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研究生:陳文英
研究生(外文):CHEN, VOON-YING
論文名稱:成長心態影響因素之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on Factors that Influence Growth Mindset
指導教授:許恩得許恩得引用關係
指導教授(外文):HSU, EN-TE
口試委員:林財丁刑有光
口試委員(外文):Lin, Tsai-DingHSHING, YU-KUANG
口試日期:2020-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:會計學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:會計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:成長心態創造力微軟接班潛能
外文關鍵詞:Growth MindsetCreativityMicrosoftHandoverPotential
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擁有成長心態的新上任微軟執行長,納德拉先是率領了公司用核心專業能力與競爭者合作而不再是對立,接著引進成長心態成為公司的核心信念,讓公司的文化從相互挑戰到彼此互助的文化,而股價和市值在四年後不跌反而翻了一倍和三倍的成長。研究者希望台灣的公司有機會認識成長心態並且參考微軟公司的做法,協助預備眾企業跨越交接班時公司文化變化的挑戰。
成長心態是一個願意成長的內在信念和感覺,相信一個人的潛能是未知的,任何人只要接受適當的教育、獲得啟發,就有機會可以成就任何事。它是每個人出生時就有的心態,直到開始評估自己,覺得擔心、害怕後而停止勇往直前的學習態度。當人們認識成長心態後會對學習有新的熱情,在看問題時會更敏捷、更有創意。
本研究以台灣高科技產業T公司為研究對象做問卷調查,在沒有介紹成長心態的情況下,(一)了解員工對成長心態的認知,(二)什麼工作背景影響員工有成長心態,和(三)擁有成長心態的員工是否會比較有創造力?
在110分問卷裡,對於成長心態,14%的人有聽過,49%位有,其中6.5%有在應用。員工的背景,部門、年資、職等皆沒有相關性,是企業引進的機會;本研究發現有成長心態的員工與他的創造力成有正相關。
擁有成長心態可以幫助員工從“我什麼都懂”到“我什麼都可以學”,加上促進員工的創造能力,是在人工智慧掘起讓人的價值不消失的關鍵。
Satya Nadella,the new CEO of Microsoft with growth mindset, started collaborating with rival Apple in 2014 allowing them to use Microsoft’s core products. He also introduced Growth Mindset as the company’s new core value that transformed the company culture and turned internal competitiveness into cooperation. In 4 years Microsoft’s stock price doubled and its market value tripled. This research hopes to bring awareness of Growth Mindset to corporations in Taiwan using Microsoft as a model to help prepare more corporations that are about to face cultural challenges in succession.
Growth Mindset is a willingness to grow. It’s an intrinsic belief and perception, believing that a person’s potential is unknown. Anyone who receives proper training, inspired to grow, will have a chance to accomplish anything. It is the attitude that everyone has at birth until he starts to evaluate himself, worry and fear that stops him from taking courageous steps towards learning.
This research will conduct a survey with a High Tech Company in Taiwan without introducing the concept of Growth Mindset: 1) to find out current awareness of Growth Mindset among the employees, 2) which factors in an employee’s background contribute to Growth Mindset and, 3) does having a Growth Mindset affect an employee’s creativity.
Of the 110 survey data collected, 14% had heard of Growth Mindset and 49% have this mindset but only 6.5% apply it. There is no relevance of employees’ background factors like department, seniority and position, that affects employees having a growth mindset. This finding is an opportunity for companies to introduce growth mindset. The research found that having Growth Mindset does contribute to the creativity of an employee.
Having a Growth Mindset can change an employee from “know-it-all” to “learn-it-all” and promotes creativity. It is a key to differentiate human from artificial intelligence.
目錄
謝誌
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 III
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究架構和限制 3
第貳章 文獻探討 6
第一節 心態 6
第二節 成長心態的建立 11
第三節 成長心態與企業 21
第四節 成長心態與創造力 27
第參章 研究方法 31
第一節 研究假說 31
第二節 研究範圍與對象 32
第三節 問卷設計 33
第肆章 研究結果與討論 35
第一節 資訊分析 35
第二節 成長心態與工作之關聯性 38
第三節 成長心態與創造力之關聯性 42
第伍章 結論與未來建議 44
第一節 研究結論 44
第二節 未來建議 44
參考文獻 46
一、中文文獻
書籍
1.吉田行宏、林詠純 (譯) (2019)。成長心態: 50張思維圖,帶你跳脫邊踩剎車,邊催油門的人生。台北市:先覺。
2.柯維.史蒂芬、殷文 (譯) (2010)。第8個習慣:從成功到卓越。台北市:天下文化。
3.陳龍安 (1988) 。做個聰明人-創造與批判思考的自我訓練。台北:心理出版社。
4.Brock, Annie & Hundley, Heather、王素蓮(譯) (2018) 。 成長性思維學習指南:幫助孩子達成目標,打造心態致勝的實戰教室。台北市: 親子天下。
5.Collins, Jim、齊若蘭(譯) (2001)。從A到A+。台北市: 遠流出版。
6.Herrmann, Ned、宋偉航(譯) (2012)。全腦優勢。北京: 中國人民大學出版社。
7.Oakley B, Sejnowski T, McConville A.、林金源 (譯) (2019)。學習如何學習。新北市:木馬文化。
8.Pink, Daniel、查修傑 (譯) (2006)。未來在等待的人才。台北市:大塊文化。
期刊
1.吳佳樺、楊旻婕 (2017)。培育學生成長心態之教學策略。臺灣教育評論月刊,2017,6 (6), 163-166。
2.蔡進雄 (2018) 。成長性思維模式的教育新趨勢。臺灣教育評論月刊,2018 7(6) ,114-118。
論文
1.黃誌良 (2018)。成長性思維、學習動機與學習成效之關係- 以台南市某國小六年級學生為例,南臺科技大學企業管理系人力資源管理研究所碩士論文,未出版,台南市。
網路
1.田孟心 (2019)。AI來襲,你的工作生命週期只剩5年 未來人才如何續命? https://www.cw.com.tw/article/5097218?template=transformers。(檢索時間2020/1/9)
2.李瑞華 (2015)。真正有效的績效管理。https://www.hbrtaiwan.com/article_content_AR0003080.html。(檢索時間2020/5/1)。
3.杜維克 (卡蘿) (2017)。成功與否跟能力無關,由你的心態決定! https://bookzone.cwgv.com.tw/topic/details/7302。(檢索時間2019/4/27)。
4.林珮萱 (2018)。家族才是維繫企業的最大公約數,遠比賺更多錢來得重要。https://www.gvm.com.tw/article/54678。(檢索時間2019/4/27)。
5.高士閔 (2017)。成功人士都很聰明?比爾.蓋茲:錯!會成功是這個原因⋯。 https://www.managertoday.com.tw/books/view/54360 。(檢索時間2019/4/27)。
6.張若儀 (2016)。態度決定你的高度 心態可以戰勝一切。https://www.businesstoday.com.tw/article/category/80407/post/201612270005/%E6%85%8B%E5%BA%A6%E6%B1%BA%E5%AE%9A%E4%BD%A0%E7%9A%84%E9%AB%98%E5%BA%A6%20%E5%BF%83%E6%85%8B%E5%8F%AF%E4%BB%A5%E6%88%B0%E5%8B%9D%E4%B8%80%E5%88%87。(檢索時間2020/1/9)。
7.漢語網。心態。http://www.chinesewords.org/dict/115191-58.html。(檢索時間2019/5/9)。
8.劉庭瑋 (2017)。改寫微軟命運的暖男 CEO 3 年讓微軟市值爆增 7 .5 兆台幣,納德拉怎麼做到的?https://buzzorange.com/techorange/2017/09/28/story-of-microsoft-satya-nadella/ 。(檢索時間2019/4/27)。
9.陳清稱 (2015)。你是定型心態,還是成長心態?成功與否跟能力無關,由你的心態決定!https://www.managertoday.com.tw/articles/view/51814 。(檢索時間2019/4/24)。
10.簡茂發 (2000)。創造力 Creativity。http://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/1311016/。(檢索時間2019/12/22)。
二、英文文獻
Books
1.Clark, Travis (2019). 21 Day Brain Detox. San Francisco: Canvas Church.
2.Collins, Jim & Porras, Jerry (1994). Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies (基業長青). New York: Harper Business.
3.Dweck, Carol S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House.
4.Franken, Robert E. (1994). Human Motivation (3rd edition). California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
5.Lanza, Gaetano (2020). Mindset The Psychology of Success: The First Book in the Series of Mindset for Personal Help, Business, and Leadership. Independently published.
6.Leaf, Caroline (2013). Switch on Your Brain. Michigan: Baker Books.
7.Leaf, Caroline (2018). Think, Learn, Succeed: Understanding and Using Your Mind to Thrive at School, the Workplace, and Life. Michigan: Baker Books.
Periodicals / Case Study
1.Amabile, Teresa (1997). “Motivating Creativity in Organizations: On Doing What You Love and Loving What You Do,” California Management Review, Fall 1997, pp 39-58, retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/98e7/506559da7695c3be36588a94faf2d7490786.pdf
2.Amabile, Teresa (1998). How to Kill Creativity, Harvard Business Review September - October 1998 Issue, retrieved from https://hbr.org/1998/09/how-to-kill-creativity
3.Anthony, Scott, et. al. (2019). Breaking Down the Barriers to Innovation, Harvard Business Review November-December 2019 Issue, retrieved from https://hbr.org/2019/11/breaking-down-the-barriers-to-innovation
4.Chen, W.-W., Chen, C.-C., Dai, C.-L., U, N. M., & Cheng, L. (2018). Is the incremental theory of intelligence a key to students’ motivational engagement? The moderating effects of self-enhancement and self-criticism. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(6), 730–744. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2017.1402061
5.Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256–273. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256
6.Haimovitz K, Dweck C. S. (2016). What predicts children’s fixed and growth intelligence mind-sets? Not their parents’ views of intelligence but their parents’ views of failure. Psychological Science, 27, 859–869. doi:10.1177/0956797616639727
7.Heslin, P. A., VandeWalle, D., & Latham, G. P. (2006). Keen to help? Managers' implicit person theories and their subsequent employee coaching. Personnel Psychology, 59, 871-902.
8.Heslin, P. A., & VandeWalle, D. (2009). Performance appraisal procedural
justice: The role of manager's implicit person theory. Journal of Management.
9.Hüther, Gerald (2016). “Brainwash - Innovation Starts in the Mind,” Developing Leaders, Spring 2016, Issue 23, pp 38 – 42, retrieved from https://www.developingleadersquarterly.com/fb/Developing-Leaders-issue-23-Spring-2016/39/#zoom=z
10.Ibarra H, Rattan A, & Johnston A. (2018). Satya Nadella at Microsoft: Instilling a growth mindset. London Business School.
11.Krakovsky, Marina (2007). “The Effort Effect”, Stanford Magazine, March/April 2007 retrieved from https://stanfordmag.org/contents/the-effort-effect
12.Ng, Betsy (2018). “The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation,” Brain Science 2018, 8(2) 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8020020, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5836039/
13.NLI (NeuroLeadership Institute) (2019). Growth Mindset Case Study Collection. Retrieved from https://hub.neuroleadership.com/gm-case-study-collection
14.Senn Delaney (2015). New Study Findings: Creating Competitive Advantage by Fostering a Growth Mindset in Organizations.” Los Angeles: Senn Delaney.
Websites
1.Bariso, Justin (2018). This is the Book That Inspired Microsoft’s Turnaround, According to CEO Satya Nadella. https://www.inc.com/justin-bariso/this-is-book-that-inspired-microsofts-turnaround-according-to-ceo-satya-nadella.html , retrieved on 4/24/2019
2.Brown, Erica (2014). Innovative Thinking: Fixed vs. Growth Mindsets.
https://www.businessmagazinegainesville.com/innovative-thinking-fixed-vs-growth-mindsets/ , retrieved on 10/1/2019.
3.Cambridge dictionary. mindset. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/zht/%E8%A9%9E%E5%85%B8/%E8%8B%B1%E8%AA%9E-%E6%BC%A2%E8%AA%9E-%E7%B9%81%E9%AB%94/mindset , retrieved on 7/1/2018.
4.Cherry, Kendra (2020). 17 Ways to Develop Your Creativity. https://www.verywellmind.com/how-to-boost-your-creativity-2795046 , retrieved on 4/24/2020
5.Dobiéy, Dirk (2016). Innovation is a new Combination of Things that have previously been separate – Interview with Neurobiologist Gerald Huether.
https://www.ageofartists.org/10676-2/ , retrieved on 1/10/2020.
6.Dweck, Carol (2014). The power of believing that you can improve (TEDx Norrkoping). https://www.ted.com/talks/carol_dweck_the_power_of_believing_that_you_can_improve , retrieved on 5/1/2019.
7.Dweck, Carol (2015). The Growth Mindset (Talks at Google). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-71zdXCMU6A , retrieved on 7/1/2020.
8.Dweck, Carol (2016). What Having a “Growth Mindset” Actually Means. https://hbr.org/2016/01/what-having-a-growth-mindset-actually-means , retrieved on 8/5/2019.
9.EdGlossary (2013). Growth Mindset. https://www.edglossary.org/growth-mindset/ , retrieved on 5/1/2019.
10.EPM (2018). ERG Theory of Motivation. https://expertprogrammanagement.com/2018/10/erg-theory-of-motivation/ , retrieved on 12/5/2019.
11.Gersema, Emily (2016). Which brain networks respond when someone sticks to a belief? https://news.usc.edu/114481/which-brain-networks-respond-when-someone-sticks-to-a-belief, retrieved on 7/1/2020.
12.Grant, Heidi (2017). The Growth Mindset Organization (Columbia Business School webinar). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4o0gdgo_iE , retrieved on 4/3/2020.
13.Grant H., Slaughter M., & Derler A. (2018). 5 Mistakes Companies Make About Growth Mindsets. https://hbr.org/2018/07/5-mistakes-companies-make-about-growth-mindsets , retrieved on 4/1/2019.
14.Land, George (2011). The Failure Of Success (TEDx Tucson). https://youtu.be/ZfKMq-rYtnc , retrieved on 12/5/2019.
15.Oxford dictionary. mindset. https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/mindset?q=mindset, retrieved on 7/1/2018.
16.Shibu, Sherin & Lebowitz, Shana (2019). Microsoft is rolling out a new management framework to its leaders. It centers around a psychological insight called growth mindset. https://www.businessinsider.com/microsoft-is-using-growth-mindset-to-power-management-strategy-2019-11 , retrieved on 12/24/2019
17.Sims, Peter (2012). The No. 1 Enemy of Creativity: Fear of Failure. https://hbr.org/2012/10/the-no-1-enemy-of-creativity-f , retrieved on 4/24/2019
18.Tan, Shirley (2016). From the classroom: a strategy for applying the growth mindset concept to your business. https://www.business.com/articles/a-strategy-for-applying-the-growth-mindset-concept-to-your-business/ , retrieved on 4/24/2019
19.Vinney, Cynthia (2019). Fluid Versus Crystallized Intelligence: What’s the Difference? https://www.thoughtco.com/fluid-crystallized-intelligence-4172807 , retrieved on 7/2/2020.
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