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研究生:翁嘉妤
研究生(外文):Weng, Chia-Yu
論文名稱:察顏觀色:華人服務互動中的面子策略解釋與模式
論文名稱(外文):Reading Face. Explaining and Modeling Face Strategies in Chinese Service Interactions
指導教授:王慕容王慕容引用關係
指導教授(外文):Stanworth, James
口試委員:王鈿張佑宇許書瑋
口試委員(外文):Wang, TienChang, Yu-YuHsu, Ryan Shuwei
口試日期:2021-09-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:國際經營管理研究所碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:臉面面子臉面工作華人員工服務互動
外文關鍵詞:FaceFaceworkChinese employeesService interactions
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面子是華人社會互動的基石,但它的內涵和運作並沒得到很好的理論化。臉面展現我們在互動中所扮演的角色,也可使其他人決定資源的分配(黃光國,1987)。我們不清楚面子在這個過程中是否不可或缺,尤其對於服務人員如何制定他們的面子策略更是缺乏了解,因而激發筆者的研究靈感並訂出此研究主題「在服務互動中,臉面工作是如何與員工的思想和行為做結合?」。
本研究從社會學的角度來構建整個研究設計,並使用紮根理論執行研究。筆者採用立意抽樣法,與 26 名和客戶有直接聯繫互動的員工進行訪談,使用極端案例抽樣法分析,從訪談資料中找出 58 件服務互動的故事,進行更進一步分析。經由分析,筆者觀察到服務提供者透過識別社會身份的印象(如:先賦社會身份、熟客或不熟悉的客人)及體驗客人的臉面工作(如:正面、 負面或顯示權力的行為)來對客人做出回應。
此外,本研究發現在華人員工的臉面工作反應中,有微妙地受到儒家和道家倫理的影響,但是臉面工作的反應並沒有一套標準,而是根據六個主要問題的答案來做出回饋。透由提出臉面工作的理論模型,筆者打開了黃光國 (1987) 臉面互動模型中的黑匣子。
Whilst face is a cornerstone of Chinese social interactions it nature and operation is not well theorized. Face signals who we are in interactions and so enables others to determine resource allocation (Hwang, 1987). The way face is integral to this process remains unclear and in particular we lack understanding about how employees enact their facework strategies. This motivates my main research question as, “How is facework integral to employee’s thought and behavior in service interactions?”
I take a sociological perspective to frame my research design which is an implementation of grounded theory. Through purposive sampling I recruit 26 respondents who are employees with direct customer contact. Analysis involves extreme case sampling to isolate 58 incidents within the interview data for the deeper analysis. Through the analysis, I observe the service provider takes three different types of facework (upgrading, neutralizing and downgrading) to respond customer by identifying the impression of social identity (ascribed social identity, familiar or unfamiliar customer) and experiencing customer facework behaviors (positive, negative or power-showing). Employees facework behavior is enacted with reference to six main questions. By proposing a theoretical model of facework I open the black-box within Hwang’s (1987) model of face interactions.
ABSTRACT I
中文摘要 II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Objectives. 3
1.2 Research Procedure. 3
1.3 Definition of Terms. 4
1.4 Structure of This Study. 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Introduction. 6
2.1.1 Chinese Culture. 6
2.1.2 Guanxi. 7
2.1.3 Roles. 9
2.1.4 Face. 10
2.1.5 Facework. 13
2.2 Service Interaction and Chinese Ideas About Face. 18
2.2.1 Service. 18
2.2.2 Service Interaction. 20
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN 22
3.1 Grounded Theory Approach. 22
3.2 Research Design. 23
3.2.1 Sampling. 25
3.2.2 Interviewing. 27
3.2.3 Analysis. 34
CHAPTER FOUR EXPLAINING FACE IN CHINESE SERVICE INTERACTIONS 57
4.1 How Does Face Appear During The Service Interaction? 57
4.1.1 Face Flow in Service Interaction. 57
4.2 How Does A Service Provider Enact Facework To Respond Customers? 61
4.2.1 Facework Flow In Service Interaction. 61
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 79
5.1 Overview. 79
5.2 Contribution. 85
5.3 Managerial Implication. 87
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 90
6.1 Conclusion. 90
6.2 Limitation and Future Research Direction. 91
REFERENCES 93
APPENDICES 100
Appendix A: Interview guideline 100
Appendix B: Interview invitation 101
Appendix C: Interview outline 102
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