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研究生:張雅絢
研究生(外文):Ya-Hsuan Chang
論文名稱:企業外派人員遴選之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study on the selection of the expatriates in the corporate
指導教授:洪英正洪英正引用關係
口試委員:陳基祥賴明政
口試日期:2020-05-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:外派人員遴選遴選因素跨文化適應力個人技術能力家庭支持
外文關鍵詞:expatriateselectionselection factorscross-cultural capabilitypersonal technical skillfamily support
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台灣的地理位置優越,使我們在進行各項的商業貿易頻繁,近年來發展的全球化更讓台灣步上國際化的腳步,因為貿易的自由化,企業開始向海外拓展據點、和他國合作,因此外派成為了現今國際企業重視的課題,遴選適當外派人選也成為人資部門近年來注重的議題。Shen與 Edwards (2004)認為外派人員的甄選是評估和決定誰適合從事外派工作的重要過程,當跨國企業在拓展海外據點的同時,其外派遴選的課題也正面臨考驗。
過去在外派遴選程序上,有些組織常常採用僵化而單一的徵選方式,又或者曾有外派人員提到外派失敗率高的原因,主要是因為許多跨國公司採用「不充分」的甄選標準 (Dumaine, 1995; Black & Mendenhall, 1990; Adler, 1986)。Dowling, Schuler, & Welch (1994)曾提出企業在遴選外派人員時應納入考量的因素,包括:個人情況、對外派的動機渴望、家庭因素、跨文化適應力、技術能力、關係技能、語言能力,Ronny, Rickard, & Tu (2007) 提及的企業需求因素,以及本研究整理之人事因素,加總概括為本研究所探討之十大遴選因素。
本研究採用質化研究方式,選擇在海外設有據點或廠區之台灣企業,在2020年 4月到 5月之間,有效訪談共計四家人力資源主管,其中三家為一般傳統製造業,一家為電子科技業,在外派系統的建構上均已是很完整的企業。藉由本研究架構發展出訪談問卷,和教授研擬出共計36題的訪談問題,和各企業之人資部門人員進行深度訪談,並針對訪談結果進行內容分析,共推導出以下幾項命題:
1.外派徵選的候選人本身應該要有意願,且是外派的先決條件。
2.企業樂見具有對海外工作有嚮往、渴望之候選人,對企業來說此類外派人員的海外職涯能比較長久。
3.企業普遍認為家庭因素會影響著外派人員,不管在工作上、生活上、都扮演外派人員職涯規劃中重要的角色。
4.企業會在外派人員的海外生活給予協助和幫助。
5.現今企業認為英文能力仍是語言應對能力上的主要外語。
6.企業認為有良好人際關係之外派候選人,在遴選決策上是有加分效果的。
7.目前企業外派成功個案居多,和先前文獻提出的高失敗率有違背。
8.總結企業最注重的考量因素為外派候選人意願、工作能力、家庭支持。
9.企業認為外派人員對於外派有動機可望、使命感,能夠增加外派的成功機率。
10.企業針對有海外工作經驗之員工,會優先選用。
11.企業很注重外派人員在技術能力上的培養,以增強外派人員在海外任務上的處理、應變能力。
12.多數企業認為情緒穩定對外派人員工作上有直接關係。
根據訪談結果得知,企業普遍重視的遴選因素是外派人員本身的意願、家庭的支持以及外派人員本身的工作能力,在研究過程中也不難發現,企業若搭配適當的教育訓練,是能有效協助外派人員的相關表現,因此企業在外派遴選的建構與教育訓練的重視應該並進,讓外派成功的機率能大幅提升。最後,期盼能藉由本研究之結論及建議,供後續研究做進一步的探討與研究。
With the great geographic location of Taiwan, we can engage in various kinds of commercial trade frequently. The globalization of development in recent years has made Taiwan step up its internationalization. With the liberalization of trade, enterprises began to expand their bases overseas and cooperate with other countries. Therefore, expatriation has become an important topic for international enterprises nowadays. And the selection of expatriate candidates has become the focus of the human resources department. According to Shen and Edwards (2004), the selection of expatriates is an important process in assessing and deciding who is suitable for expatriate work, and the subject of expatriate selection for multinational companies is being tested as they expand their overseas locations.
In the past, some organizations often adopted a rigid and single selection method in the selection process for expatriates, or some expatriates mentioned that the reason for the high failure rate of expatriates was that many multinational companies adopted "inadequate" selection criteria (Dumaine, 1995; Black & Mendenhall, 1990; Adler, 1986). Dowling, Schuler, & Welch (1994) proposed that the factors that enterprises should consider when selecting expatriates, include: situational factors, motivation and desire for expatriate, family factors, cross-cultural adaptability, technical ability, relationship skills, language skill. the corporate demand factors mentioned by Ronny, Rickard, & Tu (2007), and the personnel factors in this study are summarized as the ten selection factors discussed in this study.
This study uses qualitative research methods to select Taiwanese enterprises with bases or factories overseas. From April to May of 2020, effective interviews with a total of four human resources managers. Three of them are general traditional manufacturing industry and one is electronic technology industry, which are already very complete enterprises in the construction of expatriate system. Based on the framework of this study, we developed an interview questionnaire, developed a total of 36 interview questions with professors, and conducted in-depth interviews with personnel from human resources departments of various enterprises. Based on the content analysis of the interview results, the following propositions are deduced:
First, candidates for the election of expatriates should be willing by themselves and a prerequisite for assignment.
Second, the enterprises would like to see candidates with longing and desire for overseas work, for enterprises such expatriates overseas career can be relatively long-term.
Third, enterprises generally believe that family factors will affect expatriates, whether in work, life, all play an important role in the career planning of expatriates.
Fourth, enterprises will provide assistance and assistance in the overseas life of expatriates.
Fifth, nowadays, enterprises think that English ability is still the main foreign language in language coping ability.
Sixth, enterprises believe that there are candidates outside the party with good interpersonal relationships, and there is a bonus effect in the selection decision-making.
Seventh, at present, the majority of successful cases of enterprise assignments are contrary to the high failure rate proposed in the previous literature.
Eighth, the most important factors that enterprises pay attention to are the willingness of overseas candidates, working ability and family support.
Ninth, enterprises believe that expatriates have motivation, expectation and sense of mission, which can increase the success rate of expatriate.
Tenth, enterprises will give priority to employees with overseas working experience.
Eleventh, enterprises attach great importance to the cultivation of expatriate''s technical ability, so as to enhance their ability of handling and responding to overseas tasks.
Twelfth, most enterprises believe that emotional stability is directly related to the work of expatriates.
According to the results of the interview, the selection factors that are generally valued by enterprises are the willingness of the expatriates themselves, the support of the family and the ability of the expatriates themselves to work. In the process of research, it is not difficult to find that enterprises can effectively assist expatriates'' performance if they are equipped with appropriate education and training. Therefore, enterprises should pay attention to the construction of expatriate selection and education and training, so that the probability of successful expatriate can be greatly improved. By this case, hope that the conclusions and recommendations of this study can be used for further discussion and research.
目錄 I
圖目錄 III
表目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 研究流程與研究範圍 7
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 全球化下的國際人才遷移趨勢 8
第二節 何謂外派 ? 10
第三節 組織與外派的關係 12
第四節 跨國企業的國際人力資源配置 13
第五節 外派的遴選標準 15
第六節 外派的失敗 23
第七節 國際標竿企業的遴選政策 25
第三章 研究方法 27
第一節 研究方法 27
第二節 研究對象 27
第三節 研究架構 29
第四節 研究問題 30
第五節 資料收集與分析 36
第四章 研究結果與分析 37
第一節 訪談個案與受訪者基本資料 37
第二節 訪談結果分析 38
第五章 結論、討論及建議 66
第一節 研究結論與討論 66
第二節 管理意涵 71
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 72
參考文獻 73
一、中文文獻 73
二、英文文獻 74
附錄 86

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程 7
圖2-1 72萬海外工作台灣人,年輕人佔比增,中壯年減。 10
圖2-2從1970年以前到現在的主要外派人員選擇主題的歷史演變 15
圖2-3 THE U CURVE OF CROSS-CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT 19
圖3-1 外派遴選的因素 29

表目錄
表2-1 成功外派人員特質分析 21
表3-1訪談企業簡介 27
表3-2受訪者基本資料及訪談聯絡情況 28
表4-1訪談企業外派背景與簡介 37
表4-1訪談企業外派背景與簡介(續) 38
表4-2對外派有意願是一切先決條件之命題歸納表 39
表4-3對海外工作有嚮往渴望其職涯較能長久之命題歸納表 39
表4-4對海外派遣職務之信念未成為命題之歸納表 40
表4-5具動機渴望、使命感能提升外派成功率之命題歸納表 41
表4-6遴選過程觀察動機渴望等行為未成為命題之歸納表 42
表4-7家庭因素會影響外派人員之命題歸納表 42
表4-7家庭因素會影響外派人員之命題歸納表(續) 43
表4-8配偶參加面談及意見納入遴選決策未成為命題之歸納表 43
表4-9企業會協助外派人員海外生活之命題歸納表 44
表4-10家人隨行未成為命題之歸納表 45
表4-11外派人員之跨文化適應力未成為命題之歸納表 45
表4-11外派人員之跨文化適應力未成為命題之歸納表(續) 46
表4-12跨文化教育課程未成為命題之歸納表 46
表4-13具海外工作經驗者優先選用之命題歸納表 47
表4-14外派人員跨文化適應問題未成為命題之歸納表 48
表4-15英文仍是對外溝通的主要外語之命題歸納表 49
表4-16語言相關訓練課程未成為命題之歸納表 49
表4-17發生語言應對問題未成為命題之歸納表 50
表4-18外派成功的關鍵語文能力未成為命題之歸納表 51
表4-19考量外派人員之技術能力未成為命題之歸納表 51
表4-20技術能力方面的培養是企業所注重的議題之命題歸納表 52
表4-21技術能力提升的方法未成為命題之歸納表 53
表4-22技術能力培育所遭遇的問題未成為命題之歸納表 54
表4-23良好關係技能具加分效果之命題歸納表 54
表4-24關係技能之重要特質未成為命題之歸納表 55
表4-25情緒穩定對於工作有直接關係之命題歸納表 56
表4-26關係技能方面之問題未成為命題之歸納表 57
表4-27外派作業相關決策未成為命題之歸納表 58
表4-28未來的外派整體方案未成為命題之歸納表 59
表4-29訪談企業外派成功個案居多數之命題歸納表 60
表4-30派駐合約相關內容未成為命題之歸納表 61
表4-31外派人員之相關福利未成為命題之歸納表 61
表4-31外派人員之相關福利未成為命題之歸納表(續) 62
表4-32支付薪資方式未成為命題之歸納表 62
表4-33稅務相關考量未成為命題之歸納表 63
表4-34投保保險項目未成為命題之歸納表 63
表4-35單一外派人員的成本未成為命題之歸納表 64
表4-36二次外派機會未成為命題之歸納表 65
表4-37企業注重外派人員其意願、工作能力及家庭支持之命題歸納表 65
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三、網頁資料
施君蘭 (2011) 。標竿企業,誰最重視人才?檢索自
https://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5010313
于國欽 (2018)。海外就業 - 去年73.6萬人新高。檢索自
https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20181218000232-260202?chdtv
Mercer (2013), “Cultural Awareness Eases Expatriate Assignments”, available at:
http://mthink.mercer.com/cultural-awareness-eases-expatriate-assignments/ (assessed 22 July 2014).
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