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研究生:蔡文瀚
研究生(外文):TSAI, WEN-HAN
論文名稱:具到達波束方向估算功能之天線追蹤系統開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of an Antenna Tracking System with Estimation Function in Direction of Arrival
指導教授:劉文忠劉文忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIU, WEN-CHUNG
口試委員:吳昭明蘇哲尉
口試委員(外文):WU, CHAO-MINGSU, ZHE-WEI
口試日期:2020-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立虎尾科技大學
系所名稱:飛機工程系航空與電子科技碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:天線追蹤系統到達方向(DOA)LoRa加權質心演算法(WCA)
外文關鍵詞:Antenna Tracking SystemDirection Of Arrival(DOA)LoRaWeighted Centroid Algorithm (WCA)
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本研究為設計一套具到達波束方向估算功能之天線追蹤系統,利用此
系統增加地面站與無人載具間的訊號傳輸距離。此系統分為地面站與機載
兩次系統,地面站次系統利用估算訊號波束到達方向與高度資訊追蹤機載
次系統,機載次系統則使用全球導航系統(GNSS)導航與高度資訊來進行地
面站次系統位置的追蹤。
本論文提出具有訊號波束到達方向(DOA)角度功能之天線追蹤系統,其
功能為利用一掃描天線來偵測各方位之接收訊號強度指示(RSSI)數值大小,
再將接收到 RSSI 數值利用改良後的加權質心演算法(WCA)進行 DOA 角度
估算。
本系統採用 STM32F411微處理器做為開發核心,利用 Keil uVision5及
CubeMX 軟體撰寫編譯並實現系統功能。系統組成單元選用衛星定位模組、
九軸感測模組、氣壓感測器、LoRa 傳輸模組、步進馬達及伺服馬達。
本設計中,機載次系統利用 GNSS 與高度資訊計算與地面站夾角,進
而轉動天線對準地面站次系統;地面站次系統使用由不同方位角度接收到
的訊號強度值,結合高度資訊,計算出接收訊號強度最佳角度後,再轉動天
線至此角度,達到追蹤效果。
This research aims to design an antenna tracking system with the function of estimating the direction of arrival angle, and thus use this system to increase the signal transmission distance between the ground station and the unmanned vehicle. The system includes the ground station and the airborne subsystems. In the ground station subsystem, the estimated signal direction and altitude information are used for tracking the airborne subsystem. Whereas for the airborne subsystem, it uses Global Navigation System (GNSS) navigation signal and altitude information to track the location of the ground station. In this thesis an antenna tracking system with a function of estimation the signal direction of arrival (DOA) has been proposed. The function is implemented by using a scanning antenna to detect the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value in all directions, and which is then conducted into the improved weighted centroid algorithm (WCA) to estimate the DOA angle for effectively controlling the antenna to correctly point to the airborne subsystem. This system utilizes STM32F411 microcontrollers as the development core and uses Keil uVision5 and CubeMX software to compile and realize system functions. The system uses GNSS modules, nine-axis sensing module, air pressure sensor, LoRa transmission modules, stepper motor and servo to achieve the tracking v function. In this design, the airborne subsystem uses the GNSS navigation signal and altitude information to calculate the azimuth between the ground station subsystem and the airborne subsystem. Then rotates the antenna to align the ground station subsystem; the ground station subsystem uses the signal strength values received from different azimuth angles combined with the altitude information to calculate the best received signal strength angle. Then turn the antenna to the angle to achieve the tracking effect.
摘要......................................................................................................................i
Abstract ................................................................................................................ii
誌謝......................................................................................................................iv
目錄.....................................................................................................................v
表目錄..................................................................................................................vii
圖目錄................................................................................................................... viii
第一章 緒論 .................................................................................................. 1
1.1 前言 .................................................................................................. 1
1.2 研究動機與目的.............................................................................. 2
1.3 文獻探討 .......................................................................................... 2
1.4 章節概述 .......................................................................................... 4
第二章 背景知識與理論.............................................................................. 6
2.1 定位系統 .......................................................................................... 6
2.1.1 衛星導航系統 (Global Navigation Satellite System,GNSS) 6
2.1.2 三度空間定位 ........................................................................... 6
2.2 通訊協定 .......................................................................................... 9
2.2.1 LPWAN 簡介........................................................................... 9
2.2.2 LoRaWAN 與 LoRa 技術簡介................................................. 9
2.3 加權質心演算法 (Weighted Centroid Algorithm)........................ 11
2.3.1 應用於 DOA 角度估算之加權質心演算法 .......................... 12
2.3.2 改良之 DOA 角度估算加權質心演算法 .............................. 13
2.4 八木天線(Yagi-Uda antenna)設計原理......................................... 14
第三章 天線追蹤系統設計........................................................................ 16
3.1 系統需求 ........................................................................................ 16
3.2 系統架構 ........................................................................................ 16
3.2.1 STM32F411 微處理器............................................................ 18
3.2.2 NEO-M8N 衛星定位模組 ..................................................... 19
3.2.3 CMPS12 九軸感測模組.......................................................... 22
3.2.4 SX1276 LoRa 傳輸模組 ......................................................... 24
3.2.5 伺服與步進馬達 ..................................................................... 27
3.2.6 BMP280 氣壓感測模組......................................................... 31
3.3 開發環境介紹 ................................................................................ 33
3.4 地面站次系統設計........................................................................ 36
3.5 機載次系統設計............................................................................ 40
3.6 八木天線設計 ................................................................................ 42
第四章 系統功能實現與測試 .................................................................... 47
4.1 系統各部件功能測試 .................................................................... 47
4.1.1 SX1276 LoRa 模組傳輸測試................................................. 47
4.1.2 NEO-M8N 衛星定位模組精確度測試.................................. 49
4.1.3 BMP280 氣壓感測模組測試.................................................. 50
4.1.4 CMPS12 九軸感測模組測試.................................................. 50
4.1.5 伺服馬達測試 ......................................................................... 51
4.1.6 WCA 演算法 γ 值分析.......................................................... 52
4.1.7 系統功能測試 ......................................................................... 53
4.2 實驗步驟 ........................................................................................ 56
4.3 系統實驗 ........................................................................................ 56
4.3.1 開闊環境追蹤功能測試 ......................................................... 57
4.3.2 複雜環境追蹤功能測試 ......................................................... 59
4.3.3 無人載具上機追蹤功能測試................................................. 61
4.3.4 測試結果統整 ......................................................................... 64
第五章 結論與未來規劃............................................................................ 66
5.1 結論 ................................................................................................ 66
5.2 未來規劃 ........................................................................................ 66
參考文獻............................................................................................................. 68
附錄..................................................................................................................... 70
Extended Abstract ............................................................................................... 71
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Antenna for Small UAS," 2015 12th International Conference on
Information Technology - New Generations, Las Vegas, NV, 2015, pp.
273-279。
[2] B. C. Min, E. T. Matson, and J. W. Jung, “Active antenna tracking
system with directional antennas for enhancing wireless communication
capabilities of a networked robotic system,” J. of Field Robotics, pp.1-
8, 2015。
[3] 黃俊能,GPS 全球衛星定位系統原理與應用,全華科技圖書股份有
限公司,2007。
[4] W. L. Stutzman, and G. A. Thiele,Antenna Theory and Design 3rd
Edition,John Wiley & Sons, Inc,2013。
[5] M. Hartmann, M. Wohler, M. Schühler, L. Weisgerber, J. Thielecke and A.
Heuberger, "A dual frequency antenna for RSSI-based DOA estimation —
From theory to prototype," 2016 Days on Diffraction (DD), St. Petersburg,
pp. 182-187,2016。
[6] T. Reid, T. Walter, P. Enge. “Qualifying an L5 SBAS MOPS Ephemeris
Message to Support Multiple Orbit Classes.”Proceedings of the 26th
International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of
Navigation (ION GNSS+2013). Nashville, TN, 2013。
[7] J. Gustafsson, and F. Henriksson. “UAV Tracking Device using 2.4 GHz
Video Transmitter”, Luleå University of Technology Master’s Thesis,
2005。
[8] Jiaxing Heroic Electronic Technology Co., Ltd,HR4988 Datasheet
V2.0,2016。
[9] DroneBot Workshop - https://dronebotworkshop.com
[10] LoRa®Alliance,“What is LoRaWAN™”, 2015。
[11] STMicroelectronics,STM32F411 Datasheet Rev. 7.0,2017。
[12] SEMTECH,SX1276/77/78/79 Wireless&Sensing Products Datasheet
Rev. 6,2019。
[13] Robot Electronics,CMPS12 Technical Data。
[14] Bosch Sensortec,BMP280 Digital Pressure Sensor Datasheet Rev.
1.19,2018。
[15] ARM,ARM Cortex-M4 Processor Technical Reference Manual,
2015。
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