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研究生:賴晏翎
研究生(外文):LAI, Yen-Ling
論文名稱:無形文化遺產的再現–以利物浦之披頭四觀光為例
論文名稱(外文):Representation of Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Beatles Tourism in Liverpool
指導教授:劉以德劉以德引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIU, Yi-De
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:歐洲文化與觀光研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:披頭四城市品牌認同遺產觀光
外文關鍵詞:Beatlescity brandidentityheritagetourism
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  本研究旨在探討遺產觀光產業再現無形文化遺產的手法,以及在不同社群之間所產生的後續影響。近代由於後現代主義的發展與多元史觀的提倡,文化遺產的種類邁向了百花齊放的時代。在過去,遺產多著重於歷史意義及美學內涵上,現在則是傾向包容多元的價值。
  然而,當文化遺產進入觀光市場時,文化遺產的內涵是否能夠真實地再現,或是為了迎合觀光、娛樂等目的而被誤現,都是備受討論的議題,對於帶有地方精神的無形文化遺產更是如此,在傳承的過程中,無形文化遺產的精神展現有助於凝聚地方的在地認同及歸屬感,若因觀光的緣故而不當地再現,很可能就此破壞了社群對地方的認同,更甚者,也傷害了城市的意象。
  本研究以利物浦的披頭四觀光作為研究個案,將披頭四的流行音樂文化視為無形文化遺產,在音樂遺產觀光的框架底下,透過觀察法、質性訪談與文件檔案的分析等研究方法,討論不同的利害關係人對於披頭四文化再現的感知,對於文化與社會所帶來的意涵。此外,本研究亦試圖從城市的角度出發,檢視披頭四作為利物浦一著名特點,對城市品牌的打造及品牌意象之形塑。
This research aims at discussing the representation of intangible cultural heritage by tourism industries, and its subsequent impacts on different communities. Since the development of postmodernism and pluralisation of history have led to a growing appreciation of distinct types of cultural heritage. The principle of selecting cultural heritage has thus also changed; it now includes more aspects of multiple values.
However, when cultural heritage comes into tourism market, it raises some issues debating about the effects tourism has upon it. Whether the authenticity of the cultural heritage’s historical content would be genuinely presented, or it might be misunderstood and misrepresented for the purpose of entertainment is the issue often being discussed. In addition, representation of intangible cultural heritage is another subject being concerned; especially those with local essence, the cultural manifestation from one generation to another would contribute to give people a sense of identity and continuity. But if misrepresented, it might affect community’s sense of belonging or even the external image of its region.
Music heritage tourism in the United Kingdom is under such domain which this research would like to discuss. This research would probe the social impact music heritage tourism brings about, setting Beatles tourism in Liverpool as the backdrop of the study. By using observation, interview and related documents and seeing Beatles as an intangible cultural heritage, this research aims to explore how different stakeholders perceive the representation of the band’s culture and evaluate relevant implications of the issues in the field of culture and society. Moreover, this research would also discuss Liverpool’s city brand building and image shaping combining the strategy related to the Beatles.
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究宗旨與目的 3
第三節 研究對象 4

第二章 文獻回顧 9
第一節 音樂遺產與觀光發展 9
第二節 城市的品牌與意象 22
第三節 遺產再現對在地認同的形塑 29

第三章 研究方法 35
第一節 研究設計 35
第二節 資料來源 36
第三節 研究信效度 47

第四章 研究發現 50
第一節 披頭四觀光的發展與城市品牌的建構 50
第二節 披頭四觀光的文化再現 65
第三節 在地居民的認同 76

第五章 結論 88
第一節 研究結果摘要 88
第二節 理論貢獻 93
第三節 實務貢獻 94
第四節 研究限制與建議 97

參考文獻 99
附錄 111
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中文文獻
王文科、王智弘(2010)。質的研究的信度和效度。彰化師大教育學報,17,29-50。
陳向明(2002)。社會科學值得研究。台北市:五南。
張紹勳(2000)。研究方法。台中市:滄海。
畢恆達(1996)。詮釋學與質性研究。胡幼慧編,質性研究;理論、方法及本土女性研究實例。台北:巨流。
張淑英(2016)。西班牙文化觀光與區域發展。歐洲聯盟文化政策之脈絡與實踐。台大出版中心。台北市。
葉浩(譯)(2007)。觀光客的凝視(J. Urry, 2002)。台北:書林。
黃士哲(2011)。從真實化到舞台化:文化場域舞台真實化的觀察。論文發表於德霖技術學院舉辦之「觀光餐旅休閒永續發展與創新教育國際學術研討會」,德霖技術學院。

網站資料
Official website of Beatles Museum
http://www.beatlesstory.com/
Official website of Magical Mystery Tour
https://www.cavernclub.org/the-magical-mystery-tour/
Official website of National Trust
https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/beatles-childhood-homes
Official website of Cavern Club
https://www.cavernclub.org/venue/cavern-club/
Peter Hooton talks heading up The Beatles Legacy Group (2017/2/16). The Guide Liverpool. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTvjQFJy2sQ
UNESCO關於音樂之都之介紹
https://citiesofmusic.net/city/liverpool/
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