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研究生:Rofi Aulia Rahman
研究生(外文):Rofi Aulia Rahman
論文名稱:印度尼西亞政府封鎖網路及社群媒體政策:打擊假新聞的法律議題
論文名稱(外文):Blocking the Internet and Social Media in Indonesia: Legal Issues to Combat Fake News
指導教授:唐淑美唐淑美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tang, Shu-Mei
口試委員:宋名晰朱從龍唐淑美
口試委員(外文):Sung, Ming-ShiChu, Cong-LongTang, Shu-Mei
口試日期:2020-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:亞洲大學
系所名稱:財經法律學系
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:英文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:封鎖網路及社群媒體民主假新聞人权印度尼西亞
外文關鍵詞:Blocking the Internet and Social MediaDemocracyFake NewsHuman RightsIndonesia
IG URL:rofiauliarahman
Facebook:Rofi Aulia Rahman
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2019年印度尼西亞(簡稱印尼)政府多次採取封鎖網路及社群媒體手段以阻止假新聞散佈。例如,雅加達爆發抗議活動時,印尼政府暫時限制民眾瀏覽接觸社群媒體,如whatsapp,facebook和twitter;印尼政府封鎖巴布亞的網路及社群媒體亦有數週之久。印尼政府用於封鎖網路及社群媒體的法律是依據印尼憲法第28J條第(1)條和第(2)條以限制人民活動,阻止假新聞的傳播。雖然印尼憲法第28E條第(2)條賦予保障人民之言論自由,但印尼政府認為,抗議衝突時,若不立即封鎖網路及社群媒體,有可能抗議活動會越趨嚴重並危險,也會威脅印尼的主權。因此,印尼政府多次採取封鎖網路及社群媒體手段以阻止假新聞散佈,但印尼政府之封鎖網路之策略及手段,引起學界及人民之批評及反思。本論文之研究乃為分析印尼政府封鎖網路及社群媒體手段是否合憲?進而探討印尼政府限制人權的法律程序。本研究的研究方法採用法律學說研究,本文認為言論自由是人權的一部分,無論使用何種媒體,言論自由都應得到國家的保護、尊重和實現,印尼政府以緊急狀態理由封鎖印尼網路及社群媒體,未能遵守國際人權規範和1945年印尼憲法所規定的限制人權的要求。
In 2019, the Indonesian government has blocked the internet and social media for several times, first, when the demonstration happened in Jakarta, the government temporarily limits to access social media such as whatsapp, facebook, and twitter. Second, the government blocked the internet access in Papua for several weeks, the legal basis used by the government to shut down the internet is Article 28J Paragraph (1) and (2) to restrict human rights. Blocking the internet and social media are done by the government is to stop the spread of fake news. If the government did not block the internet and social media at that time, Indonesia would be in an emergency and would threaten the sovereignty of Indonesia, even though freedom of expression is granted by the 1945 Constitution Article 28E Paragraph (2). Finally, the government used its power to block internet access and social media several times. Hence, that action caused a debate among Indonesian people. This research will analyze the action of Indonesian government whether the internet shut down is constitutional or unconstitutional, and how is the legal procedure to restrict human rights. The research method of this research is doctrinal legal research. Freedom of opinion and expression is part of human rights that should be protected, respected, and fulfilled by the state no matter what media they use. In fact, the Indonesian government had blocked the internet and social media access. The state of emergency was used as a reason by the Indonesian government to do so. Unfortunately, the government failed to abide by the requirement of the restriction of human rights as stated by international standards and the 1945 Constitution.
Cover ........................................................................ i
Abstract in Chinese .......................................................... ii
Abstract in English .......................................................... iii
Acknowledgment ............................................................... iv
Table of Contents ............................................................ v
Chapter I Introduction .................................................... 1
A. Background ........................................................... 1
B. Research Question .................................................... 5
C. Research Method ...................................................... 5
Chapter II Literature Review ............................................... 8
A. Fake News ............................................................ 8
B. Democracy Principle .................................................. 9
C. National Security .................................................... 11
D. Universalism of Human Rights v Cultural Relativism (Particularism) ... 12
Chapter III The Basic Right To Use Internet And Social Media:
Indonesian Constitution And International Perspective ... 15
A. Indonesian Constitution .............................................. 16
B. The Use of Internet and Social Media: International Law Perspective .. 20
C. National Security Justification ...................................... 22
D. State of Emergency and Derogation of Human Rights .................... 29
Chapter IV Several Cases on Internet and Social Media Shutdown ............... 35
A. Indonesia ............................................................ 35
B. Ukraine .............................................................. 40
C. United States of America ............................................. 42
D. India ................................................................ 48
Chapter V Several Ways to Combat Fake News ................................... 50
A. Legal Approach ....................................................... 50
B. Fact-checking ........................................................ 52
C. News Literacy......................................................... 54
D. Machine Learning/Artificial Intelligence ............................. 55
Chapter VI Conclusion ........................................................ 58
Bibliography ................................................................. 61

JOURNALS
Alexandra Andorfer, Spreading Like Wildfire: Solutions for Abating the Fake News Problem on Social Media Via Technology Controls and Government Regulation, 69 Hastings L.J. 1409, 1422 (2018)

Allcott, Hunt and Matthew Gentzkow, Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election 31, J. Economic Perspective 211, 213 (2017)

Andrea Butler, Protecting the Democratic Role of the Press: A Legal Solution to Fake News, 96 Wash. U.L. Rev. 419, 426 (2018)
Ari Ezra Waldman, The Marketplace of Fake News, 20 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 845, 847–48 (2018)

Axel Gelfert, Fake News: A Definition, 38 Informal Logic 84, 99 (2018)

Caroline L. Osborne, Programming to Promote Information Literacy in the Era of Fake News, 46 Int'l J. Legal Info. 101, 103 (2018)

David M. Howard, Can Democracy Withstand the Cyber Age?: 1984 in the 21st century, 69 Hastings L.J. 1355, 1357 (2018)

David O. Klein & Joshua R. Wueller, Fake News: A Legal Perspective, 20 J. Internet L. 1, 6 (2017)

Emilie M. Hafner-Burton et al., Emergency and Escape: Explaining Derogations from Human Rights Treaties, 65 International Organization 673 (2011)

Holly Kathleen Hall, Deepfake Videos: When Seeing Isn't Believing, 27 Cath. U.J.L. & Tech. 51, 74–75 (2018)

Ifediora, John. (2004). Universal Human Rights and Cultural Relativism: A Marriage of Inconvenience. Policy Perspective. Vol.3. 1-12.

Jennifer Corrin, Chapter 6 Cultural Relativism vs. Universalism: The South Pacific Reality, 16 I.U.S. Gentium 103 (2012)

Jessica Stone-Erdman, Just the (Alternative) Facts, Ma'am: The Status of Fake News Under the First Amendment, 16 First Amend. L. Rev. 410, 440 (2017)

Lee K. Royster, Fake News: Potential Solutions to the Online Epidemic, 96 N.C. L. Rev. 270, 282 (2017

Jennifer Spencer, No Service: Free Speech, the Communications Act, and Bart's Cell Phone Network Shutdown, 27 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 767, 767 (2012)

Major William D. Toronto, Fake News and Kill-Switches: The U.S. Government's Fight to Respond to and Prevent Fake News, 79 A.F. L. Rev. 167, 177 (2018)

Natalie Holland, Freedom of Expression and Opinion in Wartime: Assessing Ukraine's Ban on Citizen Access to Russian-Owned Websites, 33 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. 943, 948 (2018)

Osgar S. Matompo, Pembatasan Terhadap Hak Asasi Manusia Dalam Prespektif Keadaan Darurat, 21 J.M Hukum 57, 67-68 (2014)

Roberto Mastroianni, Fake News, Free Speech and Democracy: A (Bad) Lesson from Italy?, 25 Sw. J. Int'l L. 42, 50 (2019)

Rofi Aulia Rahman and Rizki Habibuloh, The Criminal Liability of Artificial Intelligence: Is It Plausible to Hitherto Indonesian Criminal Law System?, 27 Legality 147, 151 (2019)

Suparman Marzuki, the Perspective of the Constitutional Court on Human Rights, 6 Yudisial J. 189, 194-95 (2013)
Soroush Vosoghi, et.al, The Spread of True and False News Online, 359 SCIENCE. 1146, 1149-1150 (2018)

BOOKS
BAHDER, RULE OF LAW STATE AND HUMAN RGHTS 1 (Mandar Maju, 2011)

CHERIF BASSOUNI, TOWARD A UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY: FROM PRINCIPLES TO REALIZATION 1-2 (the Inter-Parliamentary Union Texts, DEMOCRACY: ITS PRINCIPLES AND ACHIEVEMENT 1998) (1998)

DOMRIN N ALEXANDER, THE LIMITS OF RUSSIAN DEMOCRATIZATION EMERGENCY POWERS AND STATE OF EMERGENCY 1 (Routledge, 206)

HABIBIE, DETIK-DETIK YANG MENENTUKAN: JALAN PANJANG INDONESIA MENUJU DEMOKRASI 44 (THC Mandiri, 2006)

JIMLY ASSHIDDIQIE, HUKUM TATA NEGARA DARURAT (CONSTITUTIONAL LAW IN EMERGENCY) 9, (Raja Grafindo Persada, 2007)

JOHNNY IBRAHIM, TEORI DAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN HUKUM NORMATIF 33 (Bayu Media) (2006)

JOSEPH J. ROMM, DEFINING NATIONAL SECURITY: NONMILITARY ASPECTS 6-7 (Council on Foreign Relations Press New York, 1993)

PHILIPP MAYRING, QUALITATIVE INHALTSANALYSE – GRUNDLAGEN UND TECHNIKEN [QUALITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS – BACKGROUNDS AND TECHNIQUES], (Weinheim: Beltz Verlag / Deutscher Studien Verlag 2003)

PRANOTO ISKANDAR, HUKUM HAM INTERNASIONAL (THE LAW OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS, 137) (2d ed, 2011)

RHODA HOWARD, PENJELAJAHAN DALIH RELATIVISME BUDAYA (TRANSLATION) 1, (PT. Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 2000)

WOLFGANG BENEDEK AND MATTHIAS, FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND THE INTERNET 112 (Council of Europe Publishing, 2013)

CASES
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964)

Packingham v. North Carolina, 137 S. Ct. 1730, 1744, 198 L. Ed. 2d 273 (2017)

United States v. Alvarez, 567 U.S. 709 (2012)

Administrative Court Decision No 230/G/TF/2019/PTUN-JKT

INTERNET
Agus Tri Haryanto, 2019, Besok Sidang Putusan MK, Ada Pembatasan Medsos dan WhatsApp cs?, available at https://inet.detik.com/law-and-policy/d-4601317/besok-sidang-putusan-mk-ada-pembatasan-medsos-dan-whatsapp-cs accessed on November 1st, 2019

Amit Chauduri, The B.J.P. wants to silence Indian voices. But we will only grow louder, The Guardian, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/dec/22/bjp-citizenship-amendment-act-indians

Anthony Cuthbertston, Indonesia Blocks Facebook and Whatsapp Features After ‘Fake News-Inspired’ Riots and Deaths, https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/indonesia-facebook-whatsapp-ban-blocked-election-riots-a8926706.html

Arpan Chatirvedi, 2019, Indian Internet Shutdown Rules Need A Relook: Exprt Say, available at https://www.bloombergquint.com/law-and-policy/indias-internet-shutdown-rules-need-a-relook-experts-say

Bagus Indahono, The internet shutdown in Papua threatens Indonesia’s democracy and its people’s right to free speech, https://theconversation.com/the-internet-shutdown-in-papua-threatens-indonesias-democracy-and-its-peoples-right-to-free-speech-122333 (August 22nd, 2019)

Christopher Paul and Miriam Mathews, “The Russian “Firehose of Falsehood” Propaganda Model: Why It Might Work and Options to Counter It", RAND CORPORATION. 1, (2016) available at https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE198/RAND_PE198.pdf accessed on November 5th, 2019

Desy Setyowati, 2019, Kominfo Tutup 2.184 Akun dan Situs Selama Pembatasan Media Sosial, available at https://katadata.co.id/berita/2019/05/27/kominfo-tutup-2184-akun-dan-situs-selama-pembatasan-media-sosial, accessed on October 31st, 2019

Hesti Rika, Dasar Hukum Kemenkominfo Blokir Internet https://www.cnnindonesia.com/teknologi/20190904081344-185-427339/dasar-hukum-kemenkominfo-blokir-internet (Sep.4, 2019)

Ika Karlina Idris, The internet shutdown in Papua threatens Indonesia's democracy and its people's right to free speech, https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2019/09/02/the-internet-shutdown-in-papua-threatens-indonesias-democracy-and-its-peoples-right-to-free-speech.html (September 2nd, 2019)

Kate Lamb, Fake news spikes in Indonesia ahead of elections, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/20/fake-news-spikes-in-indonesia-ahead-of-elections (March 20th, 2019)

Richie Koch, 2019, All the Internet shutdowns of 2019 so far, available at https://securityboulevard.com/2019/06/all-the-internet-shutdowns-of-2019-so-far/, accessed on October 31st, 2019

Rizky Chandra Septania, 2018, Indonesia, Pengguna Facebook Terbanyak ke-4 di Dunia, available at https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2018/03/02/08181617/indonesia-pengguna-facebook-terbanyak-ke-4-di-dunia, accessed on October 31st, 2019

Roy Franedya Blokir Internet Papua, Rudiantara Digugat Sederet Lembaga Ini available at https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/tech/20190826101104-37-94526/blokir-internet-papua-rudiantara-digugat-sederet-lembaga-ini accessed on November 5th, 2019

Safenet, President Jokowi is absent from the First Court of Internet Shutdown Lawsuit, https://safenet.or.id/2020/01/president-jokowi-is-absent-from-the-first-court-of-internet-shutdown-lawsuit/ (Jan.22, 2020)
Sankalp Phartiyal, Fayaz Bukhari, India's top Court says indefinite Kashmir internet shutdown is illegal, available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-kashmir-internet/indias-top-court-says-indefinite-kashmir-internet-shutdown-is-illegal-idUSKBN1Z90FR

Syadab Nazmi, 2019, Why India shuts down the internet more than any other democracy, available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-50819905

Suhasini Raj and Maria Abi-Habib, 2 Dead in Protests Over India’s Religion-Based Citizenship Bill, New York Times, available at https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/12/world/asia/india-protests-citizenship-bill.html
the Committee to Protect Journalist Report, 2019, 10 most censored countries, available at https://cpj.org/reports/2019/09/10-most-censored-eritrea-north-korea-turkmenistan-journalist.php, accessed on October 31st, 2019

The Washington Post, In 787 days, PresidentTrump has made 9,179 false or misleading claims (March 17th, 2019), https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/trump-claims-database/?utm_term=.246cb0455ef3

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