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研究生:周大維
研究生(外文):CHOU, TA-WEI
論文名稱:酵素浸漬對肉類品質變化預測及質地軟化指標
論文名稱(外文):Prediction of Meat Quality Change and Texture Softening Index by Enzyme Impregnation
指導教授:許馨云許馨云引用關係
指導教授(外文):HSU, HSIN-YUN
口試委員:紀學斌邱致穎劉整嶺許馨云
口試委員(外文):CHI, HSUEH-PINCHIU, CHIH-YINGLIU, CHENG-LINGHSU, HSIN-YUN
口試日期:2020-07-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:畜產與生物科技學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:木瓜酵素pH值豬肉嫩化
外文關鍵詞:papainpHporktenderization
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近年來由於人口結構的老化,高齡社會已漸漸地進入我們的生活中。高齡者對食物和營養的需求需特別關注。肉類為一優良蛋白質來源,肉類質地的軟化可提高高齡者攝取意願並促進維持肌肉力量和功能。在過去的研究中,木瓜酵素已被證實具有軟化肉質的功能,伴隨著醃漬技術的加入,進而提高肉品之多汁性與嫩度。故本試驗旨在探討添加不同濃度之木瓜酵素以及不同pH值的浸漬液對豬里肌肉及梅花肉之影響。本試驗採反應曲面法之二因子旋轉中心組合,影響因子為不同濃度(0.1-0.5%)之木瓜酵素及不同pH值(3.0-9.0)。結果顯示:鹼性環境與酸性環境下相比,具有較佳之保水力及較低之蒸煮失重(p<0.05)。剪力值、硬度值與肌纖維斷裂指數方面,隨著pH值的上升,都有下降的趨勢,且里肌肉與梅花肉在pH值8.0且濃度高於0.4%時,具有顯著較低之硬度值(p<0.05)。在儲藏試驗的8天期間,總生菌數並未超過7 log CFU/g,但隨著天數增加有愈來愈高的趨勢;大腸桿菌群與乳酸菌亦隨著天數增加而有菌數增加的趨勢。綜合上述結果,利用反應曲面法找出木瓜酵素與pH值對於肉品質地軟化之較適條件,可作為未來產業開發高齡化食品之參考指標。
Recently, due to the aging population increasing, aged society has gradually entered our lives. The nutritional requirement of food for the elderly have to pay attention. Meat is one of the superior sources of protein, tenderization of the meat can increase the willingness of the elderly consumed and promote muscle strength and function. In the past research, papain had been proved to have the function of tenderizing meat quality. Papain combined with impregnating technology could improve the juiciness and tenderness of meat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentration of papain (0.1-0.5%) and different pH condition (3.0-9.0) on pork loin and shoulder butt. Two-variable central composition design of response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted. The influence factors were different concentrations of papain and different pH values. The results showed that the alkaline environment had better water holding capacity and lower cooking loss than the acidic environment (p<0.05). With the increased of alkaline environment, shear force value, hardness value, and myofibril fragmentation index had decline tendency. The loin and shoulder butt had significant lower hardness value while the pH value was 8.0 and the papain concentration was higher than 0.4% (p<0.05). During the 8 days of storage, the total plate count did not exceed 7 log CFU / g, and the coliform and the lactic acid bacteria also increased as the days increased. In the conclusion, application of RSM might find the better conditions for papain concentration and pH value to tenderize meat, which can be used as reference indicators for industry to develop tender meat.
壹、中文摘要 1
貳、前言 2
參、文獻檢討 4
一、先進國家所面臨的人口老化問題 4
(一)人口老化現象的來臨 4
(二)高齡者特性 4
(三)老年常見疾病 5
(四)高齡者所遭遇的飲食障礙 6
(五)高齡者營養需求的改變 7
(六)適合高齡者食用之食物特性 10
二、 肌肉組織構造與理化特性 13
(一)肌肉之組成與結構 13
(二)各種肌肉蛋白質之組成與特性 14
三、 影響食肉嫩度因素 17
(一)品種 17
(二)性別 18
(三)年齡 18
(四)屠前緊迫 19
(五)肌肉部位 19
四、 食肉之嫩化種類與方法 21
(一) 物理性嫩化法 21
(二) 化學性嫩化法 22
五、 反應曲面法 25
(一) 反應曲面法(Response surface methodology, RSM)之簡介 25
(二) 反應曲面法之原理與流程 26
(三) 二水準因子設計(Two-level factorial design) 28
(四) 陡升路徑法(Method of path steepest ascent) 30
(五) 中心混成設計(Central composite design) 30
(六) 反應曲面模式適切性之統計檢驗 34
(七) 反應曲面法之優點 35
(八) 反應曲面法之缺點 35
肆、材料方法 36
一、 樣品製備 36
(一) 原料處理 36
(二) 加工過程 36
(三) 試驗設計 36
二、分析項目 40
(一)一般成分分析(Proximate analysis) 40
(二) 酸鹼值(pH value) 43
(三) 保水力(Water holding capacity) 43
(四) 蒸煮失重率(Cooking loss) 44
(五) 色澤(CIE L*a*b*) 44
(六) 剪力值(Shear force value) 45
(七) 質地描述試驗(Texture profile analysis) 45
(八) 肌纖維數量(Muscle fiber number) 46
(九) 肌纖維斷裂指數(Myofibril fragmentation index, MFI) 47
(十) 微生物分析(Microbiological analysis) 49
(十一)統計分析(Statistical analysis) 50
伍、結果與討論 52
陸、結論 115
柒、參考文獻 116
捌、英文摘要 126
玖、小傳 127
拾、附錄 128


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