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研究生:黃千訓
研究生(外文):Chien-Hsun Huang
論文名稱:應用商業頸部感測器分析荷蘭牛行為與健康狀態及泌乳表現之關聯性
論文名稱(外文):Studying relationships among behaviors, health status and milk production of Holstein cows using commercial collar sensor
指導教授:江信毅
指導教授(外文):Hsin-I Chiang
口試委員:徐濟泰陳志峰莊士德陳淵國
口試委員(外文):Jih-Tay HsuChih-Feng ChenShih-Te ChuangYuan-Kuo Chen
口試日期:2021-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:反芻時間活動量健康狀態亞臨床疾病
外文關鍵詞:Rumination timeActivityHealth statusSubclinical diseases
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近年來商業感測器已廣泛運用於牧場,協助乳牛飼養管理與發情配種時機之判斷,許多研究亦開始探討牛隻行為變化與疾病發生間的關係。本研究挑選商業頸部感測器,首先探討影響反芻時間與頸部活動量的因素,接著探討分娩後發生臨床疾病或亞臨床疾病是否會影響牛隻行為與乳產量。研究在台灣中部兩家商業乳牛場 (G牧場與S牧場) 進行,試驗一共挑選90頭荷蘭牛於分娩前4週至分娩後8週收集其反芻時間 (rumination time, RT)、活動量 (activity, AC)、及分娩後乳量 (milk yield, MY),並依據其胎次差異 (第一、第二和 ≧三胎以上) 及健康狀態差異 〔分娩後無臨床疾病確診 (0)、分娩後確診1種臨床疾病 (1) 和分娩後確診2種以上臨床疾病 (2+)〕 等2種方式進行分組。結果顯示不同胎次間以第二胎次有最高RT,而第一胎次有最高AC;於G牧場發現2+組牛隻其RT於分娩前1-2週顯著低於其它兩組。於不同胎次間皆發現MY與RT呈正相關,而於第一與第二胎次發現MY與AC呈負相關。試驗二收集G牧場牛隻的疾病紀錄,並分析臨床疾病確診牛隻於確診前後7天之行為與乳產量變化。結果發現確診臨床乳房炎牛隻其RT於確診前2天開始降低,於確診後1天與健康組有顯著差異,且會顯著降低確診前1天至確診後MY;確診臨床子宮炎牛隻於確診前後有降低RT之趨勢,而AC則會高於健康組;至於發生創傷性第二胃炎、消化問題與跛足之牛隻其RT則於確診前後有出現顯著低於健康組,而MY於此段時間皆顯著較低。試驗三於兩家商業牧場隨機挑選24頭荷蘭牛進行採血,根據其產後血酮與血鈣濃度判斷是否有亞臨床酮症 (subclinical ketosis, SCK) 或低血鈣 (subclinical hypocalcemia, SCH) 並進行分組,牛隻依據分娩後情況分為產後無亞臨床或臨床疾病發生組 (HLT)、產後有SCK或SCH但無伴隨臨床疾病確診組 (HYK或HYC)、產後有SCK或SCH且有伴隨臨床疾病確診組 (HYK+或HYC+) 三組,並分析不同組間行為與乳產量之差異。以SCK分組後結果顯示HYK+組於分娩後1週其酮體濃度顯著高於其它兩組,而HYK組於分娩後4週其酮體濃度顯著高於其它兩組。HYK+組牛隻其RT於分娩前2-4天會顯著低於其它兩組,而HYK組於分娩前有三組中最高之AC,於分娩後5-8週有三組中最高之MY;HYC+組牛隻其RT於分娩前2、4天會顯著低於HYC或HLT組,HLT組於分娩後有三組中最高之AC,MY則以HYC組為三組中最高。綜上所述,商業感測器之運用可協助牧場管理者根據其行為變化提早發現有罹患疾病風險之牛隻,而於無法透過臨床症狀判斷之亞臨床疾病也可根據不同的行為變化篩選出較高風險之牛群。
Commercial sensors have been widely used in farms to assist Holstein cows feeding management. Most of them assist in determining the timing of estrus detection. In recent years, many studies have explored the relationship between behavior changes and the occurrence of diseases. This study aims to investigate the factors that affect rumination time and neck activity, and then explore whether the occurrence of clinical or subclinical diseases after calving will affect the behavior changes and milk production of Holstein cows using commercial sensors in Taiwan. The experiment was carried out on two commercial dairy farms (G and S) in central Taiwan. In the first experiment, 90 cows with different parities (1st, 2nd and ≧3rd) and different health statuses (0, 1, 2+) were studied for their rumination time (RT), activity (AC) from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after calving, and milk yield (MY) after calving. Results showed that the 2nd parity cows have the highest RT between different parities, and the 1st parity cows have the highest AC. From 2 week to 1 week before calving, 2+ group ruminated significantly less than the other two groups in G farm. MY and RT had positive correlation in different parities, but MY and AC had negative correlation in the 1st and 2nd parity. In the second experiment, cows from G farm were used to study the behavior and production changes before and after the diagnosis of clinical diseases. Results showed that cows with clinical mastitis ruminated significantly less than healthy cows on 1 day relative to diagnosis, and significantly reduced milk yield with healthy cows after diagnosis. Cows with clinical metritis had a tendency reduced RT from -1 to 1 day relative to diagnosis, and had higher AC than healthy cows from -7 to 7 day relative to diagnosis. Cows with digestive disorder, traumatic reticulitis, and lameness ruminated less than healthy cows from -3 to 2 day relative to diagnosis, and had significantly higher MY from -7 to 7 day relative to diagnosis. In the third experiment, a total of 24 cows were randomly selected from both farms to study behavior and production differences from subclinical ketosis (HYK), subclinical hypocalcemia (HYC), these diseases with other health disorders (HYK+, HYC+), or healthy cows (HLT). Results of the cows grouped by SCK showed that the blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration in the HYK+ group was significantly higher than the other two groups at 1 week post calving, but the blood BHBA concentration in the HYK group was significantly higher than the other two groups at 4-week post calving. The HYK+ cows had significantly less RT than the other two groups on 2 to 4 day post calving. HYK cows had the highest AC before calving and had the highest MY 5 to 8 week post calving. Besides, results of the cows grouped by SCH showed that HYC+ cows significantly ruminated less than the other two groups on 2 and 4 days before calving. After calving, HLT cows had the highest AC between the 3 groups, but HYC cows had the highest MY. In summary, using commercial sensors can help to detect cows at higher risk of disease earlier based on rumination time or activity changes. Cows with subclinical diseases which cannot be judged by clinical symptoms can also be identified based on the changes of different rumination and activity.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目錄 iv
表次 vi
圖次 vii
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻探討 2
一、反芻與活動量 2
(一) 反芻 (Rumination) 2
(二) 活動量 (Activity) 5
二、反芻、活動量與疾病之關聯 6
(一) 負能量平衡與產後代謝性疾病 6
(二) 疾病對於反芻時間的影響 7
(三) 疾病對於活動量的影響 9
三、反芻、活動量與生產表現之關聯 10
(一) 反芻時間與乳量之關聯 10
(二) 反芻時間與乳汁成分之關聯 10
(三) 活動量變化作為生產表現指標 11
四、反芻、活動量與胎次之關聯 12
五、研究目的 12
第三章 材料方法 13
一、試驗場域與時間 13
二、畜舍環境與飼養管理 13
三、試驗牛挑選、分組與健康狀態 13
四、數據記錄及樣品採集 14
(一) 行為記錄 14
(二) 生產表現記錄 14
(三) 血液樣本採集 15
(四) 飼糧採集 16
五、分析項目 16
(一) 乳成分分析 16
(二) 血液分析 16
(三) 飼糧主要成分一般分析 18
六、統計方法 21
第四章 結果 24
一、影響反芻時間的因素 24
(一) 胎次 24
(二) 健康狀態 28
二、影響活動量的因素 32
(一) 胎次 32
(二) 健康狀態 36
三、影響乳量的因素 40
(一) 胎次 40
(二) 健康狀態 40
四、臨床疾病對於行為與生產的影響 47
(一) 乳房炎 47
(二) 子宮炎 47
(三) 創傷性第二胃炎、消化問題、跛足 54
五、亞臨床疾病對於行為與生產的影響 58
(一) 亞臨床酮症 58
(二) 亞臨床低血鈣 64
六、胎次與亞臨床疾病對於血液與乳質的影響 69
(一) 胎次 69
(二) 亞臨床酮症 73
(三) 亞臨床低血鈣 77
第五章 討論 81
一、胎次及健康狀態對於反芻時間的影響 81
(一) 胎次對於反芻時間的影響 81
(二) 健康狀態對於反芻時間的影響 81
二、胎次及健康狀態對於活動量的影響 82
(一) 胎次對於活動量的影響 82
(二) 健康狀態對於活動量的影響 83
三、胎次及健康狀態對於乳量的影響 84
(一) 胎次對於乳量的影響 84
(二) 健康狀態對於乳量的影響 84
四、臨床疾病確診前後對於行為與生產的影響 85
(一) 臨床乳房炎確診前後對於行為與生產的影響 85
(二) 臨床子宮炎確診前後對於行為與生產的影響 85
(三) 其它臨床疾病確診前後對於行為與生產的影響 86
五、亞臨床疾病對於行為與生產的影響 86
(一) 亞臨床酮症對於行為與生產的影響 86
(二) 亞臨床低血鈣對於行為與生產的影響 87
六、胎次與亞臨床疾病對於血液與乳質的影響 87
(一) 胎次對於血液與乳質的影響 87
(二) 亞臨床酮症對於血液與乳質的影響 89
(三) 亞臨床低血鈣對於血液與乳質的影響 89
第六章 結論 91
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