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研究生:陳俞樺
研究生(外文):CHEN, YU-HUN
論文名稱:黑蒜製程條件探討及其抗氧化能力之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Processing of Black Garlic and Antioxidative Capacity
指導教授:尤澤森
指導教授(外文):IrvanPrawira Julius Jioe
口試委員:蔡佳芳曾雅秀
口試委員(外文):TSAI, CHIA-FANGTSENG, YA-HSIU
口試日期:2020-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:環球科技大學
系所名稱:生物技術研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:108
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:DPPH自由基水活性消費者嗜好性氣象色譜-質譜儀總酚含量三價鐵離子抗氧化能力
外文關鍵詞:DPPHFRAPTPCAWGC-MS
相關次數:
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大蒜(Allium sativum)屬蔬菜類蒜頭,原產於亞洲和非洲及歐洲南部及等地,我國栽培已有二千多年歷史,其中所含大蒜素(Allicin)主要為蒜氨酸形成的揮發性硫化物,對於增進食慾、驅蟲、殺菌、止瀉、解毒及健胃保健等方面均有功效。早期台灣原住民在腹痛效用。
如今,黑蒜頭越來越受歡迎的大蒜衍生物。然而,不同處理條件會影響黑蒜頭之抗氧化能力。因此,本試驗目的除了探討黑蒜頭製作條件因子之外,同時也比較坊間售商業用黑蒜頭與自製黑蒜頭之抗氧化能力。黑蒜萃取物的酚類物質是衡量產品品質,一個重要具指標性功能性成分,它的含量高低會影響黑蒜功效性。在本試驗結果顯示黑蒜頭製作在70℃以上溫進行製成。除此以外,含水量也扮演很重要角色,若水流失過快會使的黑蒜頭製程失敗,本試驗裡發現每三天水分含量流失10%左右才能完成黑蒜頭製程。甲醇萃DDPH自由基(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)清除活性在黑蒜(電鍋)處理具有最強清除能力,而在水萃DDPH自由基清除活性發現80℃烘箱處裡最佳。三價鐵離子還原抗氧化能力(Ferric reducing antioxidant potential)分析顯示無論在甲醇或水萃80℃烘箱處裡最佳而商業蒜頭FRAP還原能力較差。總酚含量(TPC)分析顯示甲醇萃80℃烘箱處裡具有最高含量。各種黑蒜頭處理之水活性無顯著差異。調查消費者對黑蒜頭口味嗜好性(Consumer preferences)採人數喜好百分比及四級分計算單因子變異數分析統計真實的接受度與氣相色譜-質譜(gas chromatogaraphy-mass spectrum)分析鑑別黑蒜中的硫揮發物和其它具特色風味鑑識靈敏度是否相似,有助開發農產品或保健食品的分析。
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a vegetable garlic. It is native to Asia, Africa, southern Europe and other places. It has been cultivated in China for more than two thousand years. The allicin contained in it is mainly volatile formed by alliin. Sulfides are effective in improving appetite, deworming, sterilizing, antidiarrheal, detoxifying, and strengthening stomach health. In the early days, the aborigines of Taiwan were effective for abdominal pain.
Nowadays, black garlic is an increasingly popular garlic derivative. However, different treatment conditions will affect the antioxidant capacity of black garlic. Therefore, the purpose of this test is to study the process of making black garlic and to compare the antioxidant capacity of commercial black garlic and homemade black garlic. The phenolic substance in black garlic extract is an important index functional ingredient to measure product quality. Its content will affect the efficacy of black garlic. The results showed that in order to process the black garlic, its need above 70℃ to finish the process. Moreover, water loss during making balck garlic also play an important roles, the process making black garlic will fail If the water content loss too fast. In this research showed that the best water loss control in making black garlic is about 10% water loss every 3 days. DDPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)scavenging ability in methanol extract black garlic (rice cooker)showed the best scsvenging ability. However, DDPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)scavenging ability in methanol extract black garlic 80℃ showed the best. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential analysis showed that either methanol or water extract in black garlic 80℃ showed the best and the commercial black garlic had the lowest FRAP ability. Total Phenolic Compaound (TPC) content analysis showed thatblack garlic 80℃ showed the highest content. In water activity analysis showed no significant difference in all treatment. The overall taste of the good process(Consumer preferences), the survey consumers’ preference for black garlic taste, the percentage of the number of people who like it, and the four-level calculation of the single-factor variance analysis. The true acceptance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gas chromatogaraphy - mass spectrum) analysis to identify black garlic Whether the sensitivity of sulfur volatiles and other distinctive flavors are similar, it is helpful to develop the analysis of agricultural products or health food.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
謝誌 IV
目錄 V
表 目 錄 VII
圖 目 錄 VIII
第壹章、 前言 1
第貳章、 文獻回顧 3
2.1 大蒜的簡介 3
2.2 黑色蒜頭的產生 13
2.3黑蒜梅納化學反應 14
2.4.黑蒜的抗氧化能力 21
2.4.1 DPPH•自由基清除能力 21
2.4.3 總酚類化合物分析(TOTAL PHENOLIC COMPOUND) 21
2.4.4水活性分析(WATER ACTIVITY METER) 22
2.4.5色差儀之色差量測 23
1.DPPH 24
2.FRAP 24
第參章、 材料方法 24
3.TPC 24
水萃、甲醇萃 24
黑蒜之抗氧化能力測定 25
3.9 DPPH•清除能力分析 26
3.11 總酚類化合物分析(TOTAL PHENOLIC COMPOUND) 27
3.12水活性分析 28
3.13黑蒜感官評估 28
甲醇萃抗氧化力 32
水萃抗氧化力 33
甲醇萃和水萃抗氧化力相比較 33
總可溶性固形物(BRIX0) 56
第伍章、 結論 63
第陸章、 參考文獻 66

表目錄
表格 1調查一般消費者問卷評分(電鍋) 28
表格 2 NBS色差單位與感覺色差關係 30
表格 3調查一般消費者口感試吃(酸味) 35
表格 4調查一般消費者口感試吃(酸味) 單因子變異數分析 36
表格 5調查一般消費者口感試吃(甘味) 37
表格 6調查一般消費者口感試吃(甘味) 單因子變異數分析 38
表格 7調查一般消費者口感試吃(質地) 39
表格 8調查一般消費者口感試吃(質地) 單因子變異數分析 40
表格 9調查一般消費者口感試吃(整體喜愛) 41
表格 10調查一般消費者口感試吃(整體喜愛) 單因子變異數分析 42
表格 11 黑蒜頭製成最適化的熟化溫度時間範圍的確定 47
表格 12色差儀分析 55
表格 13色差儀分析 55
表格 14氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—蒜頭(甲醇萃) 80
表格 15氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—電鍋黑蒜頭(甲醇萃) 81
表格 16氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—黑蒜(甲醇萃) 82
表格 17氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—商業黑蒜頭(甲醇萃) 83
表格 18氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—蒜頭(丙酮萃) 84
表格 19氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—電鍋黑蒜頭(丙酮萃) 85
表格 20氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—商業黑蒜頭(丙酮萃) 86
表格 21氣相層析串聯質譜儀(GC/MS)分析—商業黑蒜頭(丙酮萃) 87

圖目錄
圖 1栽種蒜辦觀察植物成長基原外觀 3
圖 2 梅拉德反應(CHOIJ, 2009) 14
圖 3 將黑大蒜的物理化學和抗氧化特性(張為憲,1984) 16
圖 4 鮮蒜不同的加工步驟/黑蒜包覆蒜辦和根簇觀察 43
圖 5 無蒜頭味及整體軟口感似蜜餞,表現較好 44
圖 6 水分揮發度製程成品皆在0.8%,口感佳 44
圖 7太軟未熟 45
圖 8太硬且未熟 45
圖 9 FRAP分析法(三價鐵離子還原抗氧化力) 46
圖 10 水分散失(%)實驗結果 47
圖 11 調查黑蒜頭甲醇萃取液之DPPH自由基清除能力 48
圖 12 調查黑蒜頭水萃萃取液之DPPH自由基清除能力 48
圖 13 DPPH清除率(%)甲醇和水萃比較 49
圖 14 調查黑蒜頭甲醇萃取液之三價鐵離子還原抗氧化力(FRAP) 50
圖 15調查黑蒜頭水萃取液之三價鐵離子還原抗氧化力 (FRAP) 50
圖 16 FRAP甲醇和水萃比較 51
圖 17 FRAP FESO4線性 51
圖 18 調查黑蒜頭甲醇萃取液之總分類含量(TPC) 52
圖 19 調查黑蒜頭水萃萃取液之總分類含量(TPC) 52
圖 20 TPC甲醇和水萃比較 53
圖 21 水活性分析 54
圖 22 折光式糖度計來測量甜度 56
圖 23 調查消費者對黑蒜頭電鍋(酸味)喜愛度 57
圖 24 調查消費者對黑蒜頭烘箱(酸味)喜愛度 57
圖 25調查消費者對黑蒜頭商業(酸味)喜愛度 58
圖 26調查消費者對黑蒜頭電鍋(甘味)喜愛度 58
圖 27 調查消費者對黑蒜頭烘箱(甘味)喜愛度 59
圖 28 調查消費者對黑蒜頭商業(甘味)喜愛度 59
圖 29 調查消費者對黑蒜頭電鍋(質地)喜愛度 60
圖 30 調查消費者對黑蒜頭烘箱(質地)喜愛度 60
圖 31 調查消費者對黑蒜頭商業(質地)喜愛度 61
圖 32 調查消費者對黑蒜頭電鍋(整體喜愛)喜愛度 61
圖 33 調查消費者對黑蒜頭烘箱(整體喜愛) 喜愛度 62
圖 34 調查消費者對黑蒜頭商業(整體喜愛)喜愛度 62
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