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研究生:詹芝妤
研究生(外文):CHAN, CHIH-YU
論文名稱:從計畫行為理論探討消費者累積哩程意圖之研究
論文名稱(外文):Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Study Consumer’s Intention of Accumulating Mileage
指導教授:李奇樺李奇樺引用關係
指導教授(外文):LI, CHI-HUA
口試委員:林聖偉王偉琴
口試委員(外文):LIN, SHENG-WEIWANG, WEI-CHING
口試日期:2020-06-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:世新大學
系所名稱:觀光學研究所(含碩專班)
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:航空聯盟哩程計畫計畫行為理論知覺價值沉沒成本
外文關鍵詞:Airline AllianceMileage PlanTheory of Planned BehaviorPerceived ValueSunk Cost
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隨著國內信用卡銀行業者近年來陸續跟進發行航空聯名卡、哩程信用卡或飛行卡,且有許多針對加速累積哩程的活動,另外又有Facebook哩程相關討論社團的意見領袖或是哩程達人的經驗分享,上述這些因素造成消費者開始透過日常消費來累積哩程,這是一種新的生活風格,也是一種新的消費趨勢,進而也改變新的旅遊計畫行為模式。
過去關於透過信用卡或行動支付消費累積哩程之行為意圖研究較少,多半是針對航空公司哩程酬賓計畫與顧客忠誠度或關係行銷之研究為主,鮮少是從消費者消費累積哩程的研究來探討,透過文獻回顧之結果,進而提出本研究理論架構,以計畫行為理論(包含態度、主觀規範、知覺行為控制)為主架構,並加上知覺價值(享樂價值與功利價值)與沉沒成本,來探討對於消費者消費累積哩程之行為意圖及未來是否再繼續累積哩程之意願。
本研究採用立意抽樣方式進行網路問卷調查,例如:Facebook哩程相關討論社團、Facebook個人及朋友的社群平台、Line群組等社群平台。目標群體為20歲以上使用信用卡或行為支付消費累積哩程之消費者。依據蒐集的數據進行SPSS統計分析,總計回收樣本數為575份,有效樣本為558份,有效回收率為97.04%。回收之樣本資料以T檢定、迴歸分析及單因子變異數分析等,進行進一步的研究分析。
本研究結果顯示:計畫行為理論(包含態度、主觀規範、知覺行為控制)、知覺價值(享樂價值、功利價值)與沉沒成本確實有顯著正向影響消費者消費累積哩程之行為意圖。
因此,本研究給予相關業者之建議,航空公司方面:1.建立共同累積帳戶模式 2.擬定滾動式哩程計畫 3.哩程票旅客權益彈性調整 4.區塊鏈及大數據分析應用 5.建立異業點數交換模式 6.規劃航空聯營策略聯盟;信用卡公司方面:1.強化行動支付行銷策略 2.哩程信用卡合作之航空公司多元化 3.行銷通路區隔化策略;旅行社方面:1.發展哩程講座教學與航空哩程/飯店點數商城 2.旅遊顧問平台及數位化工具應用 3.社群平台及自媒體經營;其它相關產業方面:1. APP設計業者哩程應用程式開發 2.創投業者投資哩程計畫經營管理。
最後,經由上述研究結果給予航空業、信用卡公司、旅行社及相關產業提出行銷策略及未來經營管理之建議,並同時給予後續研究之參考依據。

In recent years, domestic credit card bankers have successively begun to issue airline mileage reward cards, mileage credit cards or flight credit cards and launch many activities aiming at encouraging mileage accumulation. In addition, we have noticed an increasing experience sharing among Key Opinion Leader (KOL) or mileage-accumulation experts of related discussion groups on Facebook and other social media platforms. The above factors have led to consumers’ mileage-accumulating via daily consumption. This is a new lifestyle and a new consumption trend, which in turn evolves into new-type of travel planning behaviors.

Little research has been focused on the behavioral intention of colleting mileage via credit card or mobile payment. Most of the researches focused on airline mileage rewards program and customer loyalty or relationship marketing; very few work discussed the topic from the point view of consumers’ mileage collection. After the completion of literature review, the author has further come up with the theoretical framework of this study. Basing on the framework of the theory of planned behavior (including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) and the perceived value (hedonic value and utilitarian value) as well as the sunk cost, we completed the study discussing the behavioral intention of consumers’ accumulating mileage 『behaviors』and exploring consumers’ further intention to continue to accumulate mileage.

This study adopted purposive sampling methods to conduct online questionnaire surveys; the groups included are as follows: Facebook Mileage related discussion groups, Facebook individuals and friends community platforms, Line groups and other community platforms. The target group is consumers over the age of 20, who used credit cards or mobile payment for accumulated mileage. Based on the collected data, we conducted SPSS statistical analysis. The total number of recovered samples was 575, the effective samples were 558, and the effective recovery rate was 97.04%. Recovered sample data were analyzed by t-test, regression analysis, and one-way ANOVA.

The results showed that: the theory of planned behavior (including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control), the perceived value (hedonic value and utilitarian value), and sunk costs all have significant positive influences on the behavioral intentions of the consumers to cumulate mileage.

Therefore, we proposed the following suggestions for relevant companies:

For airline companies:
1. Establish a common cumulative account model.
2. Develop a rolling mileage plan.
3. Offer Flexible adjustment of passenger rights and interests of mileage
tickets.
4. Apply block-chain and big data analysis.
5. Set up different business points exchange mode.
6. Establish strategic Aviation Alliance partnership.

For credit card companies:
1. Strengthen mobile payment marketing strategy.
2. Diversify airlines cooperation with mileage rewards credit cards.
3. Apply segmentation marketing channel and strategy.

For travel agencies:
1. Develop mileage lecture teaching and aviation mileage/hotel points trading
platform.
2. Set up tourism consultant platform and digital tool application.
3. Operating social platform and self-media operation.

For other related industries:
1. Develop mileage application for APP design industry.
2. Invest on mileage plan operation for venture capital companies.

According to research results obtained above as also the reference basis for subsequent research, we recommend that the airline industries, credit card companies, travel agencies and related industries develop related marketing strategies and future management solutions.

第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 7
第三節 研究流程 7
第貳章 文獻探討 9
第一節 航空聯盟哩程計畫 9
第二節 計畫行為理論 18
第三節 知覺價值 23
第四節 沉沒成本 27
第五節 行為意圖 29
第參章 研究方法 32
第一節 研究架構 32
第二節 研究假設 33
第三節 研究變數操作型定義與衡量 35
第四節 研究設計 39
第五節 資料分析方法 40
第肆章 統計分析 43
第一節 前測信度分析 43
第二節 正式樣本描述性統計分析 45
第三節 研究變項之敘述性統計分析 51
第四節 信度與效度分析 54
第五節 迴歸分析 56
第六節 人口統計變數之變異分析 58
第七節 累積哩程經驗變數之變異分析 61
第伍章 結論與建議 65
第一節 研究結論與發現 65
第二節 理論與實務管理意涵 76
第三節 研究限制 83
第四節 後續研究建議 84
參考文獻 87
附錄A:前測研究問卷 105
附錄B:正式研究問卷 110

表次
表1-1 2019年國人出國人次統計表 1
表1-2 哩程關鍵數字 5
表2-1 星空聯盟航空成員 11
表2-2 寰宇一家航空成員 13
表2-3 天合聯盟航空成員 14
表2-4 三大聯盟高卡會員優惠方案對照表 15
表2-5 航空聯名信用卡與哩程信用卡/飛行信用卡比較表 16
表2-6 哩程計畫優點與缺點 16
表2-7 累積哩程類型及管道 17
表2-8 哩程票釋票時間點說明 18
表2-9 計畫行為理論相關議題研究 21
表2-10 國內外學者對享樂價值之定義 25
表2-11 國內外學者對功利價值之定義 26
表2-12 沉沒成本理論相關議題研究 29
表2-13 行為意圖相關議題研究 30
表3-1 態度變數之衡量 36
表3-2 主觀規範變數之衡量 37
表3-3 知覺行為控制變數之衡量 37
表3-4 知覺價值變數之衡量 38
表3-5 沉沒成本變數之衡量 38
表3-6 行為意圖變數之衡量 39
表4-1 前測信度分析 43
表4-2 前測問卷與正式問卷修正表 44
表4-3 樣本性別分配 45
表4-4 樣本年齡分配 45
表4-5 樣本婚姻分配 46
表4-6 樣本教育程度分配 46
表4-7 樣本職業分配 47
表4-8 樣本個人月收入分配 47
表4-9 樣本居住地分配 48
表4-10 消費累積哩程經驗值分配 48
表4-11 成功使用哩程兌換免費機票的次數分配 49
表4-12 累積哩程的方式分配 49
表4-13 累積哩程的模式分配 49
表4-14 最常累積哩程兌換機票的航空聯盟分配 50
表4-15 目前累積的哩程點數「主要」存放之帳戶分配 50
表4-16 受測者欲參加專業課程講座教學分配 50
表4-17 受測者未來不想再消費累積哩程的原因分配 51
表4-18 研究變項之敘述性統計分析 52
表4-19 正式問卷信度分析 54
表4-20 探索性因素分析 55
表4-21 態度、主觀規範、知覺行為控制對累積哩程行為意圖之迴歸分析 57
表4-22 知覺價值對累積哩程行為意圖之迴歸分析 57
表4-23 沉沒成本對累積哩程行為意圖之迴歸分析 58
表4-24 假設驗證結論 58
表4-25 性別對各構面因素之T檢定分析 59
表4-26 人口統計變項與因素構面間之單因子變異數 60
表4-27 累積哩程點數主要存放之帳戶對各構面因素之T檢定分析 62
表4-28 未來專業哩程講座教學之參與意願對各構面因素之T檢定分析 62
表4-29 消費累積哩程與構面間之單因子變異數 63

圖次
圖1-1 GOOGLE TRENDS關鍵字-哩程 3
圖1-2 GOOGLE TRENDS關鍵字-里程 4
圖1-3 研究流程圖 8
圖2-1 理性行為理論 (THEORY OF REASONED ACTION, TRA) 20
圖2-2 計畫行為理論 (THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR, TPB) 21
圖3-1 本研究架構模型 33






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