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研究生:陳冠任
研究生(外文):Guan-Ren Chen
論文名稱:基於反電勢無角度感測器控制之基礎問題與改善
論文名稱(外文):Fundamental sensing issues on EMF-based sensorless drive
指導教授:李綱李綱引用關係
口試委員:林法正楊勝明劉添華蔡明祺蔡孟勳
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:238
中文關鍵詞:永磁馬達無感測器控制反電動勢估測
外文關鍵詞:PMSMSensorless controlBack-EMF estimation
DOI:10.6342/NTU202000587
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本論文針對非凸極型永磁馬達的無感測器控制,提出一系列延伸可用轉速域的方法。本文將分別就低速以及高速兩方面,分析造成系統可控制性降低的關鍵感測問題。為了徹底處理電壓源變頻器所引入的非線性,首先提出一種量測脈寬調變相電壓之高頻寬量測方法;經由這種量測方式得到的相電壓具有高解析度,可用於增進反電動勢無感測器控制於低速的估測準確度。為了更進一步的改善反電勢無感測器控制在低速時對負載響應強韌度不足的問題,再提出基於磁通電壓模型進行無感測器控制的方法。而在提升高速極限方面,首先推導出馬達反電勢估測的數位化模型,以此評估不同角度估測方法的動態範圍,再一併整合進所提出的高速數位化估測器中,達到增加系統於低採樣點數時的穩定性以及動態性能之效果。為了驗證上述演算法相較於主流估測方法之改善,文中也提出可供參考之相關實驗結果;且這些演算法具備了整合成全轉速域通用方法的潛力,將可用於延伸表面貼磁式永磁馬達的操作轉速域。更重要的是,所有提出的方法都能以合理的成本實現於實務應用中。
This research provides a series of approaches on extending the utilizable speed region for non-salient motor position sensorless drives. Key position sensing issues casuing the degradation on controllability have been analyzed at both low-speed and high-speed. To substantially conquer voltage-source inverter nonlinearities, a high-bandwidth PWM voltage measurement technique has been developed. It can be applied to increase the low-speed EMF estimation accuracy. Furthermore, in order to improve the insufficient stiffness of EMF-based drive at low-speed, a modified voltage-model flux-based position estimation is proposed. For high-speed sensorless operation, a novel discretized estimation is derived to enhance the stability and dynamic response for the controller with low-sampling point condition. Each algorithm has been compared with existing solutions to ensure the improvement on position sensorless drives. These algorithms are capable to integrate into a single scheme to extend operating region of surface permanent magent (PM) machine drives. More importantly, all proposed methods can be realized in practical way with reasonable cost.
中文摘要 vi
Abstract viii
Table of Contents x
List of Figures xiv
List of Tables xxviii
Nomenclature xxx
Introduction
I.1 Motivation and objectives 1
I.2 Organization of thesis 3
Chapter 1
State of the Art Review
1.1 State-of-the-art PM machine sensorless control 6
1.1.1 Initial position detection on PM machines 7
1.1.2 High frequency injection on salient PM machine 11
1.1.3 Back electromotive force on PM machine 19
1.1.4 The transition between different position estimation schemes 21
1.2 Back-EMF tracking for sensorless control 23
1.2.1 General issues of EMF-based position estimation 24
1.2.2 Forward EMF estimation 28
1.2.3 Observer-based estimation 38
1.2.4 SNR enhancement techniques 52
1.3 Low speed sensorless drive issues 56
1.3.1 Inverter nonlinearities 56
1.3.2 Voltage error compensating techniques 58
1.3.3 Current sensing deviation 62
1.3.4 Uncertainties in the PM machine 67
1.4 High speed sensorless drive issues 77
1.4.1 Field weakening control 78
1.4.2 Current control and discretization 82
1.4.3 Other high-speed issues 92
1.5 Flux, torque and speed estimation 97
1.5.1 Flux estimation 97
1.5.2 Torque estimation 104
1.5.3 Speed estimation and disturbance elimination 105
1.6 Research opportunities 109
1.6.1 Inverter deadtime compensation at low speed 109
1.6.2 Flux-based position estimation at low speed 109
1.6.3 Discretized effect of back-EMF at high speed 110
Chapter 2
Phase Voltage Measurement on EMF-based Sensorless Drive
2.1 EMF-based estimation at low-speed 112
2.1.1 Inverter nonlinearities 112
2.1.2 Existed feedback compensation topology 112
2.1.3 Considerations of feedback compensation 115
2.2 Reconstruct phase voltage by digital integration 117
2.2.1 Proposed voltage sensor 118
2.2.2 Circuit functionality verification 122
2.2.3 Evaluation of voltage sensing accuracy 125
2.3 Voltage sensor on EMF estimation 129
2.3.1 Back-EMF estimation 129
2.3.2 Experimental configuration 132
2.3.3 Back-EMF estimation with voltage feedback 132
2.3.4 Sensorless control with voltage feedback 137
2.4 Chapter Summary 141

Chapter 3
Flux-based Position Observer for Low-speed Sensorless Drive
3.1 Flux estimation 144
3.1.1 Limitation of EMF estimation 144
3.1.2 Flux estimation of PM machine 145
3.1.3 Parameter sensitivity associated with different flux model 146
3.1.4 Selecting the suitable flux observer for sensorless drive 151
3.2 Voltage-model based flux observer 152
3.2.1 Anti-drift integrator 153
3.2.2 Phase voltage measurement for flux estimation 155
3.2.3 Simulation of modified integrator with feedback voltage 156
3.3 Proposed Flux-based sensorless drive 161
3.3.1 Sensorless topology modification 161
3.3.2 Experimental SNR evaluation 163
3.3.3 Experimental dynamical performance evaluation 168
3.4 Chapter Summary 172
Chapter 4
Discretized Scheme for High-speed EMF-based Drive
4.1 Discretization effect on EMF estimation 174
4.1.1 Discrete-time machine model 174
4.1.2 Analysis on discretized EMF induced estimation inaccuracy 178
4.2 Current observer with EMF discretization effect 182
4.2.1 Delay-related inductive cross-coupling decoupling 183
4.2.2 Voltage delay compensation 184
4.2.3 Discretized model to obtain sampled EMF 184
4.2.4 Bandwidth design for observer 186
4.2.5 Experimental evaluation 188
4.3 Position sensing for high-speed operation 193
4.3.1 Discretized EMF for position estimation 193
4.3.2 Analysis on position estimation at High Speed 196
4.3.3 Experimental evaluation 203
4.3.4 Summary of discretized position observer 208
4.4 Chapter Summary 209
Chapter 5
Conclusions, Contributions and Future Work
5.1 Conclusions 211
5.2 Research contributions 215
5.3 Suggested Future Work 223
Bibliographies 225
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