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研究生:鄭彩雲
研究生(外文):Cheng, Tsai-Yun
論文名稱:北北基國民中學教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Relationships between Positive Affect and Fears of Compassion in Junior High School Teachers in Taipei-Keelung Metropolitan Area
指導教授:張芝萱張芝萱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Chih-Hsuan
口試委員:鄒小蘭林志聖張芝萱
口試委員(外文):Tsou, Hsiao-LanLin, Chih-ShengChang, Chih-Hsuan
口試日期:2020-01-14
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:國中教師正向情感慈悲心理慈悲憂慮
外文關鍵詞:junior high school teacherpositive affectcompassionfears of compassion
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教師的心理健康,長期以來備受各界關注。研究顯示,教師的正向情感對學生學習及人格發展有正面影響;慈悲的涉入與行動有緩解負面情緒的效果,如抑鬱或焦慮等。然而,在某些情境下,人們是否願意慈悲,卻可能有不同程度的憂慮。爰此,本研究以北北基國中教師為對象,進行正向情感與慈悲憂慮的現況調查,據以探討其正向情感與慈悲憂慮心理有何特徵與關聯。具體而言,本研究的目的如下:
一、了解北北基國民中學教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮之現況。
二、分析北北基不同背景(區域、性別、年齡、年資、婚姻狀態、最高學歷、宗教信仰及休閒活動時間)的國民中學教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮之差異情形。
三、探究北北基國民中學教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮高低分組之差異情形。
四、分析不同類型正向情感(主動積極型、放鬆舒緩型、安全溫暖型)與不同向度的慈悲憂慮(對人慈悲的憂慮、接受慈悲的憂慮、自我慈悲的憂慮)的關係。
根據研究目的,本研究採用問卷調查法,翻譯英國學者Paul Gilbert,2008年之「正向情感類型問卷」及2010年之「慈悲憂慮問卷」,以分層隨機取樣方式,從北北基國中抽取600名教師進行問卷調查,以了解教師之正向情感及慈悲憂慮的現狀,並分析正向情感與慈悲憂慮之差異與關係。問卷回收520份,去除無效問卷20份後,獲得500份之有效問卷,回收率83%。利用SPSS進行問卷資料的量化分析:以描述性統計分析、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數、多變量分析、典型相關分析等進行,並根據結果進行討論。所得結論包括如下:
一、北北基國中教師之正向情感由高到低依序為:安全溫暖型、主動積極型、放鬆舒緩型,其正向情感在中上程度範圍2.41-2.82(5點量表;範圍0~4)。
二、北北基國中教師之慈悲憂慮由高到低依序為:對人慈悲的憂慮、接受慈悲的憂慮、自我慈悲的憂慮,其中對人慈悲的憂慮中上程度(範圍2.28);接受慈悲的憂慮(範圍1.38)與自我慈的憂慮(範圍1.23)中下程度(5點量表;範圍0~4)。
三、在正向情感層面,不同區域、性別、婚姻狀態及休閒運動時間等國中教師,其正向情感有顯著差異,而年齡、年資、宗教信仰等背景變項無顯著差異:
(一)北北基男性教師之正向情感高於女性教師。
(二)北北基已婚教師之安全溫暖型情感高於未婚教師,尤其資深已婚教師之三種正向情感均高於未婚。
(三)基隆市女性教師之主動積極與安全溫暖型情感高於臺北市女性教師。
(四)臺北市男教師之正向情感高於女教師。
(五)休閒運動時間越長,則放鬆舒緩型與安全溫暖型情感越高。
四、在慈悲憂慮層面,不同性別的國中教師,其慈悲憂慮有顯著差異,男性教師之慈悲憂慮高於女性教師。而區域、年齡、年資、婚姻狀態、宗教信仰、休閒活動時間等背景變項無顯著差異。
五、經相關分析發現,正向情感越高,其自我慈悲的憂慮與接受慈悲的憂慮越低,兩者呈低度負相關。其中,安全溫暖型的正向情感與自我慈悲憂慮之負相關最高,而放鬆舒緩型的正向情緒,與三種慈悲憂慮無顯著負相關。對人慈悲的憂鬱與三種正向情感均未達顯著相關。
六、以三種正向情感高低分組進行差異分析發現,主動積極型情感越高者,其接受慈悲的憂慮越低;放鬆舒緩型情感越高者,其自我慈悲的憂慮越低;安全溫暖型情感越高者,其接受慈悲的憂慮、自我慈悲的憂慮越低。
七、以三種慈悲憂慮高低分組進行差異分析發現,接受慈悲的憂慮越高者與自我慈悲的憂慮越高者,其三種正向情感均低。
八、經典型相關分析得知,北北基國民中學教師三種正向情感與三種慈悲憂慮之整體關聯存有兩組典型因素。第一組典型相關係數.293,第二組典型相關係數.141,兩組典型相關均達顯著水準。第一組典型因素顯示,三種正向情緒均低時,三種慈悲憂慮均高,其中安全溫暖型正向情感與自我慈悲憂慮、接受慈悲的憂慮相關性最高(結構係數大於.8)。第二組典型因素顯示,主動積極型正向情感高,而安全溫暖與放鬆紓緩正向情感低時,則自我慈悲的憂慮高。
本研究顯示探究教師是否願意慈悲的重要性,及不同類型的正向情感(主動積極型、放鬆舒緩型、安全溫暖型)與慈悲憂慮(對人慈悲的憂慮、接受慈悲的憂慮、自我慈悲的憂慮)之關聯。為促進教師之心理健康,建議未來可針對主動積極型與安全溫暖型正向情感,及教師對人慈悲憂慮之相關因素進行深入探究。最後,依據研究結果提出具體建議,供學校教師、相關單位及未來研究者參考。
There is increasing research highly concerning that teachers with positive affect influence students significantly, and compassion is antidote to negative affect. However, some individuals from different cultural contexts may find compassion for others, self-compassion or receiving compassion difficult. It’s unclear how fears of compassion are linked to a teacher of junior high school, and what associations with fears and positive affect are.
The purposes of the study are to explore the level of the positive affect, fears of compassion, and their relationships on junior high school teachers. The aims for this study attempted to explore that:
1. The level of positive affect and fears of compassion on junior high school teachers in Taipei-Keelung Metropolitan Area.
2. The differences between the junior high school teachers of different backgrounds in Taipei-Keelung Metropolitan Area.
3. The differences between the higher group and the lower group in positive affect and fears of compassion.
4. The relationships between positive affect and fears of compassion of junior high school teachers in Taipei-Keelung Metropolitan Area.
The junior high school teachers (N = 500) from Taipei, New Taipei and Keelung City completed two scales developed by Gilbert: Three Types of Positive Affect Scale (2008) and Fears of Compassion Scale (2011). The questionnaire survey was used to collect quantitative data. For quantitative analysis, the stratified random sampling method was applied to collect the data by distributing 600 questionnaires and 500 questionnaires were available. The data was processed by descriptive analysis, analysis of variance, independent sample t-test, correlation, and canonical correlation analysis.
The main findings were as the following:
1. The positive affect for the target teachers decreased in the order: safe/warm positive affect, active positive affect, and relaxed positive affect. The positive affect (2.41~2.82) were above the average in 5-point Likert scale ranges from 0 to 4.
2. The fears of compassion for others (2.28) was above the average in 5-point Likert scale ranges from 0 to 4, while the fears of compassion from others and for self were under average (1.38-1.23).
3. The background variables like the gender, city, the sports and recreation frequency, and marriage have the significant influence on positive affect, while the other background variables like age, job tenure, and religion were no significant.
A. The male teachers’ positive affect was higher than the female teachers’.
B. Safe/warm positive affect for the married teachers was higher than the unmarried ones.
C. In Keelung, the female teachers’ safe/warm and active positive affect were higher than the female teachers’ in Taipei.
D. In Taipei City, the male teachers’ positive affect was higher than the female teachers’.
E. The more the sports and recreation frequency was, the higher the relaxed and safe/warm positive affect were.
4. The male teachers’ fears of compassion were higher than the female teachers’ while the other background variables like city, age, job tenure, marriage, religion and the sports and recreation frequency had no significance.
5. Positive affect negatively associated with fears of compassion, and the safe/warm affect was the strongest factor to reduce the fears, particularly for oneself and from others. Relaxed positive affect had no significant differences with the three fears. What’s more, the fear of compassion for others had no significant differences with the three types of positive affects.
6. From the higher and lower groups analysis for positive affect, teachers with higher active positive affect had lower fears of compassion from others. Teachers with higher relaxed positive affect had lower fear of compassion for self. Teachers with higher safe/warm positive affect had lower fear of compassion for self.
7. From the higher and lower groups analysis for fears of compassion, teachers with high fear of compassion from others, as well as high fear of compassion for self had low positive affect in three types.
8. In the canonical correlation analysis, the lower three types of positive affect were, the higher three fears of compassion were, especially the correlations of safe/warm positive affect and fears of compassion for self and from others. Besides, teachers with high active affect but low safe/warm and relaxed affects responded with a high fear of self-compassion.
This study indicates the importance of exploring whether teachers might resist engaging in compassion and relationships with different types of positive affects. For facilitating the teachers’ mental health, it suggests the issues of further research on the impacts of active and safe/warm positive affects and on the factors related to fears of compassion for others.
摘要 I
Abstract III
目次 V
圖次 VI
表次 VII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 4
第三節 名詞釋義 4
第四節 研究範圍與限制 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 情感與正向情感之意涵與相關研究 8
第二節 慈悲與慈悲憂慮之意涵與相關研究 20
第三節 正向情感與慈悲心理之相關研究 29
第三章 研究設計 44
第一節 研究架構 44
第二節 研究對象 46
第三節 研究工具 52
第四節 研究方法與步驟 69
第五節 資料處理與分析 71
第四章 結果與討論 73
第一節 北北基國中教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮之現況分析 73
第二節 北北基不同背景的國中教師正向情感之差異 76
第三節 北北基不同背景的國中教師慈悲憂慮之差異 86
第四節 北北基國中教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮之關係 91
第五節 北北基國中教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮之典型相關 99
第五章 結論與建議 104
第一節 結論 104
第二節 建議 107
參考文獻 110
附錄 119
附錄一 北北基國民中學教師正向情感與慈悲心理之專家效度問卷 119
附錄二 北北基國民中學教師正向情感與慈悲憂慮之正式調查問卷 138
附錄三 北北基國民中學教師正向情感與慈悲心理之預試調查問卷 143
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