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研究生:吳冠何
研究生(外文):Wu, Kuan-Ho
論文名稱:花蓮豐田地區理新礦場之透輝石脈產狀與成因探討
論文名稱(外文):Investigation about the Occurrences and Genesis of Diopside Veins in the Lixin Mine, Fengtien area, Hualien
指導教授:陳惠芬陳惠芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Huei-Fen
口試委員:余炳盛葉恩肇郭力維
口試委員(外文):Yu, Bing-ShengYeh, En-ChaoKuo, Li-Wei
口試日期:2020-01-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:地球科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:154
中文關鍵詞:豐田透輝石液包體碳酸鹽叢同位素測溫法熱液
外文關鍵詞:Fengtiendiopsidefluid inclusionsCarbonate Clumped Isotope Thermometryhydrothermal fluid
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臺灣花蓮豐田地區以出產綠色閃玉聞名,其地質分區屬大南澳變質雜岩中的玉里帶。根據豐田地區理新礦場的露頭觀察,其換質剖面的岩石序列為(1) 蛇紋岩 (2) 閃玉–透輝石 (3) 斜黝簾石岩與 (4) 片岩等,閃玉及透輝石常以透鏡體或脈狀出現於蛇紋岩與片岩的接觸帶上,而在前人文獻中多著墨於蛇紋岩、閃玉及綠簾石-斜黝簾石岩的研究,且認為豐田閃玉乃蛇紋岩在富含Ca的熱液換質作用下所生成的產物,但卻鮮少提到與閃玉伴生出現的透輝石之重要性。本研究以XRD與顯微拉曼光譜分析鑑別換質帶中岩石的礦物種類並進行岩象觀察,由結果發現換質帶中閃玉與斜黝簾石岩形成的順序應早於脈狀之透輝石。前人研究中豐田地區閃玉的生成溫壓條件約介於320~420℃與2.2~3.5 kbar,而本實驗的透輝石液包體均化溫度則介在160~290℃間,其中的流體成分為H2O與少量的CH4,在均化溫度時的最大壓力僅約1.2 kbar左右,似乎也印證岩象觀察的結果,表明透輝石形成於解壓過程。此外,透輝石脈裂隙中的透輝石晶體具有許多不同的顏色,藉由SEM-EDS及LA-ICP-MS等化學分析方法可得知淺黃色透輝石由Fe3+致色、淺綠色至翠綠色的透輝石則由Cr3+所致色,但褐色透輝石的顏色成因仍不明瞭。本研究也針對理新礦場R3-2坑中的碳酸鈣礦物進行U-Th定年與碳酸鹽叢同位素分析,得到的年齡約為距今55,449  5,959年至11,842  6,477年,皆落在更新世晚期的範圍之內,而叢同位素分析指出方解石可能是由兩期不同溫度的熱液所形成,但皆與變質水或岩漿水有關,霰石則為常溫下的地表水沉澱所形成。由上述實驗結果可得知理新礦場的換質帶可能經歷三次以上富含Si及Ca的熱液作用,且不同期的熱液溫度為逐漸冷卻的狀態。
The Fengtien area, Hualien, is famous for the production of green nephrite in Taiwan. The geological setting of this area belongs to the Yuli belt of the Tananao Metamorphic Complex. According to the outcrop observations in Lixin mine, Fengtien, the sequences of the metasomatic belt are: (1) serpentinite, (2) nephrite and diopside vein, (3) epidotite or clinozoisite rock, and (4) schist. Nephrite and diopside occurred as lens or veins in the contact zone between serpentinite and schist. In the past, the researchers commonly focused on the serpentinite, nephrite, and epidotite-clinozoisite rocks. They mentioned that the nephrite in Fengtien area was derived from the Ca-rich metasomatism of serpentinite, but they rarely discussed the signification of diopside in the metasomatic belt. In this study, we use XRD, Micro-Raman Spectroscopy, and thin section to identify the mineral species and observe the rock textures. The experimental results of diopside fluid inclusions show the homogenization temperature between 160℃ to 290℃, and the fluid is composed of H2O and small amount of CH4. The highest pressure was estimated to the maximum 1.2 kbar by the gas-liquid ratio of diopside fluid inclusions. Previous study indicated the P-T condition about the nephrite forming between 320℃ to 420℃ and 2.2 kbar to 3.5 kbar. The results indicate that diopside veins formed after the formation of nephrite and clinozoisite rock in this metasomatism zone. The diopside crystals in the crack has different color. According to the SEM-EDS and LA-ICP-MS results, we know that the color of pale yellow diopside is cause by Fe3+. The pale green to emerald green ones are caused by Cr3+, and the brown ones is still unknown. We also use U-Th dating and Carbonate Clumped Isotope analyses to get the age and forming temperature of CaCO3 minerals in adit R3-2, Lixin mine. The ages are between 55,449  5,959 to 11,842  6,477 yr BP, just in the late Pleistocene. The result of Carbonate Clumped Isotope analysis of the calcite reveals calcite crystallization in two episodes of hydrothermal fluid under different temperature ranges, and the source of fluid is either magmatic or metamorphic origins. However, aragonite was formed in meteoric water in room temperature. Based on the above results, the metasomatism zone in Lixin mine experienced at least three stages of hydrothermal metasomatism with the trend of rich in Si and Ca, and the temperature of fluid became cooling.
致謝.................................................................................................................................I
摘要...............................................................................................................................II
Abstract........................................................................................................................III
目錄..............................................................................................................................IV
圖目錄........................................................................................................................VII
表目錄..........................................................................................................................IX
本研究常用礦物名稱縮寫及標準成分對照表..........................................................X
本研究常用地名中英對照表與地名別稱(舊稱).......................................................XI
本研究之露頭與樣本編號縮寫..................................................................................XI
第一章 前言..................................................................................................................1
1.1 研究目的........................................................................................................1
1.2 前人研究........................................................................................................2
1.3 地質背景........................................................................................................6
第二章 研究方法..........................................................................................................9
2.1 野外地質調查與樣本採集..............................................................................9
2.1.1地理位置.................................................................................................9
2.1.2採樣位置...............................................................................................10
2.2 樣本前處理....................................................................................................11
2.2.1 岩石與礦物粉末樣本..........................................................................11
2.2.2 岩石厚片樣本......................................................................................11
2.2.3 岩石光性薄片......................................................................................12
2.2.4 冷鑲埋樣本..........................................................................................13
2.2.5 樣本製備之儀器設備..........................................................................14
2.3 實驗方法與儀器介紹....................................................................................15
2.3.1 X光粉末繞射分析...............................................................................16
2.3.2高解析度場發射式掃描式電子顯微鏡 (FE-SEM) 與能量色散X-
射線光譜分析儀 (EDS).......................................................................18
2.3.3 顯微拉曼光譜儀 (Micro Raman Spectrometer).................................19
2.3.4 偏光顯微鏡 (Polarizing Microscope).................................................21
2.3.5 精密溫控升降溫載物臺 (Heating and Freezing Stage).....................22
2.3.6 雷射剝蝕-電感耦合電漿質譜分析儀 (LA- ICP-MS) .......................23
2.3.7 碳酸鹽叢同位素測溫法 (Carbonate Clumped Isotope
Thermometry).......................................................................................24
2.3.8 鈾釷定年法 (Uranium-Thorium dating).............................................27
2.4 液包體實驗之理論基礎................................................................................30
第三章 結果................................................................................................................31
3.1 野外調查與樣本描述....................................................................................31
3.1.1 野外調查..............................................................................................31
3.1.2 樣本描述..............................................................................................40
3.2 礦物組成鑑定................................................................................................43
3.2.1 X光粉末繞射分析結果.......................................................................43
3.2.2 顯微拉曼光譜分析結果......................................................................44
3.3 岩象觀察........................................................................................................46
3.3.1 蛇紋岩..................................................................................................46
3.3.2 閃玉......................................................................................................46
3.3.3 透輝石脈..............................................................................................47
3.3.4 滑石......................................................................................................48
3.3.5 斜黝簾石岩..........................................................................................49
3.3.6 黝簾石脈..............................................................................................50
3.3.7 石英雲母片岩 (黑色片岩).................................................................50
3.3.8 綠泥石片岩、透閃石-陽起石綠泥石片岩.........................................51
3.4 化學成分分析................................................................................................53
3.4.1 SEM-ED主量元素分析結果............................................................53
3.4.2 LA-ICP-MS微量元素分析結果.......................................................55
3.5 液包體分析....................................................................................................57
3.5.1 液包體之溫度範圍..............................................................................57
3.5.2 液包體之成分分析結果......................................................................60
3.6 定年結果........................................................................................................61
3.7碳酸鹽叢同位素測溫結果.............................................................................63
第四章 討論................................................................................................................65
4.1 透輝石之成因................................................................................................65
4.1.1 透輝石與閃玉的生成溫度..................................................................65
4.1.2 透輝石的生成壓力..............................................................................71
4.1.3 流體性質..............................................................................................72
4.2 透輝石之致色元素........................................................................................73
4.3 理新礦場的碳酸鈣礦物碳氧同位素分析與叢同位素測溫法....................74
4.4 換質帶中岩石與礦物的生成順序................................................................78
第五章 結論................................................................................................................87
參考文獻......................................................................................................................89
附錄一 軟玉礦床探勘開發計劃研究報告-岩芯柱狀圖...........................................97
附錄二 樣本照片......................................................................................................107
附錄三 XRD分析圖譜.............................................................................................117
附錄四 顯微拉曼光譜分析圖譜..............................................................................127
附錄五 礦物與岩石光薄片照片..............................................................................137
附錄六 SEM-EDS原始資料....................................................................................142
附錄七 LA-ICP-MS 原始資料................................................................................148
附錄八 叢同位素測溫法之校正公式與原始資料..................................................151
附錄九 液包體的壓力估算..........................................................................154
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