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研究生:許淳郁
研究生(外文):HSU, CHUN-YU
論文名稱:自我決定對主動行為之影響-以個人當責知覺與成就動機為中介變項之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Self-Determination on Proactive Behaviors:Studing the Mediating Effect of Personal Accountability Perception and Achievement Motivation
指導教授:林淑慧林淑慧引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIN, SHU-HUEI
口試委員:高文彬黃文柔
口試委員(外文):GAU, WEN-BINGHUANG, WEN-ROU
口試日期:2021-04-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:勞工關係學系碩士在職專班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:自我決定主動行為個人當責知覺成就動機
外文關鍵詞:Self-DeterminationProactive BehaviorsPersonal Accountability PerceptionAchievement Motivation
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組織營運態勢詭譎多變,企業在發展策略時需仰賴內部成員的推動與執行,而員工在職場上的積極主動行為,能為組織尋找機會並持續性地進行有意義的改善行為。根據自我決定理論,個人行為的動機受到基本心理需求(自主、能力及關聯)是否滿足所影響,此項理論提供了一套完整且複雜關於動機的構念,系統化的解釋了個體行為的理由。
積極的行為是自主性的、自發性的,當員工在組織內部感受到主管或團隊的肯定與認同,會增強員工面對挑戰或解決問題的內在動機,而當任務完成或問題得以解決時能讓員工累積自信與勝任感,會更加令員工持續地展現自我。
當員工在感受到組織內部的評價或期望時,會影響員工展現高度的責任感以符合組織的期待或捍衛自己的行為;另一方面,員工在持續展現自我的過程中,較好的成果會促進員工更積極的追求成就,較多的失敗經驗會影響員工隨時監控自己的表現避免產生失敗。因此,本研究透過自我決定理論架構先行探討其對主動行為的影響,之後再加入個人當責知覺與成就動機這二者變項加以分析驗證,是否強化或影響自我決定對員工主動行為之影響力。

本研究對象以服務業、科技製造的間接人員作為整體的研究樣本,透過問卷蒐集採量化研究,以紙本問卷進行調查並收集資料,本問卷發放份數為450份,採前後兩階段進行,扣除無效問卷,共計390份,回收率約為86%。經描述性統計分析、信度分析、驗證性因素分析、相關分析及階層迴歸分析等方法,針對研究假設與實證分析結果交互對照驗證,結果如下:
1.自我決定與主動行為之關係具顯著正相關。
2.個人當責知覺對自我決定和主動行為之中介效果成立。
3.成就動機對自我決定和主動行為具有部分中介效果。

綜上,本研究建議,在企業方面,員工是影響企業經營成效的一個關鍵因素,企業除了期待員工自發地展現積極主動行為,更應重新思考如何促進員工內在動機與需求的滿足;在員工方面,應時常保有求知慾與好奇心,加強學習力與解決問題的責任感,每一次適度地挑戰更高的目標,激勵自己追求更美好的成果與不斷提升累積自我的價值。

The operating situations of business organizations often rapidly change with various structural forms. The corporations will strongly rely on the efforts of their employees’ executions and impetus when they come to in need of implementing their business development strategies. Meanwhile, the positive proactive behavioral actions from the employees will also urge the corporations on seeking for more future opportunities and continuously carry out meaningful enhancement actions. Based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), The motivation of an individual's behaviors is affected by the fulfillment of his or her basic psychological needs (such as autonomy, competence, relatedness). This theory provides holistic and complex structural concepts about motivations, and systematically explains the reasons of individual’s behaviors.
Positive behaviors are autonomous and self-initiated. The employees’ inner motivations to take on challenges and solve the encountering problems will increase when they receive the affirmative compliments and recognitions from their colleagues or supervising managers within the company. Furthermore, it will build up the employees’ self-confidence and the senses of accomplishment, and even promote them to constantly explore their abilities for better achievements when they complete the designated tasks or successfully solve the problems.
The employees will display a high sense of responsibility to fulfill the expectations from the company or justify their own behaviors when they come to realize the company holds higher expectations or evaluations on them. On the other hand, during the continuous process of exploring higher self achievement, the better outcomes will push the employees to more aggressively pursue higher accomplishments; the more failures the employees have made will remind them to constantly monitor their behaviors and performances to avoid making errors or failures in the future. Therefore, this research will begin with discussing the influence of proactive behaviors based on the structural concepts of Self-Determination Theory; and following by adding two variants, self-obligation awareness and achievement motivations, to analyze and verify if self-determination is improving or affecting to the employees’ proactive behavioral actions.

The research targeted groups for this report are the indirect laborers from both the service industry and the technological manufacturer industry. This research is conducted as a quantitative research by gathering questionnaires answered by our both targeted groups, which there are totally 450 copies in paper forms. The process of conducting questionnaires gathering was divided into two sections to complete the whole task. There are 390 copies retrieved from the targeted groups with a 86% of returning rate. With varieties of research analytical methods, such as descriptive statistics analysis, reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, analysis of correlation and hierarchical regression analysis, we have cross examined and verified the empirical analysis results with our research hypothesis. The following are the conclusions that we have found.
1. There is a significantly positive correlation between self-determination and proactive behavioral actions.
2. Self-obligation awareness plays as a mediation between self-determination and proactive behavioral actions.
3. Achievement motivation has proven as a partial mediation between self-determination and proactive behavioral actions.

We would like to make some recommendations based on our research findings. From the perspective of a business corporation, the employees essentially play as the key factor to the company’s business efficiency and performance. The corporation should not only expect their employees to autonomously act on proactive actions, but also need to take into consideration of what their employees’ true inner motivations are and how to fulfill their needs. Meanwhile, equivalently from the perspective of employees, they should always maintain the desires of obtaining knowledge and stay curious to the new information and things; improve the ability to learn and be aware of the obligation to solve the encountering problems; constantly take on the challenges for higher goals; self-motivate for better results and continuously uplift and cumulate self values.
摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 解釋名詞 4
第二章 文獻回顧 7
第一節 自我決定理論 7
第二節 主動行為 7
第三節 個人當責知覺 21
第四節 成就動機 29
第五節 各變項間之關係 33
第三章 研究方法 41
第一節 研究架構與假設 41
第二節 研究對象與資料蒐集 43
第三節 研究變項操作型定義與衡量工具 44
第四節 問卷信度與效度分析 52
第五節 資料分析方法 62
第四章 研究結果與討論 65
第一節 基本資料分析 65
第二節 研究變項相關分析 66
第三節 研究變項之迴歸分析 70
第四節 研究假設驗證結果 81
第五章 研究結論與建議 83
第一節 研究結論 83
第二節 研究建議與限制 87
文獻參考 93
附錄 105

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