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研究生:安云宣
研究生(外文):NANDAR AYE
論文名稱:緬甸 Natma Taung 國家公園人民公園衝突的政治生態視角——動盪時期
指導教授:王東昇王東昇引用關係
口試委員:游蓓怡蔡欣佑
口試委員(外文):YU, PEI-ITSAI, HSIN-YU
口試日期:2021-07-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄餐旅大學
系所名稱:國際觀光餐旅全英文碩士學位學程
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:政治生態衝突行動者導向話語分析保護區緬甸
外文關鍵詞:political ecologyconflictactor-orienteddiscourse analysisprotected areaMyanmar
ORCID或ResearchGate:https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3760-9330
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保護區的建立和管理是為了保護生態完整性、野生動物和生物多樣性。社區對自然和森林資源的生計依賴以及不可持續的農業和旅遊做法引發的人類壓力可能導致土地和資源使用衝突。理論上,建議採用不同策略和不同方法進行保護區管理,以減輕衝突並促進當地參與。在實施管理策略時,有必要了解不同的參與者和利益相關者如何在話語和敘事的基礎上描繪他們的角色。本研究著眼於國家和非國家行為者與社區之間的權力相互作用,調查了緬甸欽邦 Natma Taung 國家公園的保護舉措和旅遊開發實踐的社會經濟和政治觀點。本探索性研究以政治生態學為理論框架,採用網絡志方法,通過收集來自網站(即文檔、新聞和博客)和社交媒體帖子(即 Facebook)的在線檔案數據,獲得政治生態的完整圖景,以及田野筆記數據(作者記錄的反思田野筆記)。
Protected areas are established and managed for the conservation of ecological integrity, wildlife, and biodiversity. Human pressures triggered by communities' livelihood dependency on natural and forest resources and unsustainable agriculture and tourism practices can cause land and resource use conflicts. In theory, different approaches with different strategies are recommended for protected area management for mitigating conflicts and promoting local participation. In implementing management strategies, it is necessary to understand how different actors and stakeholder’s portrait their roles in foundation of discourses and narratives. Focusing on power interplays among state and non-state actors and the communities, this research investigates the socio-economic and political perspectives of conservation initiatives and tourism development practices in Natma Taung National Park, Chin State, Myanmar. Using political ecology as a theoretical framework, this exploratory study adopts a netnographical approach to gain the complete picture of political ecology by collecting online archival data from websites (i.e., documents, news, and blogs) and social media posts (i.e., Facebook), and field note data (recorded reflective fieldnotes of the author).
Inside Cover i
Verification Letter from the Oral Examination Committee ii
Chinese Abstract iii
English Abstract iv
Contents v
Content of Tables viii
Content of Figures vx
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Literature Introduction 1
1.2 Problem Statement 3
1.3 Research Scope 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Theoretical Framework 7
2.1.1 Political ecology - exploring its definitions and dimensions 7
2.1.2 Political ecology as “critical theory” question 3
2.1.3 Engaged political ecology scope 14
2.1.4 Power and actor-oriented perspectives of political ecology in conservation and tourism 16
2.2 Political Ecology of Conservation and Tourism- People-Park Conflicts 18
2.3 Conservation, Tourism, and Political Transitions 21
2.3.1. Conservation and tourism transitions in Myanmar 22
2.3.1.1 Precolonial-colonial-postcolonial eras (1824-1848) 22
2.3.1.2 During military rule (1962-2010) 23
2.3.1.3 Democratic reforms (2011-2015) 25
2.3.1.4 During NLD government (2015-2020)- Present 26
2.4 Literature Summary 27
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 29
3.1 Research Methodology 29
3.1.1 Research philosophy and data collection methods 28
3.2 Data Collection 31
3.3 Operational Context of Natma Taung National Park 31
3.4 Data and Data Analysis 34
3.5 Ethical Considerations 37
3.6 Reliability and Validity 37
CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION 39
4.1 Political Ecological Settings of Chin State in the History of NTNP 40
4.1.1 Transitions of administrative power in Chin State 40
4.1.2 Conservation, and tourism in the history of the park 46
4.1.2.1 Conservation regulations in discourses 46
4.1.2.2 Tourism initiatives and narratives 52
4.2 Actors, Interests, and Involvements in NTNP 58
4.2.1 The role of government institutions in NTNP 58
4.2.2 The role of non-state actors in NTNP 60
4.2.3 Conservation, and tourism in the history of the park 64
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 66
5.1 Conclusions 76
5.1 Implications 68
5.1 Limitations and Future Research 69
References 70
Appendix 93


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