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研究生:邱韋傑
研究生(外文):Chiu, Wei-Jie
論文名稱:一種線上加速度精密電解法於倒錐微孔噴嘴成形研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on an in-situ Acceleration Precision Electro-Chemical Machining (A-PECM) for making a nozzle with inverted taper-microhole
指導教授:陳順同陳順同引用關係鄭慶民鄭慶民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Shun-TongCheng, Ching-Min
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:機電工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:加速度精密電解加工技術倒錐微孔同位電解周面絕緣
外文關鍵詞:A-PECMInverted tapered microholeIn-situ ECMperipheral insulation
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  本研究旨在開發「加速度精密電解加工技術(Acceleration Precision Electro-Chemical Machining, A-PECM)」,目的在成形具有倒錐造型的噴嘴微孔,應用於如生醫方面的藥物塗佈、汽車工業的柴油引擎及半導體產業的濕式蝕刻等的噴嘴用途。實驗之初,先行開發一部「桌上型精微電解加工系統」,並提出「同位電解法(In-situ ECM)」,使精微鑽孔與精微電解兩製程能在同軸心條件下,精準對位創成。微孔電解所用電極係為直徑 0.1 mm的實心碳化鎢圓軸。為獲得高可控制性的電場分佈,實驗規劃以環氧樹脂絕緣法(Epoxy resin isolation)進行周面絕緣,只讓端部裸露導電。為獲得精密的倒錐微孔,本研究提出「加速度精密電解加工技術」電極於微孔內以一固定的加速度,由下而上進給,經由電極進給速度緩增,使微孔孔壁的電場強度由大逐漸變小,故孔壁的金屬溶解率(Metal Dissolution Rate, MDR)隨之緩降,進而創成倒錐微孔。並且,微孔中的電解液採由下而上的方向流動,以維持電解液濃度的一致性,使成形具高一致性孔壁的倒錐微孔。實驗結果顯示,電極以加速度1.0及2.0 m/s2於孔內進給時,可創造出0.09及0.02錐率的倒錐微孔,且微孔的表面粗糙度Ra小於 0.8 m,符合商用(柴油引擎)噴嘴微孔的標準。成形的倒錐微孔接以「二流體噴嘴」進行測試,發現在氣體壓力0.12 MPa及液體壓力0.04 MPa條件下,因錐孔兩端直徑的差異,能使錐率0.02和0.09的微孔分別獲得23°及31°的霧化角度,證實本研究所提出的「加速度精密電解加工法」,著實能成形精密倒錐微孔,此項技術深具商業化價值。
This study presents the development of an Acceleration Precision Electro-Chemical Machining (A-PECM) technology to create a micronozzle with an inverted tapered microhole which is applied for the pharmaceutical coating in the biomedicine, fuel injector spray in the diesel engine, and wet etching process in the semiconductor industry. To exactly align between the drilled microhole and the ECM’s microelectrode, an in-situ ECM (Electro Chemical machining) is proposed in this study and set up on the developed tabletop micro-electrolytic machining system. A solid tungsten carbide rod with  0.1 mm in diameter is employed as the microelectrode during ECM process. To obtain an electric field distribution with highly controllable, a peripheral insulation where the periphery of the microelectrode is clothed by the epoxy resin only leaving the end exposed to conduct electricity is recommended in this experiment. The A-PECM process, by which the electrode is fed from the bottom to the top in the hole with a constant and slow acceleration, is conducted on the tabletop micro-electrolytic machining system. The electrode’s feed-rate is gradually increased resulting in the electric field strength of electrolysis is gradually decreased which means the metal dissolution rate (MDR) is gradually reduced, thus creating an inverted tapered microhole. Moreover, the electrolyte maintains the consistency of the electrolyte concentration and flows designed from the bottom to the top of the microhole, thereby produces the microhole with highly uniform hole-wall. Experimental results show that the microholes with the 0.09 and 0.02 inverted taper rate can be precisely finished when using the acceleration of 1.0 and 2.0 m/s2, respectively. The surface roughness with Ra<0.8 m on the hole-wall can be finished which meets the demand for the commercial (diesel engine) nozzle microhole. The formed inverted tapered microholes were tested through a "two-fluid nozzle". It was found that the atomization angles of 23° and 31° can be successfully achieved when using the microholes with an inverted taper rate of 0.02 and 0.09, respectively and the conditions of gas pressure of 0.12 MPa and liquid pressure of 0.04 MPa. It is confirmed that the proposed A-PECM process can indeed form precision inverted tapered microhole, and this technology has great commercial value.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 ix
符號說明 xiv

第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2文獻回顧 2
1.2.1微孔加工相關文獻探討 2
1.2.2精微電解加工相關文獻探討 6
1.2.3現有精微電解設備發展與應用 10
1.3研究動機 11
1.4研究目的 13
1.5研究方法 15

第二章 實驗原理 18
2.1電解加工原理 18
2.2電解加工特性曲線 24
2.3霧化原理 26
2.4類鑽膜特性與成形 30
2.5電著塗裝原理 34

第三章 實驗所需設備及材料 37
3.1製造設備 37
3.1.1 CNC立式綜合加工機 37
3.1.2 CNC線切割放電加工機 37
3.1.3 CNC精微雕模放電加工機 38
3.1.4平面磨床 39
3.2量測設備 40
3.2.1掃描式電子顯微鏡 40
3.2.2 光學顯微鏡 40
3.2.3 雷射共軛焦顯微鏡 41
3.3實驗材料 42
3.3.1 鎳鉻鉬鋼(Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel) 42
3.3.2 碳化鎢鑽頭與電極 43
3.3.3 硝酸鈉電解液(NaNO3) 44

第四章 實驗系統建構 46
4.1精微電解加工系統設計開發 46
4.2電解液流路規劃與測試 54
4.2.1電解液順流對微孔影響 54
4.2.2電解液逆流對微孔影響 56
4.3微孔鑽削加工實驗 58

第五章 倒錐式微孔電解加工實驗 63
5.1電解用微細電極側邊絕緣比較 63
5.1.1絕緣漆包覆電極 64
5.1.2類鑽鍍膜(DLC)絕緣電極 66
5.1.3電著(EPD coating)絕緣電極 69
5.2電極旋轉電解實驗 75
5.3定電流電解倒錐微孔實驗 79
5.4電極移動速度對倒錐微孔錐率影響 83

第六章 倒錐微孔噴嘴霧化驗證 97
6.1 倒錐微孔噴嘴實驗驗證 97
6.2 倒錐微孔噴嘴霧化效果實驗 101
6.3 實驗結果探討 106

第七章 結論與未來展望 108
7.1結論 108
7.2研究成果 109
7.3研究貢獻 110
7.4未來展望 111

參考文獻 112
附錄 120
附錄A 旋轉軸於不同轉數下Z軸平台位置之回饋誤差 120
附錄B Z軸位移平台等加速度運動速度變化 122
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