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研究生:李若妍
研究生(外文):RUO-YAN, LEE
論文名稱:平台經濟的商業模式下勞工參與的可行性: 以我國內 U 平台、 F 平台工作者為核心
論文名稱(外文):Feasibility of Workers’ Participation under the platform economy business model: Taking couriers served for the U Platform and the F Platform as core theme
指導教授:劉黃麗娟劉黃麗娟引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIU HUANG, LI-CHUAN
口試委員:馬財專傅柏翔
口試委員(外文):MA ,TSAI-CHUANFU, BO SHONE
口試日期:2020-10-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:勞工關係研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:平台工作非典型工作數位平台勞工參與演算法
外文關鍵詞:platform workatypical workdigital platformworkers’ participationalgorithm
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本文首先梳理全球化及數位科技對於勞動世界的影響,以及平台經濟發展的歷程。平台經濟蘊含了企業以及勞動者對於勞動彈性的需求,平台的商業模式發展出市場效率最大化以及成本最小化的特性,市場機制也導致風險的轉嫁以及平台管理對演算法的依賴;而平台工作者對勞動彈性的需求多半建立在經濟因素上,或職涯探索與轉換的過程中。儘管平台工作者主觀上對於這份工作有著高度自主性,然而現行平台的演算法、工作流程以及獎懲制度中,都是平台片面制訂與認定,缺乏工作者的聲音,皆形塑出一種「虛偽的自主、擬似自營作業者」的誤解。
本研究透過文獻回顧歐美國家平台工作者組織串連、參與平台決策,甚至進而取得平台控制權或所有權的經驗,發現平台工作者參與平台經營決策有助於改善雙方資訊不對等、工作流程不友善、提高生產效率的情狀。上述平台工作者的參與也未必以工會做為行動主體,有許多透過聯合組織、合作社、互助機構的經驗。研究者藉由深度訪談相關利害關係人,發現我國平台工作者的團結意識仍低,主要係基於平台制定的工作流程讓平台工作者間存在競爭關係,並且部分工作者認為自己不是「勞工」無須工會保障。少數平台工作者加入職業工會獲得相關勞動保障,其他組織則仍處意見交換與經驗分享的形式。
本研究建議平台業者與平台工作者應朝建立雙方對話機制發展,初步得以從資訊交換作為開端,降低雙方資訊不對等。政府則避免將此產業的規範限於僱傭關係認定,產生成本轉嫁或勞動力市場排擠的效應,應協助創造有利於平台業者與平台工作者間雙方對話的空間。
This study aims to clarify the impact of globalisation and digital technology on the world of work, as well as on the development of the platform economy. The platform economy considers the needs of both enterprises and workers for labor flexibility. The platform's business model has been developed to maximize market efficiency and minimize costs. The market mechanism also leads to transfer of risks and the dependence of platform management on algorithms; further, platform workers’ demand for labor flexibility is mostly based on economic factors, or where they are in the process of career exploration and conversion. Although platform workers subjectively think they have a high degree of autonomy in doing this job, the algorithm, labour process, and reward and punishment system are all controlled by the platform, and lacks of workers’ participation.
Thus, through a literature review, this study found that platform workers from other countries organise and participate in the platform’s decision-making, and even gain control or ownership of the platform. The participation of platform workers in platform management and decision-making can help improve the information mismatch between the two parties, prevent unfriendly work processes, and enhance production efficiency. Platform workers’ participation does not consider the trade union the main actor, but functions through collectives, cooperatives and mutual agency.
The findings from interviews with these stakeholders, reveal that platform workers have low awareness of unity. Some platform workers do not consider themselves as ‘workers’ and do not see the need to be united. Workers have a competitive relationship with each other because they are paid by piece. Presently, they join only occupational unions to obtain security protection. Most of their organisations are still in the soft form like social media for exchanging opinions and sharing experiences.
This research suggests that platform operators and platform workers should develop mechanism of dialogue between them, and initially start with information exchange to reduce the prevailing information asymmetry. The government should avoid imposing industry regulations in the recognition of employment relationships that would result in cost shifting or labor market crowding. Instead, it should create a space that is conducive to dialogue between platform operators and platform workers.
論文考試審定書
論文授權書
謝辭
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 12
第三節 研究目的與問題 16
第二章 文獻回顧與探討 17
第一節 平台經濟的商業模式 17
第二節 平台經濟的勞動特性 33
第三節 國內外對於平台經濟之相關規範 39
第四節 平台經濟下勞工參與的空間與形式 45
第三章 研究設計與方法 59
第一節 操作性定義 59
第二節 研究架構 61
第三節 研究方法 63
第四節 研究倫理 67
第四章 資料分析及討論 69
第一節 平台經濟的商業模式特性:以F、U平台為例 69
第二節 平台工作者的勞動特性 74
第三節 平台與平台工作者的契約關係 83
第四節 平台工作者勞工參與現況及發展可行空間 88
第五章 結論與建議 94
第一節 研究發現 94
第二節 研究限制 99
第三節 研究建議 100
參考資料 104
附錄一 訪談同意書 113
附錄二 訪談大綱(工會或相關勞工組織) 114
附錄三 訪談大綱(平台業者) 116
附錄四 訪談大綱(學者專家政府) 118


一、中文部分
林俊甫、楊書菲、劉大年、顧瑩華、林廉庭、辛炳隆(2018)。「我國推動新經濟模式與新科技發展對勞動市場的影響與因應」委託研究,勞動部。
林佳和(2018)。勞動4.0、數位平台經濟模式與勞動關係認定–以眾包工作(Crowdworking)為例,科技部。
邱文宏、蔡詠安(2018)。共享經濟之平台信任機制:以Uber為例。科技管理學刊,23(4),1-26。
焦興鎧(2018)。對平臺或零工經濟勞動者之保障-美國之經驗。臺灣勞工季刊,(53),36-47。
彭素玲、陳筆、黃春長(2017)。全球供應鏈、網際網路科技發展趨勢對勞動市場影響與因應分析,勞動部勞動及職業安全衛生研究所。
黃敏惠(2017)。物流媒合共享經濟新平臺創造行動式就業機會-GOGOVAN高高科技有限公司總經理許文忠。臺灣勞工季刊,(52),74-77。
張鑫隆(2018)。平臺與零工經濟之勞動者保障探討-以日本為例。臺灣勞工季刊,(53),20-27。
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劉士豪(2018)。德國平臺經濟與零工經濟法律結構的初探。臺灣勞工季刊,(53),28-35。
劉常勇、張玉山、彭美嘉、李依靜、黃春長、鄭淑芳、林正挺(2018)。運用平臺經濟模式發展生活支援服務之模式探討。勞動及職業安全衛生研究季刊,26(3),188-197。
劉黃麗娟(2016)。數位科技對工作世界的挑戰:以法國對於工時規範之討論為例。勞資關係論叢,18(1),62-78。
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劉黃麗娟、辛炳隆、韓仕賢(2018)。提升我國勞資合作機制-我國發展社會對話平臺可行性及效用評估。勞動部勞動及職業安全衛生研究所委託研究報告

二、英文部分
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De Stefano, V. (2016). The rise of the just-in-time workforce: On-demand work, crowdwork, and labor protection in the gig-economy. Comparative labor law and policy journal, 37(3), 461-471.
Diakopoulos, N. (2016). Accountability in algorithmic decision making. Communications of the ACM, 59(2), 56-62.
Dias-Abey, M. (2018). Justice on Our Fields: Can Alt-Labor Organizations Improve Migrant Farm Workers' Conditions. Harv. CR-CLL Rev., 53, 167.
Drahokoupil, J., & Fabo, B. (2016). The platform economy and the disruption of the employment relationship. ETUI Research Paper-Policy Brief, 5.
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Florisson, R., & Mandl, I. (2018). Digital age Platform work: Types and implications for work and employment–Literature review. In: Eurofound, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
Graham, M., Hjorth, I., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2017). Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 23(2), 135-162.
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三、網路資料
https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/report/2018/work-on-demand-recurrence-effects-and-challenges
https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sr/node/87976
https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/eurwork/industrial-relations-dictionary/gig-economy
https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/da/data/platform-economy/dossiers/autonomy-and-control
https://smeunited.eu/news/businesses-insist-on-fairness-principles-for-digital-platforms
https://smeunited.eu/admin/storage/smeunited/principles-for-platforms-fairness.pdf
http://www.martijnarets.com/reshaping-work-5-insights-into-the-gig-economys-most-urgent-issues/?lang=en

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