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研究生(外文):Mutuku Justus Kavita
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of PM2.5 and Metal Element Emissions from a Steel Plant and the Modeling of Particle Deposition in the Human Lung
指導教授(外文):Hou, Wen-Che
口試委員(外文):Wang, Ya-FenYang, Hsi-HsienLee, Wen JhyLin, Tsair-FuhKao, Chih-Ming
外文關鍵詞:PM2.5potentially toxic element (PTE)emission factorssteel plantre-suspensionseasonal variationCOPDcomputational fluid dynamics (CFD)Two-phase flowDean vorticesDepositionlungHotspots
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在本篇研究中著重於有毒環境空氣污染物之排放,特別是來自鋼鐵廠氣體微粒排放(PM2.5)中之金屬元素,以及透過氣體動力學探討PM2.5於肺部中的沉積現象。為瞭解鐵礦石、煤、石灰石和燒結礦原材料儲存場地對環境空氣細顆粒物(PM2.5)的貢獻,比較再懸浮粉塵與環境空氣PM2.5脂濃度及化學指紋,調查了15堆之原料;5個鐵堆、5煤堆、3石堆、1焦堆、1燒結堆;四個地點: A、 B、C和D。此外對某鋼鐵廠燃煤鍋爐和燒結爐的排放因數(EF)、單位能量潛在有毒元素(PTEs)或燒結礦重量進行了評估。從3台燃煤鍋爐中抽取15個樣品,從4台燒結爐中抽取22個樣品,用於鉛、鎘、汞、砷和鉻(VI)之環境足跡研究。最終應用劑量學模型來建立暴露於 PM2.5 後的攝入量與劑量之關聯機制。使有限體積法(FVM)和計算流體力學-離散顆粒運動(CFD-DPM)對PM2.5 的沉積效率進行了數值模擬評估。
在調查的四個地點(A、B、C跟D)中,評估PM2.5的濃度、組成以及i值和j值隨季節顯著變化。PM2.5的化學指紋圖譜顯示,水溶性離子是PM2.5的主要成分。特別是SO42-和NO3-分別是冬季和夏季的主要水溶性離子。鐵礦石、煤、石灰石、焦炭和燒結礦堆中成分主要分別為鐵、碳、Ca2+與碳、碳與SO42-、Fe與Ca2+。在夏季中,PM2.5濃度範圍為13.7–18.0 µgm-3,其中水溶性離子、金屬、碳的化學組成分別占54.2%、5.7%和23.7%。在冬季,PM2.5濃度範圍為44.7-48.0 µgm-3,其中水溶性離子、金屬、碳組成分別占49.2%、8.1%及17.4%。化學品質平衡中指出,B、C、D點PM2.5主要來源為固定源、移動源及二次有機氣懸膠體。
環境保護署對燃煤鍋爐的鉛、鎘、汞和砷之實驗室環境足跡與默認環境足跡之比值範圍為0.08–0.013、0.014–0.017、0.019–0.033、0.047–0.066,燒結爐為0.059–0.232、0.05–0.151、0.05–0.364和0.067–0. 824。所有燃煤鍋爐的Cr(VI)-比值均為0.005,而燒結爐的Cr(VI)-比值為0.057–0.709。本次調查的結果可應用於推動採用適當的空氣污染控制裝置,以減少固定來源之 PTE 排放。
PM 的劑量危害健康之影響與使用諸如熱點及沉積效率 (DE) 進行定量估計並通過所獲得結果與過去文獻進行比較,對此處應用模型進行驗證。在支氣管幾何形狀 (G5-G8) 的入口處應用代表休息 (164.3)、輕度活動 (362.4) 和適度運動 (606.4) 的平均雷諾數的真實吸入曲線。將慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)建模為G6-2之軸對稱收縮,在模型中使用四種直徑,分別為0.075、0.15、0.3及0.6µm,並將PM2.5濃度設定為50 µg m–3。於分析中注射及追蹤粒子數為350031、692596和833553分別為休息、輕度活動及中度運動。健康氣道之沉積分數(DFs)介於0.12%和1.18%之間,COPD患者之DFs介於0.05%和0.49%之間。於COPD中由於急流現象、品質流率和誘導的迪恩渦流,導致沉積產生傾斜。同時由於慣性撞擊所導致之沉積及離心力與復雜二次流所導致沿著分叉處之沉積。COPD 患者 PM2.5 沉積模式的偏斜可以解釋他們因吸入 PM2.5 而放大的不利健康影響和病情惡化。
This study encompasses the emission of toxic ambient air pollutants especially, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and heavy metal elements from a steel plant and the airflow dynamics as well as deposition of PM2.5 in the lungs. Investigations were conducted on the concentrations and chemical characteristics of resuspended dust to understand the contributions of a raw material storage site for sinter iron, iron ore, coal, coke and limestone to ambient air PM2.5. The study was based on 15 piles of raw materials; 5 iron piles, 5 coal piles, 3 stone piles, 1 coke pile and 1 sinter pile; and four sites; A, B, C, and D. Furthermore, the emission factors (EF), herein described as the weight of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) per heating value of coal used in boilers or per weight of sintered steel produced in furnaces were evaluated. Fifteen samples were from 3 coal-fired boilers and twenty-two samples from 4 sintering furnaces, all incorporated in a steel plant were applied to investigate the EF of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, and chromium (VI). Finally, a dosimetry model was applied to develop a mechanistic link between intake after exposure to PM2.5 and dose. The deposition fractions of toxic PM2.5 were evaluated numerically using Finite Volume Methods (FVM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics- Discrete Particle Motion (CFD-DPM).
From the PM2.5 emission in the raw material storage field and neighboring ambient air monitoring points (A, B, C, and D), water-soluble ions were the main component. Specifically, SO42- and NO3- were dominant in winter and summer, respectively. The main compositions in iron ore, coal, limestone, coke, and sinter piles were iron; carbon; Ca2+ and carbon; carbon and SO42–; and Fe and Ca2+; respectively. In summer, the range for PM2.5 concentrations was 13.7–18.0 µg m–3, whereby the proportions for water-soluble ions, metals, carbon are 54.2%, 5.7%, and 23.7% respectively. For winter, the range for the concentrations was 44.7–48.0 µg m–3, where proportions ranked as follows water-soluble ions (49.2%)> metals (8.1%)> carbon components (17.4%). The chemical mass balance showed the main sources of PM2.5 in sites B, C, and D as mobile sources, stationary sources, and secondary organic aerosols.
The ratios of the field investigations and laboratory EF to the default values applied by the Environment Protection Administration (EPA Taiwan) for Pb, Cd, Hg, and As in coal-fired boilers ranged between 0.08–0.013, 0.014–0.017, 0.019–0.033, 0.047–0.066 and in the sintering furnaces they ranged between 0.059–0.232, 0.05–0.151, 0.05–0.364, and 0.067–0.824, respectively. For Cr (VI), the ratio was constant at 0.005 for all the coal fired boilers and ranged from 0.057–0.709 for sintering furnaces. Knowledge gained from this investigation can be used to stimulate the adoption of suitable air pollution control technologies to reduce the emission of PTEs from stationary sources.
The dose of PM is linked to the adverse health effects using quantitative estimates such as hotspots and deposition fractions (DFs). Validation of the model applied here was performed by comparing the obtained results with those in earlier literature. Real inhalation curves with average Reynolds numbers representing rest (164.3), light activity (362.4,), and moderate exercise (606.4) were applied at the inlet of a bronchial geometry (G5-G8). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) was modelled as an axisymmetric constriction at G6-2. Four median diameters including 0.075, 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 µm were applied to represent a PM2.5 concentration of 50 µg m–3. In total, 350031, 692596, and 833553 particles were injected and tracked for rest, light activity, and moderate exercise, respectively. The range for the deposition fractions (DFs) in a normal airway was 0.12% - 1.18% while in a COPD case, it was 0.05% - 0.49%. Jet flow phenomena, skewed mass flow rates, and the resultant dean vortices caused skewed deposition patterns in a COPD case. Whilst depositions on the carinas were caused by inertial impaction, those along the bifurcations came because of centrifugal forces and complex secondary flows. Insights from the skewed PM2.5 deposition pattern in COPD patients can explain their amplified adverse health effects and exacerbation of their conditions due to inhalation of PM2.5.
摘 要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgments iv
Contents vi
List of figures ix
List of Tables xiii
Nomenclature xiv
Subscripts xvi
Greek letters xvi
Abbreviations xvii
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Objectives 3
1.3. Overview 5
2.1. Sources of ambient air PM2.5 and PTEs and their fates in the environment 6
2.2. Anatomical features of normal and diseased human airways 10
2.3. In vitro measurements and numerical analysis for particle deposition in the lungs 19
2.4. Airflow dynamics and Particle deposition in human airways. 29
Chapter 3. METHODOLOGY 37
3.1. Materials and methods for PM2.5 and PTE emissions from a steel plant. 37
3.1.1. Sample preparation and pretreatment 37
3.1.2. Re-suspension Tests for the PM2.5 38
3.1.3. Weighing and Conditioning of the Samples 40
3.1.4 Chemical fingerprints and source apportionment for ambient air PM2.5 40
3.2. Estimation of PTEs Emission factors from coal fired boilers and sintering furnaces. 43
3.2.1. Sample collection and pretreatment 43
3.2.3. Determining the concentration of PTEs 45
3.2.3. QA/QC 48
3.3. Formulations and numerical methods for PM2.5 deposition in the lungs 49
3.3.1. Lung geometry 49
3.3.2. Boundary conditions and governing equations 51
3.3.3. PM2.5 distribution at the inlet of the control volume 56
3.3.4. Numerical method and simulation 58
3.3.6. Model validation and grid independence 60
4.1. PM2.5 emissions from the steel plant’s raw material storage site 66
4.1.1. Concentration and chemical speciation ambient air PM2.5 66
4.1.2. Chemical fingerprints of resuspended PM2.5 from the raw material 76
4.1.3. Apportionment of PM2.5 sources using a CMB receptor model 78
4.2. Emission of potentially toxic elements from the steel plant 79
4.2.1. Concentrations of Potentially toxic elements 79
4.2.2. Emission factors for PTEs from coal-fired boilers and sintering furnaces 86
4.2.3. Field investigations and laboratory-based EF vs the default EF- Taiwan EPA 86
4.2.4. Formations of PTEs and capture by the APCD 88
4.3. Air flow dynamics and PM2.5 deposition in normal and obstructed airways 90
4.3.1. Mass flow ratios and maximum velocities in airways 90
4.3.2. Airflow in the normal and obstructed airways 94
4.3.3. PM2.5 Deposition patterns and efficiencies in normal and obstructed airways 104
5.1. Conclusions 113
5.2. Suggestions 115
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