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研究生:張之琳
研究生(外文):Zhi-Lin Zhang
論文名稱:獨白式「吐槽」話語設計及緩和策略:以脫口秀節目為例
論文名稱(外文):Constructing Roasting Monologues Based on a Talk Show:Structural Designs and Mitigating Strategies
指導教授:蔡宜妮蔡宜妮引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Ni Tsai
口試委員:劉德馨呂佳蓉
口試委員(外文):Te-hsin LiuChia-Rung Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:華語教學碩士學位學程
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:吐槽話語設計緩和策略不禮貌話語
外文關鍵詞:TucaoDiscourse DesignMitigation StrategiesImpoliteness Discourse
DOI:10.6342/NTU202000158
相關次數:
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禮貌話語的研究曾一直是語用學的顯學,然而近二三十年來不禮貌話語的研究獲得越來越多關注。當今社會對於傳統定義上的不禮貌行為包容性越來越高,甚至具有證明人際關係親密等正面作用。當人們企圖創造幽默時,也常需藉助不禮貌話語,從傳統的相聲藝術到新興的綜藝節目,均可見到其身影。其中一種被稱為「吐槽」的不禮貌話語,指以他人不合常規期待的行為或話語為切入點,通過戲謔、調侃的幽默方式表達不滿或感歎等一般較為負面的態度。在中國大陸,吐槽作為一種興起不久的表達方式,受到年輕人的喜愛並不斷得到創新、拓展,甚至形成了一種亞文化,而這股風潮在網路互動和綜藝節目中得到了密集的體現。在具有機構性質的公開場合,表達具有不禮貌性質的吐槽話語也會受到一定的華人文化和市場限制的壓力,其表現可能與日常生活中的吐槽略有不同。通過對節目的觀察,可以幫助探看經過說話者預先設計的吐槽話語具有怎樣的特點。
本研究為質化研究,採用會話分析的方法論,以在中國大陸廣受歡迎的網路綜藝脫口秀節目《吐槽大會》(第二季)為研究對象,觀察來賓在節目中如何因應節目的效果要求對其他來賓進行獨白式的吐槽,又採用了怎樣的緩和策略舒緩被吐槽來賓的負面感受和現場氛圍。本研究觀察到來賓較顯著而高頻地使用了一些結構設計和幽默設計的策略。結構設計包括細節話語的結構設計及整體話語的結構設計,前者展現了三種連結、轉換吐槽對象和目標的策略:對比、遞進、再次提及;後者則透過一例個案進行詳細的剖析,梳理其整體的結構設計思路並兼顧細部的處理。此外,吐槽者們的緩和話語也體現了應用委婉語的禮貌策略和自我吐槽策略等緩和策略。在節目的機構性和幽默的語境下,被吐槽者的解讀偏向娛樂目的而非冒犯目的,但集中的不禮貌攻擊仍舊可能使其產生負面的心理感受,故緩和策略也有其存在的必要。
One of the main fields of pragmatics is research on politeness. However, impoliteness has drawn more and more attention among researchers in the past two decades. Why people do impoliteness? Impoliteness has a positive effect on stengthening the intimacy of interpersonal relationships; in addition, humor also invovles impolite expressions, such as in traditional cross-talk art, in emerging variety television and online shows. In mainland China, ‘roasting (tucao)’ is a kind of verbal practice that has been developed by young people and continues to transform and expand. “Tucao” has formed a subculture, which has intensively reflected in online interaction and variety shows. The expression of impoliteness in institutional occasions is also subject to certain Chinese culture and market restrictions, and its performance may be slightly different from that in daily conversations.
This study is a qualitative research, using the method of conversational analysis, to examine the popular Internet talk show “Roast (Tucao Dahui)” (the second season) in mainland China. The goal of the study is to observe how guests roasting others construct their discrouse and what kind of mitigation strategy is adopted to soothe the negative feelings and atmosphere. This study has shown that some structural designs and strategies with humor effects—both of overall discourse and the details in the discourse—are frequently deoployed.. For example, three important strategies to link and transform the object and target are contrasting, escalating, and re-referencing. In addition, this study has also focused on mitigation strategies. Understanding entertainment as the agenda of the show, viewers tend to interpre the seemingly impolite “tucao” practices as entertaining rather than offensive, yet mitigation strategies are implemented, constituting an important part in the ‘tucao’ discourse.
謝誌 ii
摘要 iv
Abstract v
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 2
第一節 研究動機與背景 2
第二節 研究問題 4
第三節 研究架構 6
第二章 文獻回顧 8
第一節 機構性話語 8
第二節 禮貌與不禮貌研究 17
第三節 「吐槽」及相關概念的研究 29
第三章 研究方法 40
第一節 語料說明及定義 40
第二節 語料分析方式 44
第三節 轉寫標記 47
第四章 吐槽話語的設計特點 48
第一節 結構的設計特色 49
第二節 吐槽的幽默設計 75
第五章 吐槽話語的緩和策略 92
第一節 緩和策略 94
第二節 緩和後轉折策略 105
第三節 自我吐槽的緩和策略 109
第六章 結論 116
第一節 研究結果 116
第二節 研究限制與展望 118
參考文獻 120
附錄 131
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