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研究生:楊慧雯
研究生(外文):Yang, Hui-Wen
論文名稱:國小學生英文朗讀比賽之子音發音問題探討
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Elementary School Students’ English Consonant Articulation in Read-Aloud Contests
指導教授:吳睿純吳睿純引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu, Jui-Chun
口試委員:楊中玉簡靜雯
口試委員(外文):Yang, Chung-YuChien, Chin-Wen
口試日期:2020-01-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:英語教學系
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:子音發音問題外語學習者英文朗讀比賽國小學生
外文關鍵詞:consonant pronunciation problemsEFL learnersread-aloud contestselementary school students
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本研究旨在探討國小學生參加英文朗讀比賽中常見的子音發音問題。本研究的研究對象為2018年台灣北部某縣市參加英文朗讀比賽之106位國小三到六年級學生,藉由觀看朗讀比賽影片來分析其英語發音並統計出最常見的子音發音問題;此外,將訪談四位國小英語教師來了解在指導過程中國小學生較常見的子音發音問題和訓練前後的差異性。本研究中的研究工具包含英語朗讀比賽影片、朗讀講稿、以及教師訪談稿,透過上述的方法及工具來收集相關資料進而分析現今國小學生的英語子音發音問題和學生的發音在英語教師的指導後是否有所改進。研究結果顯示國小參賽者在朗讀比賽中,子音字尾–ed, –d, –es, –s和 –l 出現較多發音問題,由於過去式及名詞複數對於國小學生來說較為困難,當他們在朗讀文章時,無法判別正確的子音字尾發音,從而出現刪除尾音及發音錯誤的情形。另外,朗讀比賽中參賽者使用連音來朗讀句子,此現象較難辨認是否為發音錯誤,因有些子音發音無法從參賽者的發音嘴型直接來辨別,例如:齒齦塞音/t/。從四位國小英語教師的訪談中得知教師利用跟讀法讓參賽者反覆練習,並模仿外籍教師的發音,而參賽者在指導前後發音有明顯的進步,也了解到現今國小學生常見的子音發音問題與參賽者的母語及所處的學習環境有所關聯。
This study aimed to explore the elementary school students’ most common consonant pronunciation problems and the improvement after the teaching guidance. The participants of the study consist of 106 elementary school students who participated in the read-aloud contest in a northern city in Taiwan in 2018 and four elementary school English teachers who taught the students’ read-aloud. Research data included the contest videos, read-aloud scripts, and instructors’ interviews. Based on these data, we analyzed the elementary school participants’ consonant pronunciation problems and presented the improvements after the English instructors’ guidance. The findings demonstrated that the most common pronunciation problems included: –ed and –d ending sounds; words ending in –es and –s sounds; and word-final dark /l/ sounds. Elementary school participants tended to delete the ending sound of the words or pronounce the word-final sounds incorrectly because past tense verb forms and plural forms are difficult for them. In addition, participants read the scripts by using linking of the sounds. Therefore, some consonant sounds were not easy to identify and could not be distinguished through the mouth shape of the participants directly, for example, the alveolar stop /t/ sounds. From the interview responses, English instructors mentioned they adopted shadowing to train the students and asked them to mimic the pronunciation of the native teachers. The analysis of the interview revealed that those participants improved their pronunciation after the instructors’ guidance. The results also showed that the students’ pronunciation problems might be influenced by their first language and the learning environment and resources.
摘要.................................................ii
Abstract.............................................iii
誌 謝 辭..............................................v
List of Tables.......................................x
List of Figures......................................xi
Chapter 1 Introduction...............................1
1.1 Background to the Study..........................1
1.1.1 English Instruction in Taiwan..................2
1.1.2 Language Transfer and Pronunciation Problems...5
1.2 Motivations of the Study.........................6
1.3 Purposes of the Study............................8
1.4 Research Questions...............................9
1.5 Definition of Terms..............................9
Chapter 2 Literature Review..........................11
2.1 Definitions of Language Transfer.................11
2.2 Native Language Transfer Among EFL Learners......12
2.3 Pronunciation Problems...........................16
2.4 Common Errors of English Consonant Phonemes......19
2.5 Reading Aloud....................................23
2.6 Connected Speech.................................24
2.7 Literature Gap...................................26
2.8 Summary of Literature Reviewed...................26
Chapter 3 Methodology................................28
3.1 Research Questions and Hypotheses................28
3.2 Methods..........................................28
3.2.1 Participants and Settings......................29
3.2.2 Instruments....................................30
3.2.3 Data Analysis and Procedures...................33
3.2.4 Research Ethics................................36
3.3 Summary of Methodology...........................37
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion.....................39
4.1 Overall Findings.................................39
4.1.1 Read-Aloud Scripts Distribution................39
4.1.2 Error Percentage and Consonant Problems........41
4.2 Consonant Problems in Each Read-Aloud Script.....45
4.3 Consonant Deletion...............................45
4.3.1 Ending in –ed / –d / –ied Sounds...............46
4.3.2 Ending in –s / –es / –ies Sounds...............49
4.3.3 Words Ending in Voiceless Stop Sounds..........51
4.3.4 Consonant /l/ Sounds...........................53
4.3.5 Connected Speech and Consonant Pronunciation Problems....54
4.3.6 Summary of the Consonant Problems in Each Group..........57
4.4 Interview Feedback from the Four English Instructors.......57
4.4.1 Teaching Methods for the Read-Aloud Contest Students.....58
4.4.3 Consonant Pronunciation Problems During Training.........61
4.4.4 Improvements After Instructors’ Guidance.................63
4.4.5 Conclusion of the Interview Feedback.....................64
Chapter 5 Conclusions................................66
5.1 Summary of Research..............................66
5.2 Limitations......................................68
5.3 Recommendations for Further Research.............69
References...........................................72
Appendixes...........................................81
Appendix I...........................................81
Appendix II..........................................85
Appendix III.........................................91
Appendix IV..........................................99
Appendix V...........................................100
Appendix VI..........................................103
Appendix VII.........................................104
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