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研究生:陳畇安
論文名稱:不同發酵年份之蔬果酵素其成分及功效變化
論文名稱(外文):Changes in the composition and efficacy of the fermented broth of mixed vegetables and fruits in different fermentation years
指導教授:呂英震
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:發酵蔬果發酵陳釀抗氧化發酵液
外文關鍵詞:fermentationfruits and vegetables fermentationagingantioxidantfermented broth
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發酵是最古老的食品加工方法之一,其為有機物質經由微生物之酵素作用而產生的化學變化。在發酵過程中,微生物會產生特定的代謝產物,例如酶、酸、醇、抗生素、碳水化合物和抑制性化合物等,這些物質會改變發酵食品的特性。而隨著發酵時間的增加,對於發酵液中的功能性成分以及對人體之影響會有所改變。因此本研究利用微生物菌相及菌數分析、抗氧化能力分析、機能性成分、單糖、有機酸、酒精以及GABA含量變化、GC-MS揮發性成分分析以及FTIR,進行發酵五個年份之FV發酵液及發酵三個年份之FP發酵液之成分變化,以探討延長發酵時間,對於發酵液品質的影響。
FV發酵液的結果顯示,ABTS+自由基清除能力、還原力以及總酚含量分別上升了52.75、46.49以及58.39%,其皆會隨著發酵時間的增加而提高含量。類黃酮含量則是會在發酵初期有下降趨勢。在有機酸方面,醋酸含量會因醋酸菌之作用而隨著發酵時間的增加而上升,乳酸之含量則是會被轉化而下降。而酒精的含量會因為醋酸菌之氧化作用而隨著發酵時間的增加而降低。單糖的部分,葡萄糖含量被微生物所利用使其隨著發酵時間的增加而下降,果糖含量因微生物的利用性使其呈現較無明顯的變化趨勢。GABA因微生物的作用而隨著發酵時間呈現逐年增加的趨勢。微生物的部分,則是未發現到活菌,推測為酸鹼值、有機酸含量、總酚含量、抑菌物質或是VBNC(Viable but nonculturable)的關係。在GC-MS的分析中,發現到許多對人體有益的成分,例如:2,4-二異丁基苯酚(2,4-Di-t-butylphenol)、α-松油醇(α-Terpineol)以及四甲基吡嗪(Tetra methyl pyrazine)等,並且其含量會隨著發酵年份的增加而增加。而對於發酵液品質會產生影響之成分,例如:對甲酚(p-Cresol),推測會在發酵後消失。FP發酵液的結果大部分都與FV發酵液呈現相反的趨勢,其抗氧化能力及機能性成分等,皆會隨著發酵年份的增加而下降,推測可能為FP之生物質抵抗作用(Biomass recalcitrance)所致。但儘管如此,FP發酵液之抗氧化能力及機能性成分皆高於發酵五年之FV發酵液。
本研究結果顯示,FV發酵液適合長時間發酵,其發酵液中之有益物質會隨著發酵時間的增加而增加,且經過發酵,會提高發酵液之品質。反之,FP發酵液不適合長時間發酵,較適合短時間發酵。
Fermentation is one of the oldest food processing methods. It is a chemical change of organic substance through the action of microorganisms' enzymes.During the fermentation process, microorganisms produce specific metabolites, such as enzymes, acids, alcohols, antibiotics, carbohydrates and inhibitory compounds, etc.These substances will change the characteristics of fermented foods.As the fermentation time increases, the functional components in the fermented broth and the impact on the human will change.Therefore, this study used microbial flora and bacterial count analysis, antioxidant capacity analysis, functional components, changes in monosaccharides, organic acids, alcohol, and GABA content, GC-MS volatile component analysis, and FTIR to conduct fermentation for five years.The composition changes of the FV fermented broth and the FP fermented broth of three years of fermentation were used to explore the effect of prolonging the fermentation time on the quality of the fermented broth.
The results of the FV fermented broth showed that the ABTS+ free radical scavenging ability, the reducing capacity and the total polyphenol content increased by 52.75, 46.49 and 58.39%, respectively, and the content will increase with the increase of fermentation time.The content of flavonoids tends to decrease in the early stages of fermentation.In terms of organic acids, the content of acetic acid will increase with the increase of fermentation time due to the effect of acetic acid bacteria, while the content of lactic acid will be converted and decreased.The alcohol content will decrease as the fermentation time increases due to the oxidation of acetic acid bacteria.In the monosaccharide part, the glucose content is used by microorganisms and it decreases with the increase of fermentation time, and the fructose content shows a relatively insignificant trend due to the availability of microorganisms.Due to the action of microorganisms, GABA shows a trend of increasing year by year with the fermentation time.In the part of microorganisms, no live bacteria have been found, which is presumed to be the relationship between pH, organic acid content, total phenol content, antibacterial substances, or VBNC (Viable but nonculturable).In the analysis of GC-MS, many ingredients beneficial to the human body were found, such as: 2,4-Di-t-butylphenol, α-Terpineol and tetramethyl pyrazine, etc., and its content will increase with the increase of the fermentation year.Unfavorable substances, such as p-Cresol, are speculated to disappear after fermentation.Most of the results of the FP fermented broth show the opposite trend to the FV fermented broth.Its antioxidant capacity and functional components will decrease with the increase of the fermentation year. It may be due to the biomass recalcitrance of FP.However, the antioxidant capacity and functional components of the FP fermented broth are higher than those of the FV fermented broth after five years of fermentation.
The results of this study show that the FV fermented broth is suitable for long-term fermentation. The beneficial substances in the fermentation broth will increase with the increase of fermentation time, and after fermentation, the quality of the fermentation broth will be improved.Conversely, the FP fermented broth is not suitable for long-term fermentation, but more suitable for short-term fermentation.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 V
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
附圖目錄 XII
附表目錄 XIII
壹、 文獻回顧 1
一、 發酵 1
1. 發酵的形式 2
2. 發酵的好處 6
3. 發酵食品的種類 6
二、 蔬果發酵 13
1. 蔬果中的天然微生物 15
2. 蔬果發酵液 16
3. 發酵液之機能性成分的變化以及對健康的影響 17
貳、 材料與方法 31
一、 實驗材料 31
(一) 原料 31
(二) 實驗藥品 31
二、 儀器與設備 34
三、 實驗方法 36
(一) 微生物 36
(二) 酸鹼值 36
(三) 總可滴定酸 36
(四) 可溶性固形物 37
(五) 抗氧化能力分析 37
(六) 機能性成分分析 41
(七) HPLC分析 42
(八) GC-MS分析 44
(九) FTIR 分析 46
參、 結果與討論 47
一、理化性質分析 47
二、抗氧化能力分析 52
(一) ABTS+自由基清除能力 52
(二) 還原力測定 55
(三) 螯合亞鐵離子能力(FRAP) 58
三、機能性成分分析 62
(一) 總酚含量分析 62
(二) 類黃酮含量分析 66
四、HPLC分析 69
(一) 醋酸含量分析 69
(二) 乳酸含量分析 73
(三) 酒精含量分析 76
(四) 葡萄糖含量分析 79
(五) 果糖含量分析 82
(六) GABA含量分析 86
六、揮發性化合物分析 90
七、微生物分析 110
八、FTIR分析 114
肆、 結論 117
伍、 參考文獻 118

圖目錄
圖一、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液其酸鹼值變化 49
圖二、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液其酸鹼值變化 50
圖三、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之ABTS+自由基清除能力 53
圖四、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之ABTS+自由基清除能力 54
圖五、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之還原力測定 56
圖六、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之還原力測定 57
圖七、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之螯合亞鐵離子能力 60
圖八、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之螯合亞鐵離子能力 61
圖九、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之總多酚含量測定 64
圖十、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之總多酚含量測定 65
圖十一、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之類黃酮含量分析 67
圖十二、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之類黃酮含量分析 68
圖十三、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之醋酸含量 71
圖十四、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之醋酸含量 72
圖十五、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之乳酸含量 74
圖十六、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之乳酸含量 75
圖十七、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之酒精含量 77
圖十八、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之酒精含量 78
圖十九、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之葡萄糖含量 80
圖二十、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之葡萄糖含量 81
圖二十一、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之果糖含量 83
圖二十二、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之果糖含量 84
圖二十三、發酵五年之FV發酵液之HPLC層析圖 85
圖二十四、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之GABA含量 88
圖二十五、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之GABA含量 89
圖二十六、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之層析圖比較 96
圖二十七、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之層析圖比較 97
圖二十八、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之α-松油醇含量比較 106
圖二十九、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之α-松油醇含量比較 107
圖三十、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液之2,4-二異丁基苯酚含量比較 108
圖三十一、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液之2,4-二異丁基苯酚含量比較 109
圖三十二、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液微生物分析 112
圖三十三、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液微生物分析 113
圖三十四、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液FTIR圖譜 115
圖三十五、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液FTIR圖譜 116

表目錄
表一、不同發酵年份之FV發酵液理化性質分析 51
表二、不同發酵年份之FP發酵液理化性質分析 51
表三、發酵1年之FV發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 98
表四、發酵2年之FV發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 99
表五、發酵3年之FV發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 100
表六、發酵4年之FV發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 101
表七、發酵5年之FV發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 102
表八、發酵2年之FP發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 103
表九、發酵3年之FP發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 104
表十、發酵4年之FP發酵液以GC-MS 分析之揮發性化合物 105

附圖目錄
附圖一、發酵食品的轉化性質概述 4
附圖二、TCA循環中GABA生產的代謝途徑 19
附圖三、食品發酵過程中花青素的生物轉化和與酵母代謝產物的反應 26

附表目錄
附表一、穀物發酵過程中形成的化合物 8
附表二、富含GABA的食物 20

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