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研究生:林家任
研究生(外文):Chia-Jen Lin
論文名稱:CMOS製程下應用於5G通訊Ka頻段切換式功率偵測器
論文名稱(外文):Ka-band Switchable Power Detectors in CMOS Process for 5G Communication
指導教授:盧信嘉
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Chia Lu
口試委員:林坤佑蔡政翰張譽騰
口試委員(外文):Kun-You LinJeng-Han TsaiYu-Teng Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電子工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:毫米波功率偵測電路自動增益調變放大器共閘極整流器可切換功率偵測系統5G通訊
外文關鍵詞:millimeter wavepower detectorautomatic gain control amplifiercommon gate rectifierswitch control power detector5G communication
DOI:10.6342/NTU201904350
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本論文主要研究毫米波頻段相關功率量測電路,操作頻率在28 GHz,為第五代通訊系統所適用之Ka頻段。首先將介紹傳統功率量測電路架構以及毫米波頻段功率量測系統相關文獻,接著介紹其中電路之架構、原理及應用目的,最後介紹本論文所提出兩種訊號偵測系統。
本論文提出之第一個電路為透過開關切換兩路平行式的 Ka頻段功率量測系統,使用台積電90nm CMOS製程,晶片面積為0.9mm x 0.49 mm,系統將輸入射頻訊號轉為輸出直流電壓。利用兩路平行架構,第一路搭載可變增益放大器串接共閘極功率偵測器,可量測到較小功率。第二路搭載單一共閘極功率偵測器,可量測到較大功率,並藉由開關控制訊號路徑,提升功率量測範圍及靈敏度,並偵測更小功率訊號。本偵測系統於28GHz下及線性誤差為1dB以下時,可量測-33.6 dBm至7.4 dBm訊號,頻寬為2GHz,靈敏度最高為46.8 mV/dB,靜態直流功耗為34 mW。
本論文提出之第二個電路為應用自動增益控制放大器之Ka頻段功率量測系統,使用台積電180nm CMOS製程,晶片面積為1.05mm x 0.685 mm,系統將輸入射頻功率轉為輸出直流電壓,利用單一共閘極整流器串接三態可變增益放大器,並藉由兩組比較器根據輸入訊號控制可變增益放大器之增益,實現自動切換輸入輸出轉移曲線,提高實用性、偵測範圍及靈敏度,並偵測更小輸入訊號。本偵測系統於28GHz下及線性誤差為1dB以下時,可偵測-47.2 dBm至-5.7 dBm訊號,頻寬為2 GHz,靈敏度最高為41.4 mV/dB,靜態直流功耗為35 mW。
本論文採用Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS)軟體進行電路模擬,被動走線及其他元件之電磁響應模擬則使用Sonnet軟體。晶片量測與模擬結果大致吻合,模擬修正及結果討論將分別於第四章及第五章探討。
This thesis presents two power detectors in Ka-band for 5G communication and they are proposed to measure power in real-time for the wireless communication system.
The first chip in this thesis uses a parallel structure which converts input RF power to output dc voltage. This chip is fabricated in TSMC 90-nm CMOS process and the chip size is 0.9 mm x 0.49 mm. The proposed power detection system uses a switch to switch between two paths. One path has amplifier with common gate power detector for power detection of small input power, while the other path has only one common gate power detector for large input power detection. With switch control, we can realize wide dynamic range, low detected power, and excellent sensitivity. The measured dynamic range is from -33.6 dBm to 7.4 dBm at 28GHz, with 2GHz bandwidth under 1dB log-error. The dc power consumption is 34 mW with supplied voltage at 1.2V.
The second chip has a automatic gain switch amplifier which also converts input RF power to output dc voltage. This chip is fabricated in TSMC 180-nm CMOS process and the chip size is 1.05 mm x 0.685 mm. The proposed power detect system consists of four variable gain amplifiers and common gate power detector in series. Variable gain amplifier is controlled by comparator based on output dc voltage. With variable gain amplifiers, we can achieve wide dynamic range, low detected power, and excellent sensitivity. The measured dynamic range is from -47.2 dBm to -5.7 dBm at 28GHz, with 2 GHz bandwidth under 1dB log-error. The dc power consumption is 35 mW with supplied voltage 1.8V.
The chips proposed in this thesis were designed by using Keysight ADS and Sonnet for the circuit and EM simulation. The measurement results fit well with the simulation.
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURE vii
LIST OF TABLES xiii
Chapter 1 簡介 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.2.1 傳統功率偵測架構 4
1.2.2 射頻外差功率偵測系統 5
1.2.3 對數功率偵測系統 5
1.3 論文貢獻 6
1.4 各章節重點介紹 8
Chapter 2 功率偵測器概論 10
2.1 簡介 10
2.2 功率偵測器特性參數介紹 10
2.2.1 線性度及線性誤差 11
2.2.2 最低可偵測功率 11
2.2.3 動態範圍 12
2.2.4 靈敏度 12
2.2.5 輸入增益壓縮點 12
2.3 功率偵測電路架構介紹 14
2.3.1 傳統二極體功率偵測電路 14
2.3.2 射頻超外差功率偵測電路架構 15
2.3.3 對數功率偵測電路架構 16
2.3.4 可切換功率偵測電路架構 18
2.4 可變增益放大器介紹 19
2.4.1 偏壓調控可變增益放大器 19
2.4.2 N型電流導向可變增益放大器 20
2.4.3 P型電流導向可變增益放大器 22
2.5 功率偵測器 24
2.5.1 共源極回授源極退化對數功率偵測器 24
2.5.2 電晶體負載式疊接功率偵測器 25
2.5.3 毫米波共閘極功率偵測器 27
2.6 比較器 30
2.6.1 施密特觸發器 30
Chapter 3 功率偵測電路設計 32
3.1 簡介 32
3.2 設計流程 32
3.3 28 GHz平行式之可切換功率偵測系統 33
3.3.1 規格制訂 33
3.3.2 電路架構 34
3.3.3 二階電感電容四分之一波長開關 35
3.3.4 共閘極功率偵測器 38
3.3.5 可變增益放大器 43
3.3.6 28 GHz平行式之可切換功率偵測系統 49
3.3.7 電路佈局 54
3.3.8 特性比較 55
3.4 28 GHz 自動切換功率偵測系統 56
3.4.1 規格制訂 56
3.4.2 電路架構 57
3.4.3 共閘級功率偵測器 59
3.4.4 可變增益放大器 63
3.4.5 施密特觸發比較器 74
3.4.6 28 GHz 自動切換功率偵測系統 78
3.4.7 電路佈局 83
3.4.8 特性比較 84
Chapter 4 量測結果 85
4.1 印刷電路板設計 85
4.2 28GHz平行式之可切換功率偵測系統量測 86
4.2.1 晶片與外焊電容 86
4.2.2 量測環境 88
4.2.3 S參數 88
4.2.4 輸入輸出轉移曲線 90
4.2.5 直流功耗 94
4.2.6 電路特性比較 95
4.2.7 模擬修正 96
4.3 28 GHz自動切換功率偵測系統量測 100
4.3.1 晶片與外焊電容 100
4.3.2 量測環境 102
4.3.3 S參數 102
4.3.4 輸入輸出轉換曲線 103
4.3.5 切換速度 107
4.3.6 直流功耗 109
4.3.7 電路特性比較 109
4.3.8 模擬修正 110
Chapter 5 結論 115
參考文獻 117
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