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研究生:林子文
研究生(外文):Lin, Tzu-Wen
論文名稱:利用 3D x-ray 顯微鏡觀察銲錫微凸塊的電遷移議題之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Electromigration of Solder Microbumps by 3D X-ray Microscopy
指導教授:陳智陳智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chih
口試委員:杜經寧羅友杰
口試委員(外文):Tu, King-NingLuo, You-Jie
口試日期:2020-09-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:工學院半導體材料與製程設備學程
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:電遷移銲錫凸塊
外文關鍵詞:ElectromigrationMicrobumps3D X-ray
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當前在半導體封裝元件結構縮小的趨勢之下,IC 封裝的演進,隨
著封裝要堆疊更多的晶片,相關的封裝結構技術,從 2D 往 3D 發展、
未來更甚至是 5D 的特殊封裝結構,其中利用凸塊當成晶片之間的連結
橋梁, 銲錫接點的微縮化,分析勢必也存在著問題,其中便包含可靠
度、及故障分析等…既往的破壞性分析,已經無法滿足初步觀察的需求
了,此時新的無損觀察技術就悄悄地出現了,藉由 X-ray 分層影像觀察
特性,可以從不同的角度觀察,相關的影像裁切橫截面,不在只侷限
一般的 2D X-ray 影像以及單方向的 cross-section 結果,X-ray 的分層影像能增加視界的結果,開啟了一道觀察新世界的大門,。
本實驗利用銲錫微凸塊的封裝結構,在加熱台進行 150 度溫度做電
遷移測試,在 8 x 104 (A/cm2),約 0.564 A 的電流,不破壞樣品的前提下,觀察 Solder Microbumps 在不同阻值上升率 (0%、5%、10%、20%) 之間的一系列結果,在測試過程中,利用 x-ray 分層影像觀察技術能夠無損的觀察 Solder Microbumps 原位演變下的微觀結構,發現了在電遷移的破壞機制下,藉由分層影像的觀察可發現,由於介金屬化合物在阻值上升初期快速生成,在微凸塊內的破壞模式開始有微小空隙的生成,隨著組值上升的情況不同,除了先前的空隙同時在其他的區域也形成了許多新的空隙隨著空隙增加,形成了空隙網路的連結,甚至在中間銲錫的區域由於空隙網路增加進而改變了原先 Solder Microbumps 的形狀,基於不同階段的分層圖像,建構的一系列的分層模型。
In order to follow Moore’s law, scaling down and piling up of chips through packaging processes are the most popular solution to raise performance of chips. So far, packaging in two-dimension (2D) tends to transform into 2.5D or 3D and even other novel and special structures. Due to the advancement of packaging technology, solder joints must shrink from about hundred to tens of micron. The destructive analysis of reliability tests and failures encounter in unable to observe all the voids in solder joints. Therefore, non-destructive inspection seems to be an excellent way for observation of voids. For the images of computed tomography (CT) obtained by X-ray, any view angles of joint array can be observed. As a result, voids formation is the most important failure mode during electromigartion (EM) tests. In the current study, the EM failures of microbumps were observed through 3D X-ray during various stages of EM tests, and evolution of voids can be examined.
Solder microbumps with Cu/Sn2.3Ag/Ni/Cu solder microbumps were fabricated, and the daisy chain structures which were composed of 400 microbumps were designed in silicon chips. The chips were put on a hot plate of 150。C, a current density of 8 x 104 (A/cm2) was applied for EM tests. For the sake of non-destructive analysis, 3D X-ray was adopted to investigate the evolution of voids at 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, and 20 % of resistance increase. The results indicated that some small voids appeared near under bump metallization (UBMs) around 10 %, and they might grow up larger at later stages. The large voids tended to form in the microbumps in which the electron current flow drifted from the Ni/Cu UBM. This phenomenon might be caused by the different solubility of Ni and Cu. If the electron current flows into microbumps from Cu UBM, Cu atoms might diffuse to the anode end, which was easy for void formation.
摘 要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌 謝 V
目 錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 半導體IC封裝結構簡介 1
1-2 研究動機 5
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2-1 電遷移理論(Electromigration) 7
2-2 銲錫微凸塊的電遷移破壞機制 9
2-3 X-RAY原理 11
2-4 同步輻射原理 12
2-5 銲錫晶粒與電子流動方向之夾角關係 15
第三章 實驗方法 18
3-1 試片結構 18
3-2 電遷移測試條件 20
3-3 分析工具及方法 22
第四章 結果與討論 25
4-1. 電遷移通電實驗 26
4-1-1 . Kelvin 結構電遷移通電結果 26
4-1-2 . Daisy chain (花環)結構電遷移通電結果 29
4-2. 未破壞分析 (3D X-RYA 分層影像觀察) 31
4-2-1 . Kelvin 結構觀察及比較 31
4-2-2 . Daisy chain結構觀察及比較 36
4-3. 破壞性分析 ( BEI & EBSD ) 45
4-3-1 Daisy chain結構IMC破壞情形及銲錫元素分析 45
4-3-2 . Daisy chain結構 分析銲錫的晶格方向 54
4-4. 銲錫晶格α角度與3D X-RAY影像之關係 59
第五章 結論 61
參考文獻 63
附錄一 65
附錄二 70
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