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研究生:陳祈翰
研究生(外文):Chi-Han Chen
論文名稱:台灣西南水體微表層及大氣氣膠化學組成暨全氟化合物分布之研究
論文名稱(外文):Distribution of Perfluorinated Compounds and Chemical Compositions in Microlayer and Aerosols in Southwestern Taiwan
指導教授:李宗霖李宗霖引用關係蔡瀛逸蔡瀛逸引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee,Chon-LinTSAI, YING-I
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:295
中文關鍵詞:微表層海洋氣膠富集因子垂直傳輸海氣交換
外文關鍵詞:microlayermarine aerosolenrichment factorvertical transportsea-air exchange
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本研究分析台灣西南海岸水體及大氣中化學組成、全氟化合物的分布,108年4、7月於台灣西南海岸進行水域之微表層(microlayer, ML)、表水及海域之大氣採樣,同時觀察水平及垂直方向傳輸的差異。透過富集因子分析探討微表層與大氣間的垂直傳輸,並且透過PCA及HCA了解在研究區域內的空間分布組成差異。
微表層是現今環境中熱門的研究領域,其具有與表水不同的物化特性,對於物質的蓄積也有不同表現,是水體與大氣間重要的中間介質。本研究結果顯示與表水相比較,全氟化合物(perfluorinated compounds, PFCs)具有富集於微表層的現象,不同化合物的富集程度會略有差異,例如PFUnA會比PFHxS更富集於微表層。在溶解態與懸浮態間及微表層與表水間,影響全氟化合物分配行為的因素之一是碳鏈長。長鏈百分比在懸浮態中會高於溶解態,在微表層中會高於表水。由此可見對於全氟化合物此類的持久性有機污染物(persistent organic pollutants, POPs),微表層是它們在環境分布的重要一環。結合PFCs及POC、DOC的結果顯示微表層會有富集有機碳的現象存在,說明微表層是碳循環中的一部份,但是有機酸並沒有此一富集的現象出現,代表水體中有機酸的分布不會與微表層及表水特性差異有關。另外研究結果發現在河-海系統中具有高比例的低分子量有機酸(LMWOA),是可能會影響近岸海水的pH值。
大氣氣膠最主要來源是海洋氣膠,海洋飛沫除了貢獻海鹽微粒外,Ca2+、有機酸等也會透過海洋飛沫往大氣傳輸,另外水體中界面活性物質污染物(如PFCs等)也可能藉此方式具有長程傳輸的能力。
本研究發現PFOS相比PFOA會更富集於微表層,但是PFOA卻更容易往大氣傳輸;有機酸並沒有富集於微表層,但是卻會富集於大氣。顯示富集於微表層後並不一定會富集於大氣,說明了環境中具有選擇性傳輸。
This study investigated the spatial distribution of chemical compositions and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water and atmosphere in southwestern Taiwan coast. All samples were collected in microlayer (ML), surface water and atmosphere of marine in southwest Taiwan coast in April and July 2019 for observing the distributions in horizontal and vertical directions. Explore the selective vertical transport from ML to atmosphere through enrichment factor analysis. Utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) and hiearchical cluster analysis (HCA) explored the difference in composition of the rivers in the study area.
Microlayer has been an emerging popular research field lately. It has distinct physical and chemical properties from surface water. It is an important matrix between water and the atmosphere. The results show that the PFCs is enriched in ML; while different species exhibited differently in extent, eg. PFUnA was more enriched than PFHxS. One of the important factors controlling the distribution behaviors of PFCs in between dissolved phase and suspend particulate matter, as well as between ML and surface water, is carbon chain length. The percentage of long chains is higher in suspend particulate matter than in dissolved phase, and higher in ML than surface water. It has demonstrated that ML plays an important role in transport and distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PFCs. While there was no ML enrichment observed for carboxylic acids, the organic carbon exhibited the ML enrichment, which in turn indicates ML could not be neglected in carbon cycle. This study shows relatively high concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) in the river-sea system might affect pH values of coastal seawater.
The main source of atmosphere is marine aerosols. In addition to sea salt particles, sea spray aerosols also transport Ca2+ and carboxylic acids to the atmosphere through sea spray aerosol. Furthermore, interfacial active substance pollutants (such as PFCs) in the water body could then possess long-range transport capabilities via this process.
This study found obvious selective transport vertically from waterbody to microlayer and to the aerosol. For examples, PFOS is more enriched in ML than PFOA; while PFOA is more easily transported to the atmosphere; carboxylic acids are not enriched in ML, but they are more enriched in the aerosol.
論文審定書 i
致謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xvi
附錄圖表目錄 xviii
原始數據表目錄 xix
全氟化合物相關名詞中英文名稱對照表 xx
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 全氟化合物之特性 4
2.2 大氣中懸浮微粒 10
2.3 懸浮微粒之化學組成 13
2.3.1 大氣懸浮微粒中的無機鹽類 13
2.3.2 大氣氣膠中的有機酸 16
2.4 海洋氣膠 20
2.4.1 海洋氣膠特性 21
2.4.2 海洋氣膠對環境影響 22
2.4.3 海洋氣膠之氯損失 25
2.5 水體的化學特性 26
2.6 全氟化合物微表層、表水及懸浮顆粒之分布特性 28
2.7 微表層對表水及氣膠之相互影響 30
2.8 環境中全氟化合物的傳輸及宿命 32
2.9 全氟化合物對健康影響 34
2.10 全氟化合物於各國之規範 36
第三章 研究方法 38
3.1 實驗材料與儀器 38
3.1.1 實驗材料(全氟化合物) 38
3.1.2 實驗材料(化學組成) 39
3.1.3 實驗儀器(全氟化合物) 40
3.1.4 實驗儀器(化學組成) 41
3.2 採樣及保存方法 42
3.2.1 水樣 48
3.2.2 氣膠採樣 55
3.3 樣品前處理 60
3.3.1 水樣溶解態全氟化合物 60
3.3.2 水樣懸浮態全氟化合物 60
3.3.3 氣膠全氟化合物 60
3.3.4 氣膠樣品化學組成分析 61
3.3.5 水樣樣品化學組成分析 61
3.4 分析方法 62
3.4.1 水樣顆粒性有機碳分析方法(POC) 62
3.4.2 水樣溶解性有機碳分析方法(DOC) 62
3.4.3 水樣及氣膠全氟化合物分析 64
3.4.4 水樣及氣膠樣品陰陽離子、羧酸分析 68
3.5 品保與品管(QA/QC) 72
3.5.1 方法回收率 72
3.5.2 實驗空白分析 75
3.5.3 方法偵測極限 75
3.6 資料分析 77
3.6.1 主成分分析 77
3.6.2 階層群集分析 77
3.6.3 富集因子分析 78
第四章 結果與討論 79
4.1 溶解態全氟化合物 80
4.1.1 微表層溶解態全氟化合物之組成及濃度含量分布 80
4.1.2 表水溶解態總全氟化合物之組成及濃度含量分布 86
4.2 懸浮態全氟化合物 92
4.2.1 微表層懸浮態全氟化合物之組成及濃度含量分布 92
4.2.2 表水懸浮態全氟化合物之組成及濃度含量分布 98
4.3 氣膠全氟化合物 104
4.4 國內外相關文獻比較 105
4.4.1 水樣全氟化合物 105
4.4.2 氣膠全氟化合物 111
4.5 大氣氣膠化學組成物種質量濃度及粒徑分佈 114
4.5.3 硫酸鹽的成分比例 118
4.5.1 二次無機氣膠 120
4.5.2 氯損失 122
4.6 水體化學組成物種濃度分布 123
4.6.1 微表層無機鹽類、羧酸之組成及濃度含量分佈 123
4.6.2 表水無機鹽類、羧酸之組成及濃度含量分佈 133
4.7 有機碳分析 143
4.8 相關性分析 148
4.8.1 懸浮顆粒中全氟化合物之分配行為 148
4.8.2 全氟化合物的長鏈百分比 155
4.8.3 全氟化合物與化學組成相關性分析 157
4.9 富集因子分析 159
4.9.1 全氟化合物表水至微表層 159
4.9.2 全氟化合物微表層至氣膠 163
4.9.3 化學組成表水至微表層 166
4.9.4 化學組成微表層至氣膠 172
4.9.5 海洋氣膠生成之鈣富集 176
4.10 主成分分析 181
4.10.1 全氟化合物 181
4.10.2 無機鹽 187
4.10.3 有機酸 193
4.11 階層群集分析 199
4.11.1 全氟化合物 199
4.11.2 無機鹽 203
4.11.3 有機酸 208
第五章 結論與建議 212
5.1 結論 212
5.2 建議 217
參考文獻 218
附錄 238
原始數據 258
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