跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.222.64.76) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/17 07:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:王靖婷
研究生(外文):WANG, JING-TING
論文名稱:進階口腔照護對臥床有鼻胃管住民的口腔環境改善成效: 前驅研究
論文名稱(外文):Effectiveness of Advanced Oral Care Intervention on the Oral Ecosystem of Bedridden Residents with Nasogastric Tube:A Pilot Study
指導教授:劉秀月劉秀月引用關係黃純德黃純德引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIU, HSIU-YUEHHUANG, SHUN-TE
口試委員:吳瓊滿陳丙何陳人豪
口試委員(外文):WU, CHIUNG-MANCHEN, PING-HOCHEN, JEH-HAO
口試日期:2021-06-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:口腔衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:牙醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:口腔照護口腔環境鼻胃管細菌數機構老年人
外文關鍵詞:Oral CareOral EcosystemBacteria CountNasogastric TubeBedridden ResidentsNursing Home
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:356
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:61
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
研究背景:高齡社會伴隨機構臥床住民的口腔照護需求增加,長期置 放鼻胃管加上未經口進食又無法自理容易被忽略口腔清潔的重要 性。歷年口腔照護文獻鮮少討論口腔環境數值改變量,
研究目的:進階口腔照護對於臥床有鼻胃管留置的住民之口腔環境改 善成效。
研究方法:為一前驅性研究採單組前後測設計。個案數 7 人,納入臥 床且有鼻胃管留置的住民,排除經口進食及全口無牙者。除了機構照 服員每日 1 次例行性口腔照護外,額外由一位口衛師在第 1、3、5、 7、9、11、13 天給予進階口腔照護。每個照護日均進行口腔健康狀 態與口腔衛生狀態評估以及口腔環境數值檢測。在每次照護前使用口 腔健康評估量表(Oral Health Assessment Tool, OHAT)評估口腔健康 狀態。評估口腔衛生狀態項目包含舌苔指數(Tongue Coating Index, TCI)、牙菌斑指數(Plaque Index, PI)及牙齦流血指數(Gingival Bleeding Index, GBI)。口腔環境數值在每次照護前後均檢測(口腔細菌總數、 致齲菌、酸鹼值、緩衝能力、潛血、白血球、蛋白質、氨)。使用 IBM SPSS 20.0 版本,透過無母數檢定重複計數(Repeated measures)之弗理 曼二因子等級變異數分析(Friedman 檢定)及魏克生符號檢定 (Wilcoxon sign rank)進行分析,以 p < 0.05 設定為統計上有顯著性差 異。
研究結果:每兩天額外給予一次進階口腔照護兩週後,在照護日之照 護前口中細菌量從首日 600.14±377.53x105 CFU/mL 下降至 2 週後 318.41±193.19 x105 CFU/mL,已減少至首日的一半。兩週後住民在該 日照護後的口中細菌量(55.27±50.14x105 CFU/mL)相較於首日照護後 已大幅下降(138.27±376.04x105 CFU/mL, p=0.005)。PI、GBI 均有顯著 改善的情況(p<0.001)。舌苔有逐漸改善的趨勢,但未達顯著標準。 OHAT 總分有逐漸下降(p=0.049),其中主要改善項目在舌頭,其次為 嘴唇及口乾。口腔環境之細菌總數(p=0.003)、致齲菌(p=0.029)、緩衝 能力(p=0.040)及白血球(p=0.001 在介入成效有顯著成效。
結論:進階口腔照護能降低口中菌量、牙菌斑指數及改善牙齦流血狀 況,並改善口腔環境中的細菌數、緩衝能力、白血球。

Background: Aging in Taiwan has been fast and elderly population reaching 14.1% since 2018. The demand of long-term care grows greater, the more care aides we need but for institution still in short supply. The lack of care giver shows the scanty time they can spend in oral care for bedridden patients, hence the residents do not in a deserved oral care. In case of the week, illness and poor oral hygiene in nursing home, high bacteria count aspirate mistaken way till the respiratory tract and inability to cough up may lead to inflammation and pneumonia. Oral care is an effective method to remove those risk factors and improve the oral health and general quality of life.
Objective: This study is going to determine the effectiveness of advanced oral care intervention on the oral ecosystem of bedridden residents with nasogastric tube.
Material and methods: Study design is one-group pretest-posttest. The subjects consisted of 7 residents from 1 nursing home in Kaohsiung city. Inclusion criteria is that bedridden residents with nasogastric tube (NG-tube) who were total dependent, unconscious and not able to maintain proper oral hygiene by themselves. Edentulous and eating via mouth were excluded. After the observation day for baseline, the oral care period carries out for 2 weeks at 1th, 3rd 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th day. Measure oral ecosystem value 5 minutes before and after every intervention. Evaluate Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT), plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and tongue coating value (TCI) before every oral care. The oral ecosystem contains 7 values, cariogenic bacteria, pH value, buffer capacity, occult blood, leukocyte, protein and ammonia.
Results: The bacteria count of pretest was decreased from 600.14±377.53x105 CFU/mL at 1th day to 318.41±193.19 x105 CFU/mL at 13th day, reduced by approximately half. The bacteria count of posttest was also decreased from 138.27±376.04x105 CFU/mL at 1th day to 55.27±50.14x105 CFU/mL at 13th day (p=0.005). The OHAT(p=0.049), PI, GBI value were lower than baseline (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The oral status of residents was improved after receiving 2 weeks advanced oral care every 2 days. Oral care is an important and effective method to reduce risk factors in the mouth especially in bed patients with NG-tube.

致謝………………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
中文摘要…………………………………………………………… II

英文摘要…………………………………………………………… III




第一章  緒論 1
   第一節 研究背景………………………………………… 1
   第二節 研究目的………………………………………… 2
第二章  文獻探討 4

   第一節 長照機構住民概況……………………………… 4

   第二節 口腔環境指標…………………………………… 6

   第三節 口腔照護對身體健康的影響與重要性…………9

   第四節 口腔照護常用評估量表………………………… 11

   第五節 進階口腔照護成效………………………….………13
第三章  材料與方法 16

   第一節 研究對象………………………………………… 16

   第二節 研究設計………………………………………… 16

   第三節 研究架構………………………………………… 20

   第四節 研究工具………………………………………… 21

   第五節 研究步驟………………………………………… 26

   第六節 統計分析………………………………………… 28
   第七節 人體試驗審查……………………………………. 28

第四章  結果 29

   第一節 住民人口學現況與分佈………………………… 29

   第二節 口腔環境現況…………………………………… 29

   第三節 口腔照護介入前後比較………………………… 31

   第四節 口腔環境影響因子與成效……………………… 35
第五章  討論 38

   第一節 住民人口學現況與分佈………………………… 38

   第二節 口腔環境現況…………………………………… 40

   第三節 口腔照護介入前後比較………………………… 42

   第四節 口腔環境影響因子與成效……………………… 43

   第五節 研究限制………………………………………… 47

第六章  結論與建議 48

   第一節 結論……………………………………………… 48

   第二節 建議……………………………………………… 48

參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 70




表格目錄 49

   表1 住民基本人口學以類別變項呈現……………………… 49

   表2 住民基本人口學以連續變項呈現……………………… 50

   表3 口腔健康狀態及口腔衛生狀態在基礎值之分布狀況… 51

   表4 口腔環境數值在基礎值分布狀況……………………… 52

   表5 OHAT總分及嘴唇、舌頭、牙齦、唾液、自然牙、口腔清潔及牙痛項目在照護前後之分佈狀況……………53

   表6 舌苔指數、牙菌斑指數及牙齦流血指數在照護前後之分佈狀況…………………………………………………55

   表7 細菌總數、致齲菌、酸鹼值與緩衝能力在兩週內每次照護前後差異……………………………………………56

   表8 潛血、白血球、蛋白質與氨在兩週內每次照護前後差異…………………………………………………………57

   表9 細菌總數、致齲菌、酸鹼值與緩衝能力在兩週照護後之差異……………………………………………………58

   表10 潛血、白血球、蛋白質與氨在兩週照護後之差異…………………………………………………………59



附錄 60

   附錄一 IRB審核通過證明書………………………………… 60

   附錄二 口腔照護評估表……………………………………… 61

附錄三 口腔環境檢測儀器圖片……………………………… 64

附錄四 口腔照護前後紀錄照片……………………………… 65



內政部統計處. (2018). [行政公告] 107年第15週內政統計通報(我國老年人口比率以嘉義縣18.6%最高,連江縣、桃園市均少於11.0%較低). Retrieved from https://www.moi.gov.tw/stat/news_detail.aspx?sn=13742
江典澄, 黃純德, 李翠芬, & 陳弘森. (2014). 高雄市長期照護機構45歲以上中老年人口腔健康狀況調查. [Oral Health Survey of Institutionalized Residents More than 45 Years Old in Kaohsiung]. Taiwan Journal of Oral Medicine Sciences, 29(2), 157-176.
高雄市政府衛生局. (2018). 高雄市一般護理之家現況分析探討. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwic7P3d_NnvAhXhwosBHSjUAnIQFjADegQIEBAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fkhd.kcg.gov.tw%2Fmodule%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile_id%3D155&usg=AOvVaw2abQ1rF0dz_ofQ3_kqpOU4
蔡宜燕, 劉彥君, 李佳琳, 楊月穎, & 邱逸榛. (2015). 口腔健康評估量表-非牙醫專業人員中文版發展與信效度檢定. [Validation of the Chinese Version in Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) for Clinical Non-Dentist Professionals]. 長庚護理, 26(4), 400-409. doi:10.3966/102673012015122604003
衛生福利部. (2020). 「長照2.0執行現況及檢討」專案報告. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwic7P3d_NnvAhXhwosBHSjUAnIQFjABegQIAxAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mohw.gov.tw%2Fdl-64981-86dfd40d-7294-40d6-b914-52ac5483b43d.html&usg=AOvVaw206btyq5G-_k4obtMw4-fZ
衛生福利部統計處. (2020). 老人長期照顧、安養機構概況. Retrieved from https://dep.mohw.gov.tw/DOS/cp-2977-13854-113.html
Adachi, M., Ishihara, K., Abe, S., Okuda, K., & Ishikawa, T. (2002). Effect of professional oral health care on the elderly living in nursing homes. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, 94(2), 191-195. doi:10.1067/moe.2002.123493
Ainamo, J., & Bay, I. (1975). Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int Dent J, 25(4), 229-235.
Amano, A., Yoshida, Y., Oho, T., & Koga, T. (2002). Monitoring ammonia to assess halitosis. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, 94(6), 692-696. doi:10.1067/moe.2002.126911
Amerine, C., Boyd, L., Bowen, D. M., Neill, K., Johnson, T., & Peterson, T. (2014). Oral health champions in long-term care facilities-a pilot study. Spec Care Dentist, 34(4), 164-170. doi:10.1111/scd.12048
Asakawa, M., Takeshita, T., Furuta, M., Kageyama, S., Takeuchi, K., Hata, J., . . . Yamashita, Y. (2018). Tongue Microbiota and Oral Health Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults. mSphere, 3(4). doi:10.1128/mSphere.00332-18
Chalmers, J. M., King, P. L., Spencer, A. J., Wright, F. A., & Carter, K. D. (2005). The oral health assessment tool--validity and reliability. Aust Dent J, 50(3), 191-199. doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2005.tb00360.x
Chen, H. J., Chen, J. L., Chen, C. Y., Lee, M., Chang, W. H., & Huang, T. T. (2019). Effect of an Oral Health Programme on Oral Health, Oral Intake, and Nutrition in Patients with Stroke and Dysphagia in Taiwan: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16(12). doi:10.3390/ijerph16122228
Cheng, Y. A., Huang, S. T., & Hsieh, S. T. (2007). A predictive study on the role and function of the dental hygienist in Taiwan. Int J Dent Hyg, 5(2), 103-108. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2007.00236.x
Dai, R., Lam, O. L. T., Lo, E. C. M., Li, L. S. W., & McGrath, C. (2019). Effect of oral hygiene programmes on oral opportunistic pathogens during stroke rehabilitation. Oral Dis, 25(2), 617-633. doi:10.1111/odi.13005
de Mello, A. L., Zimermann, K., & Gonçalves, L. H. (2012). [Nurse's assessment of oral health of elderly people: OHAT validity and reliability]. Rev Gaucha Enferm, 33(2), 36-44. doi:10.1590/s1983-14472012000200007
Dodds, M. W., Johnson, D. A., & Yeh, C. K. (2005). Health benefits of saliva: a review. J Dent, 33(3), 223-233. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2004.10.009
Finotto, S., Bertolini, G., Camellini, R., Fantelli, R., Formisano, D., Macchioni, M. G., & Mecugni, D. (2020). Linguistic-cultural validation of the oral health assessment tool (OHAT) for the Italian context. BMC Nurs, 19, 7. doi:10.1186/s12912-020-0399-y
Frenkel, H., Harvey, I., & Newcombe, R. G. (2000). Oral health care among nursing home residents in Avon. Gerodontology, 17(1), 33-38. doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2000.00033.x
Greene, J. C., & Vermillion, J. R. (1960). The oral hygiene index: a method for classifying oral hygiene status. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 61(2), 172-179. doi:https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1960.0177
Hoben, M., Clarke, A., Huynh, K. T., Kobagi, N., Kent, A., Hu, H., . . . Yoon, M. N. (2017). Barriers and facilitators in providing oral care to nursing home residents, from the perspective of care aides: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Stud, 73, 34-51. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.05.003
Ikeda, M., Miki, T., Atsumi, M., Inagaki, A., Mizuguchi, E., Meguro, M., . . . Matsuo, K. (2014). Effective elimination of contaminants after oral care in elderly institutionalized individuals. Geriatr Nurs, 35(4), 295-299. doi:10.1016/j.gerinurse.2014.03.003
Ju, L. Y., Weng, S. C., Chung, Y. J., Yang, S. H., Huang, Y. H., Huang, L. G., . . . Chang, P. H. (2019). Effects of the bass brushing method on dental plaque and pneumonia in older adults hospitalized with pneumonia after discharge: A randomized controlled trial. Appl Nurs Res, 46, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2018.12.008
Kayser-Jones, J., Bird, W. F., Paul, S. M., Long, L., & Schell, E. S. (1995). An instrument to assess the oral health status of nursing home residents. Gerontologist, 35(6), 814-824. doi:10.1093/geront/35.6.814
Kikutani, T., Tamura, F., Takahashi, Y., Konishi, K., & Hamada, R. (2012). A novel rapid oral bacteria detection apparatus for effective oral care to prevent pneumonia. Gerodontology, 29(2), e560-565. doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00517.x
Kikutani, T., Tamura, F., Tashiro, H., Yoshida, M., Konishi, K., & Hamada, R. (2015). Relationship between oral bacteria count and pneumonia onset in elderly nursing home residents. Geriatr Gerontol Int, 15(4), 417-421. doi:10.1111/ggi.12286
Klotz, A. L., Zajac, M., Ehret, J., Hassel, A. J., Rammelsberg, P., & Zenthöfer, A. (2020). Development of a German version of the Oral Health Assessment Tool. Aging Clin Exp Res, 32(1), 165-172. doi:10.1007/s40520-019-01158-x
Krishnan, K., Chen, T., & Paster, B. J. (2017). A practical guide to the oral microbiome and its relation to health and disease. Oral Dis, 23(3), 276-286. doi:10.1111/odi.12509
Kwon, Y. J., Jeon, K. J., Chung, T. H., & Lee, Y. J. (2017). Elevated leukocyte count is associated with periodontitis in Korean adults: the 2012-2014 KNHANES. Oral Dis, 23(2), 241-246. doi:10.1111/odi.12601
Laurence, B., Rogers, I., Grant-Mills, D., Smith, D., Tefera, E., Barbarinde, A., . . . Thomas, M. (2019). Reducing Dental Plaque Scores in Long-term Care Facilities Using a Checklist and Random Inspections: A Pilot Study. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll, 60(3), 177-184. doi:10.2209/tdcpublication.2018-0056
Lee, K. H., Lee, K. Y., Choi, Y. Y., & Jung, E. S. (2020). Effects of Professional Oral Health Care Programs for Elderly Residents of Nursing Facilities. J Dent Hyg, 94(6), 33-39.
Leibovitz, A., Plotnikov, G., Habot, B., Rosenberg, M., & Segal, R. (2003). Pathogenic colonization of oral flora in frail elderly patients fed by nasogastric tube or percutaneous enterogastric tube. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 58(1), 52-55. doi:10.1093/gerona/58.1.m52
Löe, H. (1967). The Gingival Index, the Plaque Index and the Retention Index Systems. J Periodontol, 38(6), Suppl:610-616. doi:10.1902/jop.1967.38.6.610
Loke, C., Lee, J., Sander, S., Mei, L., & Farella, M. (2016). Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review. J Oral Rehabil, 43(10), 778-785. doi:10.1111/joor.12429
Lorenzo-Pouso, A. I., Pérez-Sayáns, M., Bravo, S. B., López-Jornet, P., García-Vence, M., Alonso-Sampedro, M., . . . García-García, A. (2018). Protein-Based Salivary Profiles as Novel Biomarkers for Oral Diseases. Dis Markers, 2018, 6141845. doi:10.1155/2018/6141845
Maille, G., Saliba-Serre, B., Ferrandez, A. M., & Ruquet, M. (2019). Objective and perceived oral health status of elderly nursing home residents: a local survey in southern France. Clin Interv Aging, 14, 1141-1151. doi:10.2147/cia.S204533
Marsh, P. D., Do, T., Beighton, D., & Devine, D. A. (2016). Influence of saliva on the oral microbiota. Periodontol 2000, 70(1), 80-92. doi:10.1111/prd.12098
Matsuo, K., & Nakagawa, K. (2016). Reliability and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT-J). Journal of the Japanese Society for Disability and Oral Health, 37(1), 1-7. doi:10.14958/jjsdh.37.1
Miyazaki, H., Sakao, S., Katoh, Y., & Takehara, T. (1995). Correlation between volatile sulphur compounds and certain oral health measurements in the general population. J Periodontol, 66(8), 679-684. doi:10.1902/jop.1995.66.8.679
Morino, T., Ookawa, K., Haruta, N., Hagiwara, Y., & Seki, M. (2014). Effects of professional oral health care on elderly: randomized trial. Int J Dent Hyg, 12(4), 291-297. doi:10.1111/idh.12068
Muir, M., Burns, J., & McGoldrick, N. (2019). Oral care and nursing home-acquired pneumonia. Evid Based Dent, 20(1), 14-15. doi:10.1038/s41432-019-0002-0
Murray, J., & Scholten, I. (2018). An oral hygiene protocol improves oral health for patients in inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Gerodontology, 35(1), 18-24. doi:10.1111/ger.12309
NISHINAGA Eiji, U. C., MAKI Riichi, SAITO Koichi, FUKASAWA Tetsu, SUZUKI Naho, YAMAMOTO Takashi, MURAKOSHI Michiaki, ODERA Motoyasu, FUKUTA Isao, OKUBO Akio, FUJITANI Morioki, SENDA Akira. (2015). Development of Comprehensive Salivary Test System-Validity and Reliability of a Newly-developed Salivary Multi-test System(AL-55)/ Compared with Standard Methods. 日 本 歯 科 保 存 学 雑 誌, 58, 330.
O'Leary, T. J., Drake, R. B., & Naylor, J. E. (1972). The plaque control record. J Periodontol, 43(1), 38. doi:10.1902/jop.1972.43.1.38
Ogami, K., Ueda, T., Ryu, M., Tajima, S., & Sakurai, K. (2018). Evaluation of Factors Associated with Tongue Coating Status in Elderly with Care Needs. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll, 59(3), 163-169. doi:10.2209/tdcpublication.2017-0041
Ohrn, K. (2004). The role of dental hygienists in oral health prevention. Oral Health Prev Dent, 2 Suppl 1, 277-281.
Pinto, G., Silva, M. D., Peddey, M., Sillankorva, S., & Azeredo, J. (2016). The role of bacteriophages in periodontal health and disease. Future Microbiol, 11, 1359-1369. doi:10.2217/fmb-2016-0081
Rapp, L., Sourdet, S., Vellas, B., & Lacoste-Ferré, M. H. (2017). Oral Health and the Frail Elderly. J Frailty Aging, 6(3), 154-160. doi:10.14283/jfa.2017.9
Reed, S. G., Manz, M. C., Snipe, S. M., Ohshima, M., & Wagner, C. L. (2015). Feasibility study of a salivary occult blood test to correlate with periodontal measures as indicators of periodontal inflammation in a population of pregnant women. J Oral Sci, 57(1), 55-58. doi:10.2334/josnusd.57.55
Scannapieco, F. A., & Cantos, A. (2016). Oral inflammation and infection, and chronic medical diseases: implications for the elderly. Periodontol 2000, 72(1), 153-175. doi:10.1111/prd.12129
Scannapieco, F. A., & Mylotte, J. M. (1996). Relationships Between Periodontal Disease and Bacterial Pneumonia. J Periodontol, 67 Suppl 10S, 1114-1122. doi:10.1902/jop.1996.67.10s.1114
Schwindling, F. S., Krisam, J., Hassel, A. J., Rammelsberg, P., & Zenthöfer, A. (2018). Long-term success of oral health intervention among care-dependent institutionalized seniors: Findings from a controlled clinical trial. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 46(2), 109-117. doi:10.1111/cdoe.12335
Segawa, K., Shigeishi, H., Fujii, M., Noumi, K., Yamanaka, F., Kamikawa, K., . . . Sugiyama, M. (2019). Relationship of Salivary Occult Blood With General and Oral Health Status in Employees of a Japanese Department Store. J Clin Med Res, 11(3), 179-187. doi:10.14740/jocmr3702
Seo, H. Y., Jeon, J. E., Chung, W. G., & Kim, N. H. (2017). Activities of daily living and oral hygiene status of older Korean patients in a long-term care facility. Int J Dent Hyg, 15(2), 154-160. doi:10.1111/idh.12194
Shaila, M., Pai, G. P., & Shetty, P. (2013). Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis. J Indian Soc Periodontol, 17(1), 42-46. doi:10.4103/0972-124x.107473
Siegel, A. D. E. (2018). A pilot study on the feasibility of training nurses to formulate multicomponent oral health interventions in a residential aged care facility. Br Dent J, 224(1), 25. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2018.30
Silness, J., & Loe, H. (1964). PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PREGNANCY. II. CORRELATION BETWEEN ORAL HYGIENE AND PERIODONTAL CONDTION. Acta Odontol Scand, 22, 121-135. doi:10.3109/00016356408993968
Sloane, P. D., Zimmerman, S., Chen, X., Barrick, A. L., Poole, P., Reed, D., . . . Cohen, L. W. (2013). Effect of a person-centered mouth care intervention on care processes and outcomes in three nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc, 61(7), 1158-1163. doi:10.1111/jgs.12317
Struzycka, I. (2014). The oral microbiome in dental caries. Pol J Microbiol, 63(2), 127-135.
Tada, A., & Hanada, N. (2010). Opportunistic respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity of the elderly. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 60(1), 1-17. doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2010.00709.x
Takahashi, N. (2015). Oral Microbiome Metabolism: From "Who Are They?" to "What Are They Doing?". J Dent Res, 94(12), 1628-1637. doi:10.1177/0022034515606045
Takahashi, Y., Hikiji, H., & Nishihara, T. (2020). A preliminary study of the scope of practice of dental hygienists and oral health providers in Asia. J Oral Sci, 62(4), 449-451. doi:10.2334/josnusd.20-0087
Tanda, N., Washio, J., Kamei, T., Akazawa, K., Takahashi, N., & Koseki, T. (2019). Professional Oral Care Reduces Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde Levels in Mouth Air of Perioperative Esophageal Cancer Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study. Tohoku J Exp Med, 249(1), 75-83. doi:10.1620/tjem.249.75
Tashiro, K., Katoh, T., Yoshinari, N., Hirai, K., Andoh, N., Makii, K., . . . Ogasawara, T. (2012). The short-term effects of various oral care methods in dependent elderly: comparison between toothbrushing, tongue cleaning with sponge brush and wiping on oral mucous membrane by chlorhexidine. Gerodontology, 29(2), e870-882. doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00577.x
Van Gils, L. M., Slot, D. E., Van der Sluijs, E., Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N. L., & Van der Weijden, F. G. (2020). Tongue coating in relationship to gender, plaque, gingivitis and tongue cleaning behaviour in systemically healthy young adults. Int J Dent Hyg, 18(1), 62-72. doi:10.1111/idh.12416
Van Tornout, M., Dadamio, J., Coucke, W., & Quirynen, M. (2013). Tongue coating: related factors. J Clin Periodontol, 40(2), 180-185. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12031
Winkel, E. G., Roldán, S., Van Winkelhoff, A. J., Herrera, D., & Sanz, M. (2003). Clinical effects of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc-lactate on oral halitosis. A dual-center, double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol, 30(4), 300-306. doi:10.1034/j.1600-051x.2003.00342.x
Wu, C. P., Xu, Y. J., Wang, T. G., Ku, S. C., Chan, D. C., Lee, J. J., . . . Chen, C. C. (2019). Effects of a swallowing and oral care intervention for patients following endotracheal extubation: a pre- and post-intervention study. Crit Care, 23(1), 350. doi:10.1186/s13054-019-2623-2
Yoneyama, T., Yoshida, M., Ohrui, T., Mukaiyama, H., Okamoto, H., Hoshiba, K., . . . Sasaki, H. (2002). Oral care reduces pneumonia in older patients in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc, 50(3), 430-433. doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50106.x
Zenthofer, A., Baumgart, D., Cabrera, T., Rammelsberg, P., Schroder, J., Corcodel, N., & Hassel, A. J. (2017). Poor dental hygiene and periodontal health in nursing home residents with dementia: an observational study. Odontology, 105(2), 208-213. doi:10.1007/s10266-016-0246-5
Zimmerman, S., Austin, S., Cohen, L., Reed, D., Poole, P., Ward, K., & Sloane, P. D. (2017). Readily Identifiable Risk Factors of Nursing Home Residents' Oral Hygiene: Dementia, Hospice, and Length of Stay. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65(11), 2516-2521. doi:10.1111/jgs.15061
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊