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研究生:廬斌
研究生(外文):Vadim Rubin
論文名稱:西方媒體再現的中國:文化的誤解
論文名稱(外文):The Representation of China Through Western Media: Misconstruction of Culture
指導教授:李根芳李根芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ken-fang Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:翻譯研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:翻譯學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:文化再現文化轉向文化翻譯翻譯新聞翻譯中美關係中美貿易戰
外文關鍵詞:cultural representationcultural turncultural translationtranslationnews translationChina US relationsUS China trade war
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本研究試圖檢視西方新聞媒體的報導影響了西方社會對中華文化的印象及想法,從而間接造成西方社會對華人文化的誤解。從十九世紀以來,英語逐漸的變成了世界的主流語言。一次世界大戰后,美國主流文化漸漸地開始入侵蔓延至全球文化的各個角落。透過愛德華·薩伊德於1978年出版的⟨⟨東方主義⟩⟩,我們可以看到在十九世紀至二十世紀之間,英美兩國開了先例,為了剝削中國,基於政治及利益上的考量,透過打壓、邊緣化,在翻譯與再現中國的形象時,往往刻意使中國成爲西方社會眼裡的「他者」。現今,中國大陸已然變成世界最大的經濟體之一,但西方社會仍無法接受這個曾經第二世界國家的崛起,因此西方的新聞媒體會有意無意地挑選負面消息做爲新聞報導。本文一開始會以歷史角度切入,透過追溯歷史,讓讀者瞭解到西方世界對中華文化偏見的起源。此後本文會藉由2018年發生的中美貿易戰以及近日發生的新型冠狀病毒全球大流行來探討中英媒體資源對此的報導立場。
This research examines the impact translation plays within Western news media sources in the formation of perspective, specifically the perception of China and Chinese culture. For the past century, as the English language has become the dominant form of global communication, as American culture – since the end of World War I – continues to tactfully weave its way through the fabric of global cultures, we are now seeing a resurgence of what Edward Said famously coined in his 1978 publication as ‘Orientalism’: the habitual condescending attitude of Western countries toward Asian, Middle Eastern, and North African societies and cultures. The United States and United Kingdom created a historic precedent during the late 19th century and early 20th century of forcing China into a periphery position – into the subject of ‘Other’ for the purpose of exploitation. Jumping forward to present day in which China has become one of the largest economies in the world, we see difficulty in Western countries to cope with a once second world nation rising to power. The use of media during these times aids in the creation of a China which solely serves the interests of Western countries. The former part of this thesis will provide the reader with the historical precedent in which Western countries have demonized China. The latter portion of the essay will examine English and Chinese information circulated amongst the variety of 21st century media sources concerning events that have transpired from late 2018 to present day, including: US-China Trade War, Hong Kong extradition bill, and the voracious COVID – 19 pandemic.
Abstract 2

摘要 3

Chapter One: Introduction 4

Chapter Two: Theory, Literature Review, and Purpose 12

Theories 12

Literature Review 19

Purpose and Importance 25

Research Methods 30

Chapter Three: China’s History and Western Media Perspectives 34

Chapter Four: Manipulated in Translation 51

Pre- and Early 2018 Media Depictions 53

Late-2018 to Mid-2020 Media Depictions 65

Chapter Five: Conclusion 82

Works Cited 88
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BBC World Asia: China. http://www.bbc.com/news/world/asia/china

BBC. “China threatens sanctions over US-Taiwan F-16 fighter plane deal.” BBC, 21 August 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-49420283. Accessed 08 July 2020.

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Cohen, Paul. Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.

Ebert, Roger. “Zhang Yimou’s Gold Medal.” Roger Ebert’s Journal, 9 August 2008. Web. 29 December 2017. https://www.rogerebert.com/rogers-journal/zhang-yimous-gold-Medal. Accessed 17 Dec. 2017.

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Fahey, Keith. “Tiananmen Went Beyond a ‘Crackdown.’” The Washington Post, 30 April 2005. Web. 24 December 2017. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
dyn/content/article/2005/04/29/AR2005042901190.html. Accessed 20 Dec. 2017.

Hall, Stuart. Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. Edited by David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen. London: Routeledge, 1996.

Hall, Stuart. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Edited by Stuart Hall. London, Sage Publications, 1997.Helle, J. Horst. China: Promise or Threat. Boston: Brill, 2017.

Hermans, Theo. “Translation and Normativity.” Current Issues in Language and Society, vol.5, No 1&2, 1998.

Kearny, W. Michael. “Trusting News Project Report 2017.” A Reynolds Journalism Institute research project, 2017. https://www.rjionline.org/reporthtml.html. Accessed 31
December 2017.

Kissinger, Henry. World Order. New York: Penguin Books, 2014.

Latham, Kevin. “Media, the Olympics and the Search for the “Real China.” The China Quarterly 197 (2009): 25. www.jstor.org/stable/27756421. Accessed 05 Dec. 2017.

Lefevere, Andre. Translation, Rewriting, & the Manipulation of Literary Fame. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Levenson, R. Joseph. “Western Powers and Chinese Revolutions: The Pattern of Intervention.”Pacific Affairs 26. 3 (1953): 230-236. www.jstor.org/stable/2753287. Accessed 22 Dec. 2017.

Lewis, Anthony. “Abroad at Home; Unhappy Birthday.” The New York Times, 28 September 1989. Web. 20 December 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/09/28/opinion/abroad-at-home-unhappy-birthday.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FTiananmen%20Square&action=click&contentCollection=world®ion=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentlacement=434&pgtype=collection. Accessed 20 Dec. 2017

Mackerras, P. Colin (馬克林)Western Images of China Since 1949: 1949年以來中國在西方的形象. Hong Kong: 香港中和出版有限公司, 2013.

Mishra, Pankaj. Chinese Characters: Profiles of Fast-Changing Lives in a Fast-Changing Land. Edited by Angilee Shah and Jeffrey Wasserstrom, California: University of California Press, 2012.

Mitter, Rana. “Modernity, Internationalization, and War in the History of Modern China.” The Historical Journal 48.2 (2005): 523-543. www.jstor.org/stable/4091703. Accessed 21
Feb. 2018

Post-Colonial Translation. Edited by Susan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Rafael, Vincente L. Motherless Tongues: The Insurgency of Language amid Wars of Translation. London: Duke University Press, 2016.

Said, W. Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

Sarkar, Shrutee. "Economists united: Trump tariffs won't help the economy". Reuters. March 14, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-economy-poll-
idUSKCN1GQ02G. Accessed 03 July 2020.

Swanson, Ana. "Trump's Trade War With China Is Officially Underway". The New York Times, July 5, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/05/business/china-us-trade-war-trump-tariffs.html. Accessed 03 July 2019.

Swisher, Earl. “Chinese Intellectuals and the Western Impact, 1838-1900.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 1.1 (1958): 26-37. www.jstor.org/stable/177856. Accessed 04 Jan. 2018.

Tavernise, Sabrina and Oppel, Richard Jr. “Spit On, Yelled at, Attacked: Chinese – Americans Fear for their Safety.” The New York Times, 23 March 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/us/chinese-coronavirus-racist-attacks.html. Accessed 02 July 2020.

“The Beijing Olympics: Let the Games Begin.” The Economist, 15 August 2008. Web. 03 January 2018. http://www.economist.com/node/11912951. Accessed 09 Jan. 2018.

The Boxers, China, and the World. Edited by Robert Bickers and R. G. Tiedman. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

Trajectories: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. Edited by Kuan-Hsing Chen. London: Routeledge, 1998.

U.S. Department of State. “U.S. Relations with Hong Kong.” U.S. Department of State. 17 July,
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