb-Sb. At 500°C, the unstable phase Cu3Sb and its decomposed phase can be observed, and also it can find that a eutectic structure which consists with Cu2Sb and Ag3Sb. The diffusion path is Cu/Cu3Sb/Cu2Sb-Ag3Sb/Ag3Sb-Sb. Sb would be the major diffusion element. The isothermal phase diagram of Ag-Cu-Sb at 300°C and 500°C were determined by the homogeneous sample annealed for 7 to 30 days. The three phase regions which are Cu-Ag-Cu78Sb20、Cu10Sb3-Cu2Sb-Ag、Ag3Sb-Cu2Sb-Sb have been observed at 300°C, and the others three phase regions which are Ag-Cu78Sb20-Cu10Sb3、Ag-Ag7Sb-Cu2Sb、Ag7Sb-Ag3Sb-Cu2Sb are established by related two phase regions. At 500°C, six three phase regions have been observed which are Ag-Cu-Liquid、Cu-Cu3Sb-Liquid、Cu3Sb-Cu2Sb-Liquid、Cu2Sb、Sb-Liquid、Ag3Sb-Ag7Sb-Liquid、Ag-Ag7Sb-Liquid. The boundary of liquid phase region is established by the tie-line in two phase regions. It is found that all the ternary solubilities in the binary compounds in the Ag-Cu-Sb system are not significant. The highest is 4.73at. % Cu in the Ag7Sb compound.
摘要 2
Abstract 4
致謝 6
目錄 7
圖目錄 10
表目錄 18
第一章 前言 20
第二章 文獻回顧 24
2-1熱電元件 24
2-1-1碲化鉍(Bi2Te3, Bismuth telluride) 24
2-2界面反應 24
2-2-1 Cu/Sn-Cu界面反應 26
2-2-2 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb 界面反應 27
2-2-3 Ni/Sn-Cu 界面反應 27
2-2-4 Ni/Ag-Sb界面反應 27
2-2-5 Cu/Bi2Te3界面反應 28
2-2-6 Ni/Bi2Te3界面反應 28
2-3 相圖 29
2-3-1 Cu-Te 二元相圖 30
2-3-2 Bi-Cu 二元相圖 32
2-3-3 Cu-Ni 二元相圖 34
2-3-4 Ni-Te 二元相圖 35
2-3-5 Bi-Ni 二元相圖 37
2-3-6 Bi-Te二元相圖 38
2-3-7 Cu-Ag 二元相圖 40
2-3-8 Cu-Sb 二元相圖 41
2-3-9 Ag-Sb 二元相圖 43
2-3-10 Ag-Cu-Sb 相圖 44
2-3-11 Bi-Ni-Te三元相圖 47
2-3-12 Bi-Cu-Ni三元相圖 48
2-3-13 Bi-Cu-Te相圖 51
第三章 研究方法 52
3-1 Cu/Bi2Te3 熱電反應偶之界面反應 52
3-1-1 Bi2Te3基材配置 52
3-1-2 Cu/Bi2Te3 反應偶之配置與分析 52
3-2 Ni/Bi2Te3 熱電反應偶之界面反應 53
3-2-1 Bi2Te3基材配置 53
3-2-2 Ni/Bi2Te3 反應偶之配置與分析 53
3-3 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb熱電反應偶之界面反應 53
3-3-1 Ag-Sb銲料基材配置 53
3-3-2 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb反應偶之配置與分析 54
3-4 Ag-Cu-Sb 等溫橫截面相圖 54
3-4-1 建立預測相圖與合金比例配置 54
3-4-2 X光粉末繞射分析 54
第四章 結果與討論 57
4-1 Cu/Bi2Te3之界面反應 57
4-1-1 Cu/Bi2Te3於280°C下界面反應分析 57
4-1-2 Cu/Bi2Te3於280°C下界面反應機制 62
4-2 Ni/Bi2Te3之界面反應 66
4-2-1 Ni/Bi2Te3於280°C下界面反應分析 66
4-2-1 Ni/Bi2Te3於280°C下界面反應機制 69
4-3 Ag-Cu-Sb 系統300°C等溫恆截面圖 73
4-3-1 Ag3Sb-Cu2Sb-Sb 三相區 74
4-3-2 Ag-Cu10Sb3-Cu2Sb 三相區 77
4-3-3 Ag-Cu-Cu78Sb20 三相區 79
4-3-4 Ag7Sb-Cu2Sb 兩相區 81
4-3-5 Ag-Cu78Sb20 兩相區 85
4-3-6 Ag-Cu2Sb 兩相區 88
4-3-7 Ag3Sb-Cu3Sb 兩相區 91
4-3-8 Ag3Sb-Cu2Sb 兩相區 94
4-3-9 Ag-Cu-Sb 系統300°C等溫恆截面圖實驗結果 96
4-4 Ag-Cu-Sb 系統500°C等溫橫截面圖 98
4-4-1 Liquid-Cu2Sb-Sb三相區 99
4-4-2 Cu-Cu3Sb-Liquid 三相區 101
4-4-3 Ag-Cu-Liquid 三相區 103
4-4-4 Cu3Sb-Cu2Sb-Liquid三相區 111
4-4-5 Ag-Cu 兩相區 115
4-4-6 Sb-Liquid 兩相區 119
4-4-7 Ag-Liquid 兩相區 123
4-4-8 Ag7Sb-Liquid 兩相區 128
4-4-9 Ag3Sb-Liquid 兩相區 134
4-4-10 Cu2Sb-Liquid 兩相區 141
4-4-11 Cu3Sb-Liquid 兩相區 145
4-3-12 Cu3Sb-Cu2Sb 兩相區 147
4-3-13 Liquid相 150
4-4-14 Ag-Cu-Sb 系統500°C實驗等溫恆截面圖結果 155
4-5 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb之界面反應 158
4-5-1 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb之界面反應於300°C界面反應分析 158
4-5-2 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb之界面反應於300°C界面反應機制 162
4-5-3 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb之界面反應於500°C界面反應分析 164
4-5-4 Cu/Ag-41at.%Sb之界面反應於500°C界面反應機制 167
第五章 結論 169
參考文獻 170
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