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研究生:趙冠豪
研究生(外文):CHAO, GUAN- HAU
論文名稱:藥局消費者對維他命D保健養生之認知研究: 重要性與績效分析模式
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the Pharmacy Customer’s Perception toward Vitamin D:An Importance-performance Analysis Approach
指導教授:潘豐泉潘豐泉引用關係王泰吉
指導教授(外文):PAN,FENG-CHUANWANG,TAI-CHI
口試委員:翁慧卿王泰吉謝孟志
口試委員(外文):WENG,HUI-CHINGWANG,TAI-CHIHSIEH, MENG-CHIH
口試日期:2020-06-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大仁科技大學
系所名稱:藥學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:藥學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:健康促進維他命D重要性與績效分析 (IPA)
外文關鍵詞:Health promotionVitamin DImportance-performance analysis (IPA)
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維他命D對人體生理與心理健康的廣泛重要性,早已被證實具有關鍵地位。本研究探索專家學者與藥局消費者對維他命D,在養生保健功能的認知程度,以及兩群組的差異。本研究透過文獻歸納出32項主要功效,並經醫藥產官學專家之認證。研究對象為藥局一般消費者,共收集323份數據,其中女性165位(51.08%),男性158位(48.92%)。研究結果顯示,醫藥專家與消費者對各項功效,有22項(68.75%)具有統計上顯著差異。群組間平均得分差距最大的,有「減少罹癌風險」、「預防失智症」、與「降低新生兒過敏反應、氣喘」。以重要性與績效表現分析法分析,結果次要改善區與維持區,項目達所有項目的85%,表示現實環境中消費者對於維他命功效的認知程度,普遍不差;在優先區有「降低洗腎患者死亡率」與「預防或降低罹患帕金森氏症風險」兩項;在過度重視區有「減少罹癌風險」、「預防心臟病」、與「改善憂鬱症」等三項。優先改善區代表消費者認知不足的維他命D功效,過度重視區代表消費者過度看中而可能有過度攝取的疑慮,都是政府健康主管當局與機構所需重視的區塊。本研究結論針對維他命D對人體健康的健康促進與疾病預防功效認知,消費者與醫藥專家之間確實存在有顯著差異,其中有特別需要重視之項目,本研究是首起利用IPA分析專家與一般消費者對維他命D功效之差異辨識的研究,本方法應也可用於其他類似之研究;本研究進一步建議政府與一般醫藥業者,利用本次研究結果進行政策制定與經營策略之參考。
The function and effects of vitamin D in a wide variety fields of sense had long been confirmed as critical to human’s physical and mental health. This study explored the perceive benefits of vitamin D of the medical professionals and the pharmacy consumers in terms of health care function, and examined the differences between these two groups. This study summarized 32 major functions of Vitamin D through the literature review, and then were verified by professionals from government, academic, and industry. Samples of the study were 323 respondents from pharmacy consumers around Taiwan, of which 165 were female (51.80%) and 158 were male (48.92%). The results showed that 22 average perceived values of the Vitammin D were statistically significantly different between groups of medical experts and consumers。The largest gap of average scores between groups were reducing the risk of cancer, preventing dementia, and reducing allergic reactions in newborns. An importance and performance analysis indicated that nearly 85% of the captioned Vitamin D functions were plotted in the areas of “Low priority” and “Keep up good work”, of which means that pharmacy consumer perceived similar values of these benefits in the real world as the medical experts did. The function of "reducing the mortality of kidney dialysis patients" and "preventing or reducing the risk of Parkinson's disease" were plotted in the area of “Concentrate here”, and "reduce the risk of cancer", "prevent heart disease", and "improve depression" were in the area of “Possible over-skilled”. The former indicated the consumers underestimated these functions, whereas the latter the consumers over concerned. Both of these under estimated or over emphasized were noteworthy for both government health authorities and agencies. The current study concluded that there were significant differences between consumers and medical and pharmaceutical experts, regarding the functions of Vitamin D, of which some of them may worth for special attention. This study may be the first study that adopted IPA to determine the differences of perceived benefits regarding the Vitamin D functions between medical experts and pharmacy consumers. This method can be also adopted in similar studies. The author further provided several suggestions to the academic for future studies, and to the government body as well as the practitioners for health policy and business strategy.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IⅤ
目錄 VⅠ
圖目錄 Ⅹ
表目錄 ⅩI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
一、 維他命D照護人類健康 1
二、 保健是國民健康的最佳照護 2
三、 保健是長期投資 3
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究問題 7
第四節 研究流程 8
第貳章 文獻探討 9
第一節 健康促進與疾病預防 9
一、 疾病預防 9
二、 健康促進 11
第二節 保健食品與人類健康 15
一、 人體器官系統與健康 15
二、 維他命D在健康促進與疾病預防角色 17
第三節 維他命D 20
一、 對維他命D觀點演進 20
二、 維他命D來源 26
三、 維他命D的產生機制 28
四、 維他命D營養效能 29
五、 生理吸收代謝、個體存量與排泄 29
第四節 維他命D與人體健康促進 32
一、 維他命D需要量與缺乏症 32
二、 維他命D對人體的毒性疑慮 35
第五節 維他命D與疾病預防 37
一、 維他命D與第二型糖尿病 37
二、 對一般人的建議 37
三、 對病友的建議 38
四、 對維他命D 缺乏症狀的處置建議 39
第六節 重要性與績效分析 41
一、 重要性-績效分析法緣起 41
二、 IPA分析邏輯與運用 42
三、 IPA分析的步驟 44
四、 IPA相關實證研究 46
五、 IPA分析評議 46
第參章 研究方法 51
第一節 研究架構 52
第二節 研究倫理 53
第三節 研究工具 54
一、 研究對象 54
二、 量表編製 54
三、 量表設計 60
第四節 分析方法 62
一、 描述統計 62
二、 獨立樣本 t 檢定 62
三、 成對樣本 t 檢定 62
四、 單因子變異數分析 62
五、 重要性績效表現分析 63
第肆章 結果與討論 64
第一節 樣本分布分析 64
一、 性別 64
二、 年齡 64
三、 婚姻 65
四、 教育程度 65
五、 個人平均月所得 65
第二節 對維他命各項功效認知 68
一、 消費者對維他命功效認知表現的描述統計 68
二、 消費者對維他命D3功效認知 72
三、 成對樣本 t 檢定 76
四、 個人健康狀態 77
第三節 差異性分析 80
一、 優先改善區之差異分析 80
二、 過度重視區之差異分析 80
三、 重要性與績效平均數差距最大差異分析 81
四、 消費者功效認知落差 81
五、 人口學差異性分析 82
第四節 重要性與績效分析 93
一、重要性與績效表現之差異 93
二、重要性與績效平移 93
三、IPA象限圖 95
第五節 結果討論 98
一、 消費者對維他命D3的功效認知誤差 98
二、 優先改善區的意義 99
三、 過度重視區的意義 101
四、 其他象限的意義 102
第伍章 結論 103
第一節 結論 103
第二節 學術與實務意涵 104
一、 學術意涵 104
二、 實務意涵 104
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 106
一、 重要與績效分析法的實務導向 106
二、 重要性與績效感知間的交互影響 106
三、 重要性與績效感知分界線差異比較 107
參考文獻 108
中文部分 108
外文部分 112
附錄 133
附錄 1 133
一、 問卷 133
附錄2 136
二、 問卷B 136

圖目錄
圖1-1研究流程 8
圖2-1 Importance-Performance Analysis 42
圖3-1 研究架構 52
圖4-1 維他命D3功效重要績效分析象限圖 97


表目錄
表3-1 本研究專家效度學者專家組合表 55
表3-2 量表題項代號與內容 59
表4-1 受訪者樣本資料之描述性統計摘要表 66
表4-2受訪者樣本資料合併後之描述性統計摘要表 67
表4-3受試者對於一般維他命功效認知 69
表4-4 消費者對於維他命D3功效認知排序 73
表4-5專家對於維他命D3功效認知調查分析 75
表4-6 專家與消費者對維他命D 功效認知差異 t檢定 76
表4-7受訪者的保健與藥品消費行為描述性統計摘要表 78
表4-8 性別在過度重視區的差異分析 82
表4-9 性別在過度重視區的差異分析 83
表4-10 年齡在優先改善區的差異分析 84
表4-11 年齡在過度重視區的差異分析 85
表4-12 年齡在IP差距大項目的差異分析 86
表4-13 收入對優先改善區項目差異分析 87
表4-14 收入對過度重視區項目差異分析 88
表4-15 收入對重要與績效表現差距大項目差異分析 89
表4-16 教育程度對各項目差異分析 91
表4-17維他命D3功效認知主要項目差異分析 92
表4-18專家與消費者對維他命D3功效認知統計 94

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