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研究生:方堉嘉
研究生(外文):FANG, YU-JIA
論文名稱:機械手臂不鏽鋼工件研磨拋光技術研發
論文名稱(外文):Development of Grinding and Polishing Technology for Stainless Steel with Robot Manipulator
指導教授:蕭俊祥蕭俊祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):SHAW, JIN-SIANG
口試委員:蕭俊祥李福星李春穎
口試委員(外文):SHAW, JIN-SIANGLEE, FU-SHINLEE, CHUN-YING
口試日期:2020-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系機電整合碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:機械手臂研磨拋光力量控制表面粗糙度檢測
外文關鍵詞:Robot ManipulatorGrinding and PolishingForce ControlSurface Roughness
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在現今的傳統產業界,多數的研磨拋光加工還是以手動加工為主,然而這些研磨拋光程序會有以下問題:動作的重複性太高、過度消耗體力以及加工時間極長。本論文針對臺灣機械加工現況,利用機械手臂之良好適應性,研發出一套具力控制機制的手持工具式機械手臂研磨拋光系統。本研究考量工業界產品大小、重量的適用性以及加工成本,選用手持砂輪機應用於機械手臂之末端效應器,並針對此種接觸式機械加工搭配ATI力量/力矩感測器,使系統擁有其順應性,在加工大型物件的情況下也有智慧研磨拋光的可行性。另外,本論文所採用的工件材質為工業界常用的304不鏽鋼,為因應不鏽鋼其高韌性,設計多道機械手臂拋光程序讓不鏽鋼工件經由粗磨、細磨最終至拋光,使原工件的表面粗糙度從Sa 3.04 µm下降至Sa 0.47 µm,可以降低其表面粗糙度並增加光潔度。本研究也對機械加工的軌跡在CAD/CAM軟體 (RoboDK) 模擬環境內進行編程,能在碰撞檢測以及手臂姿態建立達到良好效果。
In the traditional industry, manual grinding is still the majority, and its problems include excessive processing time and labor consumption. To solve the above problems, this thesis focuses on the current state of machining in Taiwan, using the good adaptability of robotic arms to develop a hand-holding tools type grinding and polishing system with force control mechanisms. In this study, considering the size, weight and processing cost of industrial products, the hand-held grinder is selected for the end effector of the robotic arm, and for contact machining, the robotic arm is also equipped with ATI force / torque sensors to make the system compliant. According to the experimental results, this study can reduce the surface roughness of 304 stainless steel from Sa 3.04 µm to below Sa 0.47 µm. This study also programmed the trajectory in the CAD / CAM software (RoboDK) simulation environment, which can achieve good results in collision detection and arm posture establishment.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌 謝 iii
目 錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言與研究動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.3 研究目的 6
1.4 論文架構 7
第二章 系統架構 8
2.1 實驗設備 8
2.1.1 研磨拋光模組 8
2.1.2 機械手臂-Stäubli TX60L 11
2.1.3 ATI力量/力矩感測器 12
2.1.4 Keyence表面3D輪廓量測儀 14
2.2 上位機軟體架構 15
2.2.1 使用者操作介面 (Stäubli Soap Client) 16
2.2.2 TwinCAT通訊協議 17
2.3 系統通訊 20
第三章 研究方法 21
3.1 機械手臂運動學與矩陣運算 21
3.1.1 D-H法 (Denavit-Hartenberg Convention) 21
3.1.2 正向運動學 24
3.2 RoboDK模擬軟體 27
3.2.1 環境創建 27
3.2.2 控制座標轉換 29
3.3 研磨拋光之加工理論 34
3.4 力量控制 38
3.4.1 間接力量控制 38
3.4.2 直接力量控制 39
第四章 加工程序與控制 41
4.1 不鏽鋼材料特性 41
4.1.1 工序設計 43
4.1.2 不鏽鋼研磨技術 45
4.2 研磨路徑規劃 47
4.2.1 工具座標系與TCP 48
4.2.2 RoboDK研磨路徑計算 50
4.3 機械手臂研磨控制法 52
4.3.1 位置控制 52
4.3.2 力量控制與PID參數 53
第五章 實驗結果與討論 58
5.1 實驗架構與配置 58
5.2 實驗流程 60
5.2.1 位置控制研磨拋光實驗流程 60
5.2.2 混合位置/力量控制研磨拋光實驗流程 62
5.3 實驗結果 63
5.3.1 平面研磨拋光結果 63
5.3.2 曲面研磨拋光結果 73
5.4 實驗討論 79
第六章 結論與未來展望 83
6.1 結論 83
6.2 未來展望 84
參考文獻 85


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