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研究生:賴玉華
研究生(外文):LAI, YU-HUA
論文名稱:以dual n-back提升高中生工作記憶及其人格特質衡量學業表現
論文名稱(外文):Use of Dual N-Back to Improve Working Memory and Personality Traits as a Predictor of Academic Performance in High School Students
指導教授:羅俊智
指導教授(外文):LO, JUN-CHIH
口試委員:陳嘉民趙久惠
口試日期:2021-06-06
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:自然生物科技學系自然療癒碩士班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:腦電圖工作記憶人格特質學業表現
外文關鍵詞:Electroencephalogram (EEG)working memorypersonalityacademic performancedual n-back
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:24
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  背景及目的:工作記憶是為複雜的任務提供臨時的儲存空間,並同時加工處理此項訊息,以完成推理、理解等認知作業。許多研究結果顯示工作記憶與學業表現有密切關係。使用dual n-back作為提升工作記憶的研究頗多,因為dual n-back 的性質與複雜工作記憶需要快速識別時間跨度有類似的過程。因此本研究擬從腦波儀判讀探究學生在實驗執行dual n-back後,是否能提升工作記憶容量與其學業表現,並分析中學生人格特質與學業表現是否有關聯性。
  材料及方法:本研究實驗地點在中部某公立高中,收案對象為高三學生。採隨機分派成兩組平行前後對照實驗設計,實驗組13人,對照組15人,平均年齡18.5歲。 實驗的前後測是在「dual 2-back」遊戲時,透過EEG蒐集兩組學生睜眼2分鐘的腦波數據。實驗組在前測之後,進行「dual n-back」工作記憶訓練,每次約30分鐘,連續兩週共十次訓練,對照組則不參與訓練。再取兩組學生實驗前後的國文科與數學科月考成績平均分數,判斷前後表現差異。資料譯碼後輸入電腦以 SPSS 18.0 軟體為分析工具,資料分析方式是以成對樣本t檢定檢測兩組在前測與後測間的差異,並以獨立樣本t檢定及相關係數分析來比較兩組間的實驗結果。
  結果:實驗組人格特質的創新變異平均分數高過對照組,但兩組在統計上沒有顯著差異。在經過dual n-back的訓練後,實驗組在2-back後測得分上有顯著差異,且數學科後測分數上進步的幅度勝過對照組,但兩組在國文科與數學科的遷移效應都不明顯。又透過EEG量測兩組腦波活動,從腦波頻譜功率圖與兩組統計p值腦部分布圖看,實驗組學生的額葉、頂葉、中央區、顳葉及枕葉有明顯的差異現象。
  結論:透過兩週十次dual n-back 的訓練,後測時兩組學生特定的大腦皮質區活性明顯不同。本研究沒有觀察到訓練後的遷移效應,後續研究可針對訓練次數、訓練時數和測驗方式來探討工作記憶訓練的效應。
  Background and Aim: Working memory provides temporary storage space for complex tasks and meanwhile processes this information to complete cognitive tasks such as reasoning and understanding. Many researches showed that working memory is closely related to academic performance. Many researches use dual n-back to improve working memory. Because the concept and nature of dual n-back process is similar to that of complex working memory which requires to quickly recognize the time span.This study intends to explore the students’ ability from brainwaves. After students performing dual n-back in the experiment, I analyzed whether the improvement of working memory capacity and the personality traits of middle school students are related to academic performance.
  Materials and Methods: The experiment is on a public high school in the central area of Taiwan, and the subjects are senior high school students. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, 13 people in the experimental group, 15 people in the control group, with a mean age of 18.5 years. During pre-test and post-test, the brainwave data of two groups with their eyes open for 2 minutes were collected by EEG. After the pre-test, the experimental group received "dual n-back" working memory training for about 30 minutes each time for a total of ten training sessions for two consecutive weeks. The control group did not participate in the training. Then I collected the average scores of Chinese and Mathematics monthly test of the two groups to judge their performance. Subsequently the data was decoded and analyzed by SPSS 18.0 software. The statistic methods are paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test and correlation analysis.
  Results: From the personality traits perspective,the average score of variation of innovation in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group, but there was no statistically significant difference. After the dual n-back training, the experimental group has significant differences in the scores of the 2-back post-test, and the improvement in the post-test scores of mathematics is higher than that of the control group, but the transfer effect in the Chinese and Mathematics subjects is not obvious. From the brainwave spectrum power map and the two sets of statistical p-value in brain, the phenomenon were obvious in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, central area, temporal lobe and occipital lobe of the experimental group .
  Conclusion: Through ten dual n-back training in two weeks, the activity of specific cerebral cortex of the two groups of students was significantly different during the post-test. This study did not observe the transfer effect after training. Follow-up studies can explore the effect of working memory training in terms of training times, training hours and test methods.
致謝 ⅰ
摘要 ⅲ
Abstract ⅴ
目次 ⅷ
表目次 ⅹi
圖目次 ⅹⅱ
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究動機與目的 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 腦波種類 5
2.2 大腦皮質 10
2.3 認知活動 12
2.3.1認知的定義 12
2.3.2認知與神經系統 13
2.4 工作記憶 17
2.5認知遊戲 dual n-back 20
第三章 研究方法 24
3.1 研究設計 24
3.2 研究架構 25
3.3 研究對象與研究場所 27
3.3.1研究對象 27
3.3.2研究場所 28
3.4 研究工具 29
3.4.1介入工具 29
3.4.2評估工具 31
3.4.3 EMOTIV EPOC + 14 Channel Mobile Brainwear 31
3.5實驗流程 33
3.6資料分析 37
第四章 研究結果 38
4.1 研究對象基本資料與人格特質分析 38
4.2 實驗前後操作dual 2-back時的腦波數據比較 43
4.2.1兩組前後測的alpha 波比較 43
4.2.2兩組前後測的beta 波比較 48
4.2.3兩組前後測的 theta 波獨立t檢定p值比較 52
4.2.4兩組前後測的theta / beta 組間比較 54
4.2.5兩組的alpha /beta 比值比較 57
4.3 實驗前後操作2-back與定期段考的國文科與數學科成績分數比較 59
4.3.1兩組前後測的組內比較 59
4.3.2兩組前後測的組間比較 62
第五章 討論 65
5.1 中學生人格特質對個人學業表現的影響 66
5.2 Dual 2-back實驗前後腦波數據分析 68
5.2.1有關alpha波數據的討論 69
5.2.2有關low-beta波數據的討論 71
5.2.3有關theta波數據的討論 72
5.2.4有關theta/beta 比值的討論 73
5.2.5有關alpha/beta 比值的討論 74
5.3 兩週工作記憶的訓練與學業成就遷移的分析 75
第六章 結論、研究限制與建議 78
6.1 結論 78
6.2 研究限制 80
6.3 建議及未來的方向 81
參考文獻 83
中文文獻 83
英文文獻 86
附錄 97
附錄一 同意研究證明書 97
附錄二 受試者同意書 99
附錄三 機構業主同意研究執行簽署書 104
附錄四 受試者基本資料表 105
表目次
表4.1 個人基本資料與人格特質分析 40
表4.1.2 人格特質對2-back與段考國文科與數學科(前測)成績的相關性 42
表4.2.1.1 兩組alpha波值比較 44
表4.2.1.2 兩組alpha波平均數值比較 45
表4.2.1.3 兩組alpha波獨立t檢定p值 47
表4.2.2.1 兩組low beta波值比較 49
表4.2.2.2 兩組前後測low beta波平均值比較 50
表4.2.2.3 兩組beta波獨立t檢定p值 51
表4.2.3 兩組theta波獨立t檢定p值 53
表4.2.4.1 實驗組theta/beta的比值 55
表4.2.4.2 對照組theta/beta的比值 56
表4.2.5 兩組前後測的alpha /beta比值的獨立t檢定p值 58
表4.3.1 實驗前後2-back、段考國文科與數學科成績組內比較 60
表4.3.2 實驗前後2-back、段考國文科與數學科成績組間比較 63 
圖目次
圖2.1 腦波種類 6
圖2.2 大腦皮質 10
圖2.3.1 記憶資訊三級處理模型 13
圖2.3.2 邊緣系統 16
圖2.4.1 Baddeley (2003)第二世代四要素的工作記憶模式 18
圖2.5 dual n-back 21
圖3.2 研究架構圖 26
圖3.4.1.1 dual 2-back 30
圖3.4.1.2 dual 2-back的視覺空間刺激畫面 30
圖3.4.3 Emotiv EPOC腦波儀 32
圖3.5.1 國際通用10-20腦波紀錄系統 34
圖3.5.2 實驗進行過程照片 35
圖4.1 個人心身壓力與人格特質分析 41
圖4.2.1.1 兩組alpha 波頻譜功率圖 43
圖4.2.1.2 兩組alpha 波獨立t 檢定 p值腦部分布圖 47
圖4.2.2.1 兩組low beta 波頻譜功率圖 49
圖4.2.2.2 兩組low beta 波獨立t 檢定 p值腦部分布圖 51
圖4.2.3 兩組 theta 波獨立t 檢定 p值腦部分布圖 53
圖4.2.4 兩組theta/beta 比值腦部分布圖 56
圖4.2.5 兩組alpha /beta 比值的獨立t 檢定p值腦部分布圖 58
圖4.3.1 實驗前後2-back、段考國文科成績與數學科成績組內比較 61
圖4.3.2 實驗前後2-back、段考國文科成績與數學科成績組間比較 64
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