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研究生:陳彥榕
研究生(外文):Yan-Rung Chen
論文名稱:探討持久性有機汙染物在恆春半島沿海海參之生物累積
論文名稱(外文):Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in sea cucumbers along the coast of Hengchun Peninsula
指導教授:柯風溪
指導教授(外文):Fung-Chi Ko
口試委員:柯風溪陳德豪謝季吟
口試委員(外文):Fung-Chi KoTe-Hao ChenChi-Ying Hsieh
口試日期:2021-07-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:持久性有機汙染物海參生物累積指標生物
外文關鍵詞:persistent organic pollutantssea cucumbersbioaccumulationbiological indicator
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由苯環所構成的持久性有機汙染物(Persistent organic pollutants, POPs)化合物結構穩定,在環境中難以被分解及去除,進入生物體內易形成累積作用而影響其生理健康。由於POPs具有親脂特性,在海洋環境中傾向吸附於有機顆粒並隨之遷移,最終沉降在海底沉積物中。底棲無脊椎動物中:海參,攝食方式以濾食水中有機顆粒為主,來源包括水中懸浮顆粒(suspended particles)及湧起沉積物之顆粒(resuspended sediment particles),因此POPs可能隨著有機顆粒一同進入海參體內累積。過去對於POPs在海參體內之生物累積研究十分稀少,本研究探討POPs (多環芳香烴、多氯聯苯、有機氯農藥與多溴聯苯醚)在恆春半島沿海的四種海參(黑海參、蕩皮參、斑錨參、黑刺星海參) 體壁及消化道之生物累積,比較其個體大小、生長環境及攝食方式對POPs累積之差異,並探討海參成為POPs的環境汙染指標生物之可行性。分析結果顯示海參中的POPs累積濃度依序為蕩皮參 > 黑刺星海參 > 斑錨參 > 黑海參,但在同種海參間在大小及棲息環境上,其POPs累積差異上並不明顯,共同特點為其消化道濃度皆高於體壁。多環芳香烴(PAHs)在海參體內濃度為11-51ng/g dw,多氯聯苯及有機氯農藥在恆春半島水中及底泥的為濃度較低,導致其累積在海參體內濃度偏低,多氯聯苯在海參體內濃度為ND-0.0183ng/g dw,而有機氯農藥為ND-0.0079ng/g dw。多溴聯苯醚在海參體內濃度在1-109ng/g dw,以十溴的PBDE209為主。主成分分析顯示黑海參及蕩皮參體內PAHs組成與沉積物PAHs組成相近,因攝食方式以濾食沉積物中的有機物質為主;而斑錨參及黑刺星海參濾食水中的有機物質,故其PAHs汙染物組成則是與水中顆粒相近。本研究中四種海參在PAHs BSAF比值都沒有超過1,在PBDE BSAF上僅有蕩皮參的比值超出1,顯示黑海參、斑錨參及黑刺星海參在蓄積POPs的能力較差,而蕩皮參在累積PBDEs具有良好的累積能力,但與其他底棲生物比較下BSAF較低。由BSAF評估海參在累積POPs能力較弱,在非重汙染程度之地區難以敏銳監測出環境汙染程度的變化,較不適合成為POPs沿海環境監控的指標生物。
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) composed of benzene rings are difficult to be decomposed and removed once they enter the environment due to their stable compound structure, and they enter the organism to form a cumulative effect and affect their physiological health. POPs have lipophilic properties and tend to adsorb to organic particles, causing particles to be adsorbed in suspended particles in the ocean and move with them and eventually settle in the sediments. The benthic invertebrate such as sea cucumbers feed mainly by filtering aquatic particles including suspended particles and resuspended sediments. Therefore, POPs may accumulate in the sea cucumber along with the organic particles. However, there are few studies on the bioaccumulation of POPs in sea cucumbers in the past. This study discusses the POPs, including PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs, accumulated in the body wall and digestive tract in four spsecies of sea cucumbers (Holothuria atra, Holothuria leucospilota, Synapta maculata , Holothuria cinerascens) on the coast of Hengchun Peninsula. The differences of POP bioaccumulation in the sea cucumbers may caused by their individual size, growth habitate, and feeding behavior. The feasibility of sea cucumbers becoming an indicator organism of POPs environmental pollution is discussed in this study. The concentration of POPs in sea cucumbers is in the order of Holothuria leucospilota>Holothuria cinerascens> Synapta maculata> Holothuria atra. The POP levels among the same species of sea cucumbers is not significantly different, in terms of size and habitat variation. Thus, this study indicated that the POP concentration in the digestive tract is higher than the muscle wall. The concentration of PCBs and OCPs in the seawater and sediments of the Hengchun Peninsula is relatively low, resulting in low concentrations of PCBs and OCPs accumulated in the sea cucumbers. Principal component analysis shows that the composition of PAHs in Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota is similar to the composition of PAHs in sediments, because the feeding method is mainly to filter organic substances in the sediments, In addition, Synapta maculate and Holothuria cinerascens filter suspended particles in the sea, so the composition of PAHs particles is similar to that of water particles. In this study, most BSAF values of sea cucumbers do not exceed 1 incidating that the sea cucumber may be less suitable to be an indicator organism for POP dialogue environment monitoring.
摘要 III
Abstract V
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XI
第一章、前言 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究目的 2
第二章、文獻回顧 3
2.1持久性有機汙染物 3
2.2多環芳香烴 4
2.3多氯聯苯 7
2.4多溴聯苯醚 8
2.5有機氯農藥 9
2.6有機顆粒 10
2.7海參 11
2.8指標生物 12
第三章、材料方法 13
3.1材料與儀器 13
3.1.1材料 13
3.1.2儀器 17
3.2試藥及器材前處理 18
3.3採樣以及樣品前處理 20
3.3.1採樣 20
3.3.2生物樣品前處理 23
3.4樣品處理及分析流程 24
3.4.1生物及環境樣品分析流程 24
3.4.2索式萃取(Soxhlet extraction) 24
3.4.3脂肪含量測定 25
3.4.4液液萃取法 (liquid-liquid extraction) 25
3.4.5氧化鋁管柱淨化 25
3.4.6中性矽膠淨化 26
3.4.7環境中顆粒性有機碳含量分析 27
3.5儀器分析 28
3.6定量方法 29
3.7品保及品管 (QC/QA) 30
3.7.1添加擬似標準品 30
3.7.2標準查核樣品分析 (Spike recoveries) 30
3.8實驗空白組分析 (Blank analysis) 31
3.9方法偵測極限 (Method detection limit, MDL) 31
3.10生物沉積物累積因子 (Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor) 32
3.11資料處理及統計分析 33
第四章、結果與討論 35
4.1恆春半島沿海海參之POPs含量分析 35
4.1.1不同測站海參平均濃度比較 35
4.1.2個體大小POPs濃度比較 42
4.1.3體壁與消化道的POPs濃度比較 42
4.1.4攝食方式比較 47
4.2恆春半島沿海海參PAHs濃度與環境因子線性迴歸分析 50
4.3恆春半島沿海海參與環境中POPs組成分析 50
4.4海參POPs濃度與環境的生物沉積物累積因子分析 51
第五章、結論 59
參考文獻 61
附錄 67
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