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研究生:葉昂
研究生(外文):Ang Yeh
論文名稱:何以見「波瀾之無窮」?:以焦點團體訪談方法探討水景觸發的超越自我體驗
論文名稱(外文):Using focus group method to explore self-transcendent experience in waterscapes
指導教授:張俊彥
指導教授(外文):Chun-Yen Chang
口試委員:張伯茹侯錦雄歐聖榮彭立沛
口試委員(外文):Po-Ju ChangJing-Shoung HouSheng-Jung OuLi-Pei Peng
口試日期:2020-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝暨景觀學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:自然景觀質性研究焦點團體訪談超越自我體驗
外文關鍵詞:naturelandscapequalitative researchfocus groupself-transcendent experience
DOI:10.6342/NTU202002457
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超越自我體驗(self-transcendent experience)是一短暫且主觀的特殊體驗,其中主要包含自我意識的消減,同時伴隨著自我界限的減少,以及對他人或對周圍環境的連結感和一體感的增強(Yaden, et. al., 2017),該體驗擴及多項具實證研究結果的心理體驗,如:高峰體驗、心流和敬畏感等。
在自然環境中會觸發類似的體驗,包含在荒野環境、水體等環境,而在高大的瀑布、樹木或持續的昆蟲聲等亦可能會成為具魅力和引人注意的焦點;同時,可從前人研究中得知水體可能提供多項生心理效益,卻少有研究針對水景環境的超越自我體驗進行實證研究的探討。因此,為瞭解超越自我體驗,承接前人研究特殊體驗的質性方法,採用焦點團體訪談方式,經非隨機立意抽樣方式篩選受訪者,共招募15名具相關經驗且近期有接觸水景環境之國立臺灣大學學生,每次五人,共三次的焦點團體訪談。
經過開放式編碼、焦點式編碼及選擇性編碼分析歸納後,對超越自我體驗提出概念性架構,其中包含「體驗情境」、「體驗當下感受」和「體驗後影響及價值」三個主範疇:「體驗情境」範疇包含「個人背景」、「前置條件」和「水景環境」;「體驗當下感受」則可分成「生理感受」及「心理感受」;而「體驗影響」則由「短期影響」、「長期影響」及「體驗價值」所構成。依照概念性架構,本研究將超越自我體驗定義為一個短暫的主觀感受,由外在環境、行為或當下的狀態所觸發,突然來的體驗造成自我的思緒意識和身心感受的忘卻,融入當前的情境,產生或改變情緒,而身體則會感到放鬆及感官變敏銳等主觀身體感受,最終,對人產生恢復性或增益性的短期影響,以及改變價值或行為的長期影響。
「體驗情境」中的「背景條件」部分僅有「個人背景」和「從事行為」觀察到會影響超越自我體驗的觸發;同時,在「前置條件」的「負面狀態」、「感官接收改變」和「無法掌控性」三種條件下,容易觸發超越自我體驗。在「水景環境」方面,從焦點團體訪談中萃取出六項與超越自我體驗觸發相關的景觀元素分類:「整體性」、「壯闊性」、「重複性」、「美質性」、「變化性」和「危險性」。
「體驗當下感受」和」「體驗後影響及價值」除了獲得與過去研究對超越自我體驗所提及的一致主觀感受特徵,包含「忘卻自我」、「融入當前情境」、「時間感」和「空間感改變」等。在影響方面有共同的「使情緒平靜」、「產生反思」、「放鬆感」、「產生正向情緒」等「短期影響」,亦發現在過去少被提及的「降低社交動機」;「長期影響」方面,發現與過去文獻相符的「改變價值觀」、「改變行為」、「再次接觸水體動機」和「回想回味」;最終,「體驗價值」方面超越自我體驗雖被認為具有「特殊性和稀少性」、「恢復性」和「逃離性」等正向體驗價值。於研究最後,對於塑造具有觸發超越自我體驗之潛力環境,給予設計規畫建議。
Self-transcendent experience was defined as a type of transient and subjective experience, which mainly included the reduction of self-consciousness, the reduction of self-limits, and the enhancement on the sense of connection and oneness to others or to the environment (Yaden, et. al., 2017), and they related to multiple psychological experiences with empirical research results, such as: peak experience, flow, and awe. In spite of the variety of terms, these experiences were often discussed together because of its similar state of consciousness and transient loss of the sense of self.
STEs were found triggered in natural environments, including wilderness environments, water bodies, etc., and tall waterfalls, trees, or continuous natural sounds might als found as a fascinating and attractive visual focus. Meanwhile, it was proved by previous studies that water bodies might provide multiple psychological benefits; however, few studies have conducted empirical research on the self-transcendent experience in waterscape environments. As a result, this research focused on STEs in waterscapes. Three rounds of focus group interviews were held, composed of a total of 15 people with relevant and recent experience were recruited.
By means of the three-step coding and analysis process: a conceptual framework for self-transcendent experience was proposed, which included three main categories: "experience context", "subjective feelings" and "post-experience influence and value". According to the conceptual framework, this study defined self-transcendent experience as a salient subjective feeling, triggered by external environment, behavior, or the current mental state. The sudden experience caused subjective and physical feelings such as, the forgetting of the thoughts, self-consciousness, the integration into the current environment, the alteration of emotions, and the relaxation of the body. Eventually, the experience caused the short-term effects and the long-term effects on changing values and behaviors.
In the "background conditions" part of the "experience situation", only the "personal background" and "behaviors" were observed to affect the triggers of STEs; at the same time, under the "negative state", "sensory changes" and "Uncontrollability", it is easy to trigger STEs. In terms of "waterscape environment", six categories of landscape elements related to the trigger of STEs were extracted from focus group interviews: "integrity", "magnificence", "repetition", "beauty", "constantly changing" and "danger".
The “subjective feelings" and "post-experience influence and value" in addition to obtaining the same subjective feeling characteristics mentioned in the past research, including "self-forgetting", "integration into the current environment", "timelessness" and " spacelessness" etc. In terms of influence, there are common "short-term effects" such as "calming emotions", "generating reflections", "relaxation", and "generating positive emotions", and also found "reduced social motivation" that has been rarely mentioned in the past; In terms of “long-term impact”, “value change” and “behavioral change” are found in line with the previous literature; in the end, the “value of the experience” is considered to be “special and rare”, “restorative”, “again” The positive experience values of “motive for contact with water”, “recalling aftertaste” and “escape” At the end of the study, the design and planning suggestions for shaping an environment with the potential to trigger STEs were provided.
謝辭 i
摘要 iii
Abstract v
目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 3
第三節 研究目的及研究範圍 5
第二章 文獻回顧 7
第一節 超越性與超越自我 7
第二節 超越自我體驗及相關體驗 9
第三節 水景環境與超越自我體驗 19
第三章 研究方法 22
第一節 研究架構 22
第二節 研究流程 22
第三節 質性訪談 23
第四節 焦點團體訪談方法 25
第五節 焦點團體問項 26
第六節 焦點團體執行 29
第四章 資料分析 33
第一節 逐字稿建立 33
第二節 開放性編碼—資料切割 35
第三節 焦點編碼—多方觀點確立、精煉代碼 39
第四節 選擇性編碼—以故事線分析體驗歷程 51
第五章 超越自我體驗架構及討論 87
第一節 超越自我體驗架構 87
第六章 遊憩體驗和水景環境塑造建議 128
第一節 空間觀點分析觸發超越自我體驗的條件因子 128
第二節 超越自我體驗和環境塑造 131
第三節 後續研究限制及研究建議 139
參考文獻 141
附錄 147
附錄一、原創性比對結果 147
附錄二、引用文獻原文 149
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