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研究生(外文):Lin, Liang-Chen
論文名稱(外文):The Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability enhancement by Molybdenum (Mo) surface-modified platinum cobalt (PtCo/C) electrocatalyst
指導教授(外文):Pan, Yung-Tin
口試委員(外文):Hu, Chi-ChangWang, Kuan-WenChou, Ho-HsiuChen, Han-Yi
外文關鍵詞:Oxygen reduction reactionPtCoMo/CIntermetallic compoundPolymer electrolyte membrane fuel cellRotating disk electrodeX-ray absorption spectroscopy
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隨著交通網絡及經濟發展的成熟,燃油汽車及運輸車成為生活及商業鏈中不可或缺的角色。然而,經年累月由汽油和柴油燃燒所釋放出的溫室氣體及空污因子造成嚴重的環境及健康問題。近年因環保意識抬頭,為降低環境有害因子的排放,氫燃料電池車因具備良好的能量密度被認為是最具發展潛力的電動車系統之一。然而,應用於氫燃料電池的鉑觸媒(Platinum, Pt)價格高昂,其礦產速度更不足以支撐使燃料電池車普及市場所需鉑金屬用量。因此減量鉑的使用成為燃料電池車普及化的當務之急。
基於上述知識,本工作製造表面富有鉑金屬的碳載鉑鈷觸媒(PtCo/C)及其金屬間互化物的結構(Intermetallic structure)初步減緩過度金屬的流失,再以鉬(Mo)修飾其表面改變觸媒表面原子間電荷分佈增進氧還原反應活性以及藉由其耐酸的特性穩定觸媒表面以維持電化學反應下的穩定性。材料鑑定以場發射掃描穿透式球差修正電子顯微鏡(ULTRA-HRTEM)、粉末X射線衍射儀(XRD)、能量散射光譜(EDS)、電感耦合電漿體原子發射光譜(ICP-AES)進行材料晶體結構及元素分佈鑑定,原子間電荷及鍵結型態則透過X射線電子能譜儀(XPS)及X光吸收光譜儀(XAS)作為分析手段。根據以上材料鑑定技術之解析,我們成功的製備出原子級別鉬團簇(Mo-cluster)修飾表面的鉑鈷金屬間互化奈米觸媒。X光吸收光譜的結果證實此類觸媒中活性位點──鉑,對氧的吸附力能夠被有效降低,使得鉑-氧的鍵能處於更有利於氧還原反應進行的狀態。此鉬修飾之鉑鈷觸媒(Mo-PtCo/C)之氧還原活性為0.92 A/mgPt,為單純鉑鈷觸媒(PtCo/C)和商用鉑碳觸媒(Pt/C)之2和4倍。經過30,000圈的加速實驗(Accelerated stress test, AST),鉬金屬表面修飾之鉑鈷碳載觸媒仍維持相較於未修飾之鉑鈷觸1.4倍氧還原活性。
With the development of the transportation network and economy, sedans and transporters play a vital role in our daily lives and the business chain. The combustion of gasoline and diesel release greenhouse gases and air pollutants, resulting in environmental and health issues. Recently, with the rising of ecological awareness, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are considered one of the most potential electric cars with the characteristic of high energy density. However, the platinum (Pt) applied in FCVs was too expensive and precious to popularize, which does the work of reducing the usage of Pt on the priority list.
In the cathode of the hydrogen fuel cell, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode has higher overpotential than the anode, making it crucial to promote the fuel cell operation efficiency. To reduce Pt usage and maintain the activity simultaneously, low-cost transient metals (M= Cu, Co, Ni, …Etc.) were applied to optimize the oxygen absorption energy of Pt active sites and promote the kinetic. However, the transient metal faces severe dissolution in an acid medium that reduced the stability of the catalyst.
In this work, based on the knowledge mentioned above, Pt-rich surface platinum cobalt on Vulcan carbon (PtCo/C) catalyst in intermetallic structure was created to preliminary suppress the cobalt (Co) leaching. Molybdenum (Mo) was then added to modify the PtCo/C surface, which decreased the d band center of Pt and facilitated the ORR activity; moreover, the characteristic of its high acid tolerance maintained the excellent activity after the long-term electrochemical resting.
For the material characterization, spherical aberration-corrected field emission transmission electron microscope (ULTRA-HRTEM), x-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were applied for the study of crystalline structure and the composition of the elements. The electrons and the bonding between atoms were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We successfully prepared atomic level Mo-cluster surface-modified PtCo catalyst (Mo-PtCo/C) according to the materials characterization results mentioned above. The Pt L3-edge XANES spectrum showed that the Mo surface-modified catalyst effectively reduced the oxygen absorption energy toward the Pt active site, favoring the ORR. Mo-PtCo/C performed 0.92 A/mgPt in ORR mass activity (MA), which is 2-fold and 4-fold enhancement compared to homemade PtCo/C and commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst, respectively. After 30,000 cycles of accelerated stress test (AST), the MA of Mo-PtCo/C catalyst maintains 1.4 times higher than the PtCo/C catalyst.
摘要 I
誌謝辭 V
1.1Background 1
1.2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) 3
1.3 Mechanism of Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) 4
1.4 Reduction of Platinum (Pt) Usage in ORR 7
1.5 Pt-based alloy catalyst 8
1.6 Alloy and intermetallic 14
1.7 M’-doped PtM catalyst 18
1.8 Objective 23
2.1 Chemicals 24
2.2 Analytical instrument 26
2.3 Catalyst preparation 28
2.3.1 PtCo/C synthesis 28
2.3.2 Mox-PtCo/C synthesis 29
2.4 Electrochemical measurement 29
2.4.1 Three-Electrode Electrochemical Testing System 30
2.4.2 Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) 31
2.4.3 Film Preparation 33
2.4.4 Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) 33
2.4.5 Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) 35
2.4.6 Accelerated stress test (AST) 37

3.1 Materials characterization of Mox-PtCo/C (x=1, 0.5, 0.2) 41
3.2 The activity enhancement of catalysts by alkaline leaching 45
3.3 The influence of synthesis temperature on Mo-PtCo/C alk 45
3.4 The ORR enhancement of Mox-PtCo/C (x=1, 0.5, 0.2) 450˚C alk 47
3.5 The influence of Mo ratio in Mox-PtCo/C to the AST 49
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