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研究生:李宜軒
研究生(外文):Lee,Yi-Hsuan
論文名稱:顧客 品牌 參與前因效果之探討 -實體市場及虛擬 環境中的研究
論文名稱(外文):The Antecedents of the Effect of Consumer Brand Engagement on the Brick-and-Mortar and Virtual Environment
指導教授:李建裕李建裕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Bruce C.Y., Lee
口試委員:劉志光,吳宜蓁,吳清炎,蕭志同
口試日期:2021-04-22
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:商學研究所博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:來源國效應經濟敵意顧客品牌參與購買意願社群意識風險趨避品牌聲譽提供私密個資意願
外文關鍵詞:country-of-origineconomic animosityconsumer brand engagementpurchase intentionsense of communityrisk aversionconsumer brand engagement in the online brand communitybrand prestigewillingness to provide personal private information
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顧客品牌參與(Consumer Brand Engagement) 是近年來學術界廣泛關注的焦點主題之一,然而過去研究從未將它運用於,在國際市場上可能解決經濟敵意(Economic Animosity) 的辦法之一。本研究的研究一運用 PLS 及 SPSS方法,藉由 376位中國消費者對美國知名品牌蘋果及耐吉購買意願 (Purchase Intention)的調查,驗證了中國年輕消費者在中美貿易大戰之後,已經對美國產生經濟敵意,然而這個負面的敵意可以經由顧客品牌參與獲得減緩或抑制。有趣的是,經濟敵意並未對年輕消費者購買美國商品的意願產生負面影響,顯示中國年輕消費者對美國知名商品仍然有高度喜愛。同時,美國知名品牌的來源國正向效應(Country-of-Origin),也可以經由顧客品牌參與進一步獲得強化,進而提升顧客的購買意願。

除了在實體市場上的研究,由於網路詐騙和盜用個人私密資訊(Personal Private Information) 造成顧客權益損害的事件日益頻繁,越來越多的用戶已經開始管控個人私密資訊拒絕品牌收集個資作為廣告行銷工具。由於過去在線上品牌社群(Online Brand
Community)以及以及顧客顧客品牌參與品牌參與的相關研究中,風險相關研究仍然的相關研究中,風險相關研究仍然付之闕如。本研究的研究二也將社群意識(Sense of Community)
、品牌聲譽(Brand Prestige)和兩個風險相關變數和兩個風險相關變數-風險趨避(Risk Aversion) 和個人提供私密資訊意願和個人提供私密資訊意願 (Willingness to provide private information) 放入同一個研究架構中。研究二同樣運用PLS及及SPSS方法,藉由274位台灣市場年輕消費者在線上品牌社群購買行為的調查,驗證前述四個前因在虛擬環境中對線上品牌參與的關係,以及顧客品牌參與在線上品牌社群中對購買意願的影響。結果結果讓人意外的是,上述兩個風險因子: 風險趨避及個人提供私密資訊意願和線上品牌社群顧客參與之間並非如之前許多風險和購買行為的研究一樣,呈現負相關而是正相關關係。而社群意識和個人提供私密資訊意願與顧客是正相關關係。而社群意識和個人提供私密資訊意願與顧客品牌參與的相關性也較風險趨避為高。

本研究不僅將顧客品牌參與的研究延伸到國際市場上來源國和敵意的相關領域,也探討顧客品牌參與和風險相關變數的和敵意的相關領域,也探討顧客品牌參與和風險相關變數的影響。除了進一步深化了學術界對關係行銷內涵的了解,更為實務。除了進一步深化了學術界對關係行銷內涵的了解,更為實務界提供最新的分析數據,可作為市場區隔和行銷利器。
The subject of Consumer brand engagement (CBE) is one of the research priorities that has received growing attention from academia in recent years. However, previous marketing studies have yet to address Consumer brand engagement as a possible solution to Economic animosity in the international market. The first topic of discussion in this thesis addresses Consumer brand engagement and its direct effects on the Country-of-origin(COO) and Economic animosity effect; and its mediating effect towards Country-of-origin and Economic animosity on Purchase intention.

Using the Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and SPSS methods, the study analyzed data collected from questionnaires from 376 young Chinese consumers in their domestic market. The survey collected the PI of young Chinese consumers toward well-known American brands such as Apple and Nike. Results from the PLS and SPSS analysis verified that the Economic animosity of young Chinese consumers towards US products has indeed been aroused after the start of the US-China trade war. However, results show that the negative effect of Economic animosity affecting young Chinese consumers’ Purchase intention can be mitigated through the CBE strategies. Economic animosity was not found to adversely impact the PIs of young Chinese consumers toward American products.

Apart from the brick-and-mortar market, this thesis also examined the online market and the unique factors affecting Consumer brand engagement in this latter sector. The recent increase in cases of online fraud and theft of personal private information have threatened consumer safety and rights in the virtual market. Thus, a growing number of online consumers have begun to curtail the collection of their private information by specific brands for advertising and marketing. Prior research on the risk factors of Consumer brand engagement in the online brand community (OBC) remains limited. Thus, the second study of the thesis focuses on four key antecedents affecting Consumer brand engagement in the online brand community: 1) Sense of community (SOC), 2) Brand prestige (BP), and two risk-related variables- 3) Risk aversion (RA) and 4) Willingness to provide private information (WPP). The relationship of these four antecedents of CBE in the virtual environment was also analyzed using the PLS and SPSS methods.

The second study surveyed the PIs toward the Consumer brand engagement in the online brand community environment of 274 young Taiwanese consumers in their domestic market. The results of the study suggest that the two risk factors – Risk aversion and Willingness to provide personal private information are positively correlated with Consumer brand engagement. However, the positive effects of the Sense of community, Willingness to provide personal private information, and Brand prestige on Consumer brand engagement were found to outweigh that of Risk aversion. The influence of Willingness to provide personal private information on Consumer brand engagement is also higher than that of Risk aversion.

This research not only extends the CBE research to the COO and animosity disciplines in the international market, explores the relationship between CBE and risk-related variables. It also deepened the academic understanding of the connotation of relationship marketing and provide the latest analysis data to the practical, which can be used as essential market segmentation and marketing tool.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Motives and Purpose of this Research 3
1.3 Research procedure 4
1.3.1 Organization of the Dissertation 4
1.3.2 Research procedure 5
Chapter 2 Literature review 8
2.1 STUDY 1 8
2.1.1 The COO effect 8
2.1.2 Economic animosity 11
2.1.3 Purchase intention 12
2.1.4 Consumer brand engagement 13
2.1.5 The related Theories Study One Adopted 15
2.1.5.1 Social Exchange Theory 15
2.1.5.2 Social Identity Theory 15
2.1.5.3 Planned Behavior Theory 16
2.2 STUDY 2 18
2.2.1 Sense of community 18
2.2.2 Brand prestige 20
2.2.3 Risk aversion 21
2.2.4 Willingness to provide private information 22
2.2.5 Consumer brand engagement in the online brand community 24
2.2.6 Purchase intention 25
2.2.7 Prospect theory 26
Chapter 3 The Mediating Effect of Consumer Brand Engagement in the US-China Trade War 28
3.1. Conceptual Model and Hypotheses development 28
3.1.1 The Country-of-origin effect and Purchase intention 28
3.1.2 Economic animosity and Purchase intention 30
3.1.3 Consumer brand engagement and Purchase intention 31
3.1.4 The Country-of-origin effect and Consumer brand engagement 31
3.1.5 Economic animosity and Consumer brand engagement 33
3.1.6 The positive mediating effect of Consumer brand engagement between the Country-of-origin effect and Purchase intention 33
3.1.7 The negative mediating effect of Consumer brand engagement between the Economic animosity effect and Purchase intention 34
3.2 Research Method 37
3.2.1 Questionnaire of Study one 37
3.3 Pilot study of Study one 38
3.4. Data Collection, Sampling, and product categories 40
3.4.1 Product categories 40
3.4.2 Sampling 40
3.5 Demographics of the respondents 42
3.6 Outcome of Principal component analysis 43
3.7 Common method variance test of Study one 44
3.8 The model fit test 47
3.9 Reliability and Validity of study one 50
3.9.1 The measurement model 51
3.9.2 The structural model 53
3.10 The mediating effect of Study one 58
3.10.1 The mediating effect of Country of origin, Consumer brand engagement, and Purchase intention 59
3.10.2 The mediating effect of Economic animosity, Consumer brand engagement, and Purchase intention 60
3.11 Comparison of coefficient differences between the two brands and the total respondents 61
3.12 Conclusions of Study one 62
Chapter 4 Risk or not does matter? -The antecedent effect of CBE in virtual environment 64
4.1 Conceptual Model and Hypotheses development 64
4.1.1 Sense of community and Consumer brand engagement in the online brand community 64
4.1.2 Brand prestige and Consumer brand engagement 66
4.1.3 Risk aversion and Consumer brand engagement 66
4.1.4 Willingness to provide private information and Consumer brand engagement 69
4.1.5 Consumer brand engagement in the online brand community and Purchase intention 70
4.2. Data Collection and Sampling of Study Two 73
4.2.1 Data Collection and Sampling 73
4.2.2 The categories of the online brand community 74
4.3 Demographic of the respondents 74
4.4 The Pilot study of Study two 76
4.5 The CMV test of Study Two 79
4.6 The model fit test of Study Two 82
4.7 Reliability and Validity of Study Two 85
4.7.1 Measurement model of Study two 89
4.7.2 Structural model of Study two 92
4.8 Comparison between personal data, and OBC behavior towards Purchase intention 96
4.9 Descriptive analysis of the two risk-related variables 98
4.9.1 Risk aversion 98
4.9.2 Willingness to provide personal private information 99
4.10 The final Outcome of the Hypotheses of Study two 101
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Suggestions 104
5.1 Results and Conclusions 104
5.1.1 Study One 104
5.1.2 Study Two 106
5.2 Discussions and Implication 107
5.2.1 Study One 107
5.2.2 Study two 108
5.3 Limitation and Suggestions 110
5.3.1 Study one 110
5.3.2 Study two 111
Reference 113
Appendix Ⅰ Abbreviation of the main variables and proper noun of this thesis 133
Appendix Ⅱ Final Scale of Study One 137
Appendix Ⅲ Final Scale of Study Two 139

List of Tables
Table 1 Operational definition and Scale of the Country-of-origin effect 11
Table 2 Operational definition and Scale of Economic animosity 12
Table 3 Operational definition and Scale of Purchase intention 13
Table 4 Operational definition and Scale of Consumer brand engagement 14
Table 5 Operational definition and references of the variables of Study one 17
Table 6 Operational definition and items of Sense of community 20
Table 7 Operational definition and Scale of Brand Prestige 21
Table 8 Operational definition and Scale of Risk aversion 22
Table 9 Operational definition and items of Willingness to provide private information 23
Table 10 Operational definition and items of Consumer brand engagement in the online brand community 25
Table 11 Operational definition and Scale of Purchase intention 26
Table 12 Operational definition and references of the variables of Study two 27
Table 13 Hypothesis of study one 35
Table 14 Outcome of the pilot study of Study one 39
Table 15 Demographics of the respondents of Study one 42
Table 16 Outcome of the Principal component analysis 43
Table 17 Outcome of The Harman’s single-factor CMV test 45
Table 18 Outcome of the marker variable CMV test 47
Table 19 Outcome of the model fit test 50
Table 20 The reliability and validity of Study one 52
Table 21 Outer loadings of measurement items 53
Table 22 Hypotheses test results 55
Table 23 Q² of Study one 57
Table 24 Coefficient comparisons between two brands and the total respondents 61
Table 25 Final outcome of the Hypotheses of study one 63
Table 26 Hypothesis of Study two 71
Table 27 Descriptive statistics of the respondents of Study two 75
Table 28 Outcome of the Pilot Study of Study Two 77
Table 29 Outcome of The Harman’s single-factor CMV test 79
Table 30 The marker variable CMV test 82
Table 31 Outcome of the model fit test of Study two 85
Table 32 Outcome of the First Stage PLS Calculation of Study two 87
Table 33 The construct reliability and validity of Study two 90
Table 34 Outer loading of the measurement items of Study two 91
Table 35 The results of hypothesis test of Study two 93
Table 36 The Q² of Study two 96
Table 37 The outcome of the ANOVA analysis for the effect of social media on Purchase intention 97
Table 38 The descriptive statistic of risk aversion. 99
Table 39 The descriptive statistic of Willingness to provide private information. 100
Table 40 The final Outcome of the Hypotheses of Study two 103


List of Figures
Figure 1 The research flow chart 7
Figure 2 Conceptual model of Study one 36
Figure 3 Results of the main effects 56
Figure 4 Conceptual model of study two 72
Figure 5 Results of the main effects of Study two 95



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