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研究生:黃昏
研究生(外文):Tiara Cornelia Wattimena
論文名稱:人民交流政策與國家形象塑造:對印尼在中國學生的研究
論文名稱(外文):China''s People to People Exchange Policy and National Image Building: A study of Indonesian Students in China
指導教授:林文程林文程引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIN WEN CHENG
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:中國與亞太區域研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:199
中文關鍵詞:人民交流國家形象軟實力自下而上的外交橋接活動反華情緒
外文關鍵詞:soft powerpeople-to-people exchangenational imageanti-China sentimentbridgingbottom-up diplomacy
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中國的崛起與中國在印尼的國家形象的提高並沒有齊頭並進。這項研究旨在預測, 在獲得積極的印象之後,印尼學生在中國學習將成為印尼和中國之間社會文化聯繫的“bridging-agent橋樑推動者”。運用軟實力和人民交流理論,印尼學生們受到的最大影響, “influencing”。 印尼學生通過舉辦教育展覽來影響印尼公眾來中國學習。 這也可以看作是 “bottom-up diplomacy 自下而上的外交”活動。與Nahdlatul Ulama組織有聯繫的印尼santri和印尼穆斯林學生向中國介紹了中國,不僅證明他們可以分享積極的故事,而且還可以反擊與新疆維吾爾族案例有關的負面問題。該研究還發現,印尼留學生在中國學習的主要動機是中國經濟和技術的興起,而不是因為被中國文化所吸引。 這項研究得出的結論是,中國的軟實力已經在正確的軌道上。 暴露的學生分享積極中國的故事,但仍不足以在印尼國內公眾中恢復中國的國家形象,尤其是反華情緒。
The rise of China did not go hand in hand with the improvement of China''s national image in Indonesia. This research aims to predict that after the positive impressions, the Indonesian students who have gone to China study will become a ''bridging agent'' of socio-cultural ties between Indonesia and China. Using the theory of soft power and people-to-people exchange, students were exposed to the highest impact of soft power, ''influencing.'' The Indonesian students influencing the Indonesian public to study in China by conduct education exhibition. This can also be seen as a bottom-up diplomacy activity. The introduction of China by Indonesian santri and Indonesian Muslim students affiliated with the Nahdlatul Ulama organization proved not only to be able to share positive stories, but also to counter-attack negative issues related to the case of Uighur-Xinjiang. The study also found that the main motivation of Indonesia''s student study in China was the rise of China''s economy and technology, not because attracted to the Chinese culture. This study concludes that China''s soft power is already on the right track; the exposed students have spirit to share positive stories about China, but still not enough to repair China''s national image in the domestic Indonesian public, especially the anti-China sentiment.
Thesis Validation Letter i
Abstract (Chinese) ii
Abstract (English) iii
Table Of Contents iv
List of Tables v
List of Figures vii
Abbreviations viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research Objective 7
1.3 Theoretical Framework 8
1.4 Literature Review 23
Chapter 2 Research Methodology 33
2.1 Document Analysis Method 33
2.2 Expert Interview 34
Chapter 3 China’s Soft Power to Indonesia: Challenge and Top-Down Strategy 42
3.1 The need of socio-cultural relation of China and Indonesia 42
3.2 Challenges of China’s image building in Indonesia 49
3.3 China’s Top-Down Strategy to Indonesia 64
3.4 The Indonesian Students Diasporas as important informal actor 71
Chapter 4 Interview Result and Analysis of Bottom-Up Diplomacy 77
4.1 Profile of the Informants 77
4..2 Interview Result 81
4.3 The Bottom Up Activity 124
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Future Strategy 132
5.1 Conclusion 132
5.2 China’s Future Strategy 136
References 138
Appendix 147
Appendix A : Law regarding prohibition of Chinese culture in Indonesia 147
Appendix B: Interview Activities Date 151
Appendix C 在華留學生接受"共產主義教育"?印尼這家媒體引眾怒 152
Appendix D: China’s People to People Education Policy 157
Appendix E: Scholarship 161
Appendix F: Hanban 172
Appendix G: Tourism 176
Appendix H: Glossary of Foreign Terms 190
English References:
Journal articles:
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Books:
Fossati, Diego, and Yew-Foong Hui. The Indonesia national survey project: Economy, society and politics. (Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2017).
Janet Buttolph Johnson, Henry T. Reynolds, and Jason D. Mycoff. Political science research methods. (Washington D. C: CQ Press, 2015).
Leo Suryadinata. Politik Peranakan di Jawa. (Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1994).
Leonard, Mark, Catherine Stead, and Conrad Smewing. Public diplomacy. (Foreign Policy Centre, 2002).
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Wibowo, Ignatius, and Syamsul Hadi. Merangkul Cina: Hubungan Indonesia-China Pasca-Soeharto. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2013).

Internet sources:
Kadir Jun Ayhan, ”A Typology of People-to-People Diplomacy,” University of Southern California, 2020/03/12, <https://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/typology-people-people-diplomacy>.
Indonesian Student Association Official Website. Perhimpunan Pelajar Indonesia (PPI) Tiongkok, “Tentang Kami”, Official Website, 2020/10/12 <https://www.ppitiongkok.org/tentang-kami/>
Indonesian Chinese Entrepreneur Association''s official website, 2020/12/12 <https://www.perpit.or.id/cn/clipping-91-clipping.html >
Natuna Membaca official Instagram account, 2020/25/12 <https://www.instagram.com/p/CIR7VnRHrKk/>
Indonesian student association (PPI Tiongkok) Youku account, 2020/10/12 <https://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMzg0NzEzMjkyMA==.html> .

Government Official Websites

“Hu Jintao''s report at 17th Party Congress,” China.org. 2007/10/25, <http://www.china.org.cn/english/congress/229611.htm#7>.
Cabinet Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia, “There are Only 23,000 Chinese Workers in Indonesia, President Jokowi Says,” 8 August 2018, <https://setkab.go.id/en/there-are-only-23000-chinese-workers-in-indonesia-president-jokowi-says/>.
Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Republic of Indonesia, “Kedutaan Bedar Republik Rakyat Tiongkok Menyelenggarakan Upacara Penyerahan Admission Letter bagi Penerima Beasiswa Pemerintah Tiongkok Tahun 2017,” 22 August 2017, <http://id.china-embassy.org/indo/whjy/lxzg/t1486439.htm>.
Embassy of the Republic Indonesia in Shanghai, “Informasi Beasiswa dari Pemerintah RRT Tahun Akademik 2020,” 6 January 2020, <https://kemlu.go.id/shanghai/id/news/4047/informasi-beasiswa-dari-pemerinah-rrt-tahun-akademik-2020>
Ministry of Education of the People''s Republic of China. “Statistical report on international students in China for 2018,” 18 April, 2019, <http://en.moe.gov.cn/documents/reports/201904/t20190418_378692.html>.
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Government Official Documents

Ministry of Foreign Affair of Republic of Indonesia, 2016/ 08/ 01, MoU of Understanding Between the Ministriy of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia and The Ministry of Education of People''s Republic of China on Establishing the China-Indonesia Scholarship in Higher Education, <https://treaty.kemlu.go.id/search>.

Ministry of Foreign Affair of Republic of Indonesia, 2012/ 03/23, Amendement to the Arrangement between The State Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia and The National Tourism Administration of the People''s Republic of China on the Implementation Plan of Outbound Travel by Chinese Citizens to the Republic of Indonesia, <https://treaty.kemlu.go.id/search>.

Ministry of Foreign Affair of Republic of Indonesia, 2011/04/29, Joint Communique Between Ministry of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia and Hanban of the People''s Republic of China on The Cooperation to Promote Chinese Language Teaching, <https://treaty.kemlu.go.id/search>.

Republic of Indonesia, 2000/01/17, Keputusan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 6 Tahun 2000 tentang Pencabutan Instruksi Presiden nomor 14 Tahun 1967 tentang Agama, Kepercayaan, dan Adat Istiadat China, < https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/57713/keppres-no-6-tahun-2000>.

Republic of Indonesia, 1967/12/6, Instruksi Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 1967 tentang Agama Kepercayaan dan Adat Istiadat Cina.

Thesis
Leanis Chandrahera Tedja. “The impact of China’s soft power to Indonesia Development-中国软实力对于印度尼西里爱潮影响”. 2016. 厦门 大 学硕 士 论 门.

Dissertation:
Theo, Rika. Unravelling Indonesian student mobility to China: Politics, identities, and trajectories. Diss. Utrecht University, 2018.



Online Newspaper articles:
Antara, 2020/05/20, “BUMN Cina Berminat Investasi di Ibu Kota Baru RI,” <https://bisnis.tempo.co/read/1344297/bumn-cina-berminat-investasi-di-ibu-kota-baru-ri>.

Anwar, Muhhamad Choirul, 2019/10/29, “Yuk Intip! Deal-Dealan RI-Jepang di Kereta Cepat JKT-SBY” CNBC Indonesia, <https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20191009203339-4-105752/yuk-intip-deal-dealan-ri-jepang-di-kereta-cepat-jkt-sby>.

Banjarmasin Post Edisi Cetak, 2020/01/24 “Data Kemenlu RI, Segini Jumlah Mahasiswa Indonesia yang ada di Wuhan,” Banjarmasin Tribun News, <https://banjarmasin.tribunnews.com/2020/01/24/data-kemenlu-ri-segini-jumlah-mahasiswa-indonesia-yang-ada-di-wuhan>

Chew, Amy. 2019/04/08. “Akankah Prabowo Kobarkan Semangat Anti China Jelang 17 April,” Mata Politik. <https://www.matamatapolitik.com/in-depth-pilpres-2019-akankah-prabowo-kobarkan-semangat-anti-china-jelang-17-april/>.

Damarjati, Danu 2015/07/06, “Dubes Tiongkok Serahkan Santunan Rp100 Juta ke PBNU,” Detik, <https://news.detik.com/berita/d-2961884/dubes-tiongkok-serahkan-santunan-rp-100-juta-ke-pbnu>
Damhuri, Elba, 2019/03/21, “PPI Tiongkok Resmi Berbadan Hukum,” Republika, <https://republika.co.id/berita/popl4o440/ppi-tiongkok-resmi-berbadan-hukum>.

Idris, Muhhamad, 2020/01/04, “Kegerahan Susi Soal Natuna: Bedakan Pencurian Ikan dengan Investasi!,” Kompas, <https://money.kompas.com/read/2020/01/04/203021526/kegerahan-susi-soal-natuna-bedakan-pencurian-ikan-dengan-investasi?page=all>.

Isnaeni, Hendri F, “Organisasi Mahasiswa di Balik Sumpah Pemuda,” Historia, 2016/10/28 <https://historia.id/politik/articles/organisasi-mahasiswa-di-balik-sumpah-pemuda-vVemk/page/1>.

Jayani, Dwi Hadya, 2019/09/26/, “Tertinggi Sejak 1997, Jumlah Mahasiswa Indonesia 2018 Capai 7 Juta Jiwa,” Databoks, <https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2019/09/26/tertinggi-sejak-1997-jumlah-mahasiswa-indonesia-2018-capai-7-juta-jiwa>.

Kusnandar, Viva Budy, 2019/11/21, “Berapa Jumlah Pelajar Indonesia di Tiongkok?”, Databoks Katadata, <https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2019/11/21/berapa-jumlah-pelajar-indonesia-di-tiongkok>.

Nurbaiti and Septiari, 2019/10/30, "Pompeo calls on Indonesian Muslims to oppose China''s Uighur issue," The Jakarta Post. <https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/10/30/pompeo-calls-on-indonesian-muslims-to-oppose-chinas-uighur-issue.html >

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Putri, Risa Herdahita, 2017/10/28, “Tionghoa dalam Sumpah Pemuda,” Historia, <https://historia.id/politik/articles/tionghoa-dalam-sumpah-pemuda-D8ebm/page/1>

R53, 2020/05/07, “Di Balik Bukber NU-Tiongkok,” Pinter Politik, <https://pinterpolitik.com/di-balik-bukber-nu-tiongkok>

Rakhmat, Muhammad Zulfikar, & Dikanaya Tarahita, “The Complicated Politics of Chinese Workers in Indonesia,” The Diplomat, 26/07/2020, <https://thediplomat.com/2020/06/the-complicated-politics-of-chinese-workers-in-indonesia/>.
Rakhmat, Muhammad Zulfikar, 2019/02/15, “China’s Educational Expansion in Indonesia,”<https://thediplomat.com/2019/02/chinas-educational-expansion-in-indonesia/>

Satria, Jefrie Nandy, 2019/05/09, “Dubes China dan Ketum PBNU Buka Bersama dan Santuni Santri,” Detik, <https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4543340/dubes-china-dan-ketum-pbnu-buka-bersama-dan-santuni-santri>

Tan, Huileng. 2019/04/15. “The specter of Chinese investment looms over Indonesia’s election,” CNBC. <https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/16/indonesia-elections-jokowi-prabowo-and-the-topic-of-china.html>.

Ucu, Karta Raharja. 2020/01/06. “Arogansi Cina di Laut Natuna Utara,” Republika, <https://republika.co.id/berita/q3oo2g282/arogansi-cina-di-laut-natuna-utara>.
Witular, Rendi A. and Hasyim Widhiarto, 2014/ 11/09, “Jokowi on world stage, first stop Beijing,” The Jakarta Post, <https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/11/09/jokowi-world-stage-first-stop-beijing.html>



中文 参考

因特网

魏琦, 2018/12/03,〈“2018年美妙印度尼西亚文化节”在西华大学成功举行〉, 《西华大学党委宣传部》, <http://news.xhu.edu.cn/db/cd/c56a121805/page.htm>

官方文件
教育部教育涉外监管信息网, 2016 /08 /03〈第九届中国—东盟教育交流周背景〉,《中国教育和科研计算器网》, <http://jsj.moe.gov.cn/news/1/827.shtml>

中华人民共和国教育部 ,2017 / 03 / 01,〈 2016年度我国来华留学生情况统〉,《教育部.政务》,
<http://www.moe.gov.cn/jyb_xwfb/xw_fbh/moe_2069/xwfbh_2017n/xwfb_170301/170301_sjtj/201703/t20170301_297677.html>
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