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研究生:許家瑞
研究生(外文):Chia-JuiHsu
論文名稱:具能量緩衝級與最大功率點追蹤電路之光能獵能器設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Maximum Power Point Tracking Circuit and Energy Buffer Stage
指導教授:魏嘉玲
指導教授(外文):Chia-Ling Wei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:能量緩衝級擾動觀察法升壓型轉換器光能獵能器
外文關鍵詞:Energy buffer stageTime-multiplex controlPerturb and observeBoost converterPhotovoltaic energy harvester
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有鑑於能源危機及環境汙染的問題日益嚴重,環境永續的觀念也逐漸受到重視,光能、熱能、動能等等綠色能源遂成為趨勢,而藉由環境中的能量(如太陽能、熱能與溫度差)並轉換成電能,稱之為獵能。本研究提出一個具有能量緩衝級與最大功率點追蹤電路的光能獵能器,確保太陽能電池能操作於其最大功率點,並且能妥善分配能量於負載端與能量緩衝級,當太陽能電池所提供之能量充足時,可將能量儲存於能量緩衝級,而在太陽能電池所提供之能量小於負載所需能量時,則可以使用儲存於能量緩衝級之能量作為輔助,提高供電之穩定度。另外,為了在低功率下能有好的轉換效率,轉換器操作於非連續導通模式(DCM),控制方法使用脈波頻率調變(PFM)進行控制,並結合分時多工法(TMC)與能量分佈法(PDC)來分配負載端與能量緩衝級的能量。
本晶片使用台灣積體電路公司(TSMC)提供之0.18μm 1P6M Mixed-signal Standard CMOS 製程,晶片總面積為1.079 mm2,並採用DIP 40 S/B進行封裝。所測得之最佳追蹤效率為99.62%,太陽能電池的最佳轉換效率為95.77%,太陽能電池的最佳總效率為95.41%,太陽能電池與儲能端共同提供負載端的最佳轉換效率為95.48%。為了增加供應電源的穩定性,加入能量緩衝級輔助後,在最低光照(IPH=200μA)時系統最高可抽載至410μA,而在最高光照(IPH=3mA)時系統最高可抽載至3.8mA。
In this thesis, a boost dc-dc converter for photovoltaic (PV) energy harvester with energy buffer stage and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit is proposed. A perturb and observe method (P&O) is used to track the maximum power point of the PV cell. The control method combining time-multiplexing control (TMC) and power-distributive control (PDC) is used to control single-inductor dual-input dual output (SIDIDO) system, properly distributing energy form harvester, storage and output.

The proposed chip was fabricated by TSMC 0.18μm 1P6M mixed-signal standard CMOS process, and the chip area is 1.079 mm2. According to measurement results, the peak tracking efficiency is 99.62 %, the peak conversion efficiency for input source to output is 95.77%, the peak total efficiency for input source to output is 95.41%, and the peak conversion efficiency for input source and energy buffer stage to output is 95.48%. Adding the energy buffer stage, the maximum load current for IPH=0.2mA is 410μA, and the maximum load current for IPH=3.0mA is 3.8mA.
第一章 簡介 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 論文架構 2
第二章 具能量緩衝級的獵能技術簡介 3
2.1 太陽能電池基本介紹 3
2.1.1 太陽能電池的等效電路 3
2.1.2 操作光源的環境 5
2.2 最大功率點追蹤演算法 6
2.2.1 擾動觀察法 6
2.3 具能量緩衝級的獵能器設計 7
2.3.1 功率級系統設計 7
2.3.2 升壓型轉換器 8
2.3.3 單電感多輸入多輸出轉換器控制方法 10
A. 分時多工控制法(Time-Multiplexing Control, TMC) 11
B. 能量分佈控制法(Power-Distributive Control, PDC) 12
C. 控制方法比較 13
第三章 系統架構與電路設計 15
3.1 系統架構簡介 15
3.1.1 太陽能電池模組的調變原理 16
3.1.2 具最大功率點調變之升壓型轉換器 17
3.1.3 具能量緩衝級之升壓型轉換器 19
3.2 電路設計與功能介紹 25
3.2.1 電位選擇電路 (Supply Selector) 26
3.2.2 零電流偵測器 (Zero Current Detector) 28
3.2.3 恆定轉導偏壓電路 (Constant-gm Bias Circuit) 32
3.2.4 脈波頻率調變控制電路 (PFM Controller) 33
3.2.5 固定導通時間產生器 (Constant On-time Generator) 36
3.2.6 死區時間控制器 (Dead-time Controller) 38
3.2.7 反振盪電路 (Anti-ringing Circuit) 39
3.2.8 電流與電壓感測器 (Current&Voltage Sensor) 40
3.2.9 最大功率點追蹤控制器 (MPPT Controller) 42
3.3 系統運作模式 45
3.3.1 起始狀態 (Startup State) 45
3.3.2 閉迴路狀態 (Closed-loop State) 45
第四章 模擬結果與佈局考量 47
4.1 模擬結果 47
4.1.1 起始狀態模擬 47
4.1.2 閉迴路狀態模擬 49
A. 脈波頻率調變控制電路 (PFM Controller) 49
B. 固定導通時間產生器 (Constant On-time Generator) 52
C. 零電流偵測器 (Zero Current Detector) 53
D. 最大功率點追蹤控制器 (MPPT Controller) 55
4.1.3 光源照度變動 56
4.1.4 負載暫態與負載調節率 57
4.1.5 模擬效率 59
A. 追蹤效率 (Tracking Efficiency) 59
B. 轉換效率 (Conversion Efficiency) 60
C. 系統總效率 (Total Efficiency) 61
4.2 佈局考量 62
4.3 打線圖 65
第五章 量測結果 67
5.1 量測環境與考量 67
5.2 量測結果 71
5.2.1 起始狀態 71
5.2.2 閉迴路狀態 72
A. 脈波頻率調變控制電路 (PFM Controller) 72
B. 最大功率點追蹤控制器 (MPPT Controller) 75
5.2.3 負載暫態與負載調節率(Load Regulation) 76
5.2.4 量測效率 78
A. 追蹤效率 (Tracking Efficiency) 79
B. 轉換效率 (Conversion Efficiency) 80
C. 系統總效率 (Total Efficiency) 81
5.3規格比較表 82
第六章 結論與未來展望 84
參考文獻 85
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